Publications by authors named "Giuseppe Lo Giudice"

51 Publications

Outcome of cataract surgery in children affected by malignancies other than retinoblastoma with eye-lens radiation exposure.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 10:11206721211009445. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

San Paolo Ophthalmic Center, San Antonio Hospital - University Hospital, Padova, Italy.

Purpose: To describe, retrospectively, the visual outcome, feasibility, and safety of cataract surgery in a pediatric population affected by iatrogenic cataract, secondary to systemic oncological treatment for malignancies other than retinoblastoma.

Methods: Young patients, affected by radiation-induced cataract, who were referred to the San Paolo Ophthalmic Center in Padova between 2010 and 2017, were included in the study. All patients had previously received radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy treatment for malignancies, between 2004 and 2013. All medical records of infants who underwent cataract surgery were accurately reviewed.

Results: Eighteen eyes out of 11 patients included in the study underwent cataract surgery. The age at surgery was 9.7 ± 3.6 years. The interval between tumor diagnosis and cataract development was around 3 years. Mean follow-up after surgery was 15.4 ± 6.3 months. All eyes underwent posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation, posterior capsulotomy, and anterior vitrectomy in one time surgery. No intraoperative complications were shown. Post-operatively, only one eye received laser capsulotomy due to posterior capsule opacification. At the end of follow up, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 (LogMAR 0) in all eyes and significantly improved ( < 0.01) compared to baseline.

Conclusions: Iatrogenic-cataract surgery in pediatric oncological patients is a safe and effective way to improve visual acuity. Posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy at the time of surgery reduce the rate of posterior lens opacification and guarantee an excellent visual acuity in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11206721211009445DOI Listing
April 2021

Lithium Disilicate Ceramic Endocrown Biomechanical Response According to Different Pulp Chamber Extension Angles and Filling Materials.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;14(5). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, 98123 Messina, Italy.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of pulp chamber extension angles and filling material mechanical properties on the biomechanical response of a ceramic endocrown. A 3D model of maxillary molar that underwent endodontically treatment was exported to computer aided design software to conduct finite element analysis (FEA). The endocrown model was modified considering different pulp chamber extension angles (right angle; 6°, 12° and 18° of axial divergence). The solids were imported into the computer aided engineering software in Standard for the Exchange of Product Data (STEP) format. Nine different filling materials were simulated to seal the orifice of the root canal system under each endocrown restoration (resin composite, bulk-fill resin composite, alkasite, flowable resin composite, glass ionomer cement, autocured resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement, resin cement, bulk-fill flowable resin composite, zinc oxide cement), totaling 36 models. An axial load (300 N) was applied at the occlusal surface. Results were determined by colorimetric graphs of von-Misses stress (VMS) and Maximum Principal Stress (MPS) on tooth, cement layer, and endocrown restorations. VMS distribution showed a similar pattern between the models, with more stress at the load region for the right-angled endocrowns. The MPS showed that the endocrown intaglio surface and cement layer showed different mechanical responses with different filing materials and pulp chamber angles. The stress peaks plotted in the dispersion plot showed that the filling material stiffness is proportional to the stress magnitude in the endocrown, cement layer and tooth adhesive surface. In addition, the higher the pulp chamber preparation angle, the higher the stress peak in the restoration and tooth, and the lower the stress in the cement layer. Therefore, 6° and 12° pulp chamber angles showed more promising balance between the stresses of the adhesive interface structures. Under the conditions of this study, rigid filling materials were avoided to seal the orifice of root canal system when an endocrown restoration was planned as rehabilitation. In addition, the pulp chamber axial walls were prepared between 6° and 12° of divergence to balance the stress magnitude in the adhesive interface for this treatment modality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14051307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7963147PMC
March 2021

Arthrocentesis and Sodium Hyaluronate Infiltration in Temporomandibular Disorders Treatment. Clinical and MRI Evaluation.

J Funct Morphol Kinesiol 2020 Mar 6;5(1). Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Dental Specialities, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit, AOU University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", 80138 Naples, Italy.

Arthrocentesis in temporomandibular joint disorders can be associated with the intra-articular infiltration of various drugs with the objective of increase treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical indexes variation in patients affected by temporomandibular joint disorders treated with arthrocentesis and sodium hyaluronate (SH) injections. A total of 28 patients suffering from temporomandibular joint disorders underwent one cycle of five arthrocentesis and infiltrations of sodium hyaluronate. Spontaneous mouth opening improved from 36.3 ± 7.5 mm to 45.1 ± 1.9 mm at six months follow-up. A significant reduction in the pain at rest and during mastication mean values emerged at follow-up ( < 0.0001). The mean masticatory efficiency, evaluated through a visual analogic scale, showed improvement at the follow-up period, highlighted by the increase of mean value from a baseline of 3.1 ± 1.2 to a mean value of 8.5 ± 1.2 ( < 0.0001). The mean severity of the joint damage at baseline time was 2.4 ± 0.9 and decreased to 0.4 ± 0.3 at the end of the follow-up period. The decrease in values is confirmed by statistical test ( < 0.05). Our data show how arthrocentesis integrated with sodium hyaluronate infiltrations performed under local anesthesia is a valid method of treating temporomandibular joint disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7739436PMC
March 2020

A new software architecture proposal for an evidence-based Decision Support System in dentistry.

Minerva Dent Oral Sci 2021 Feb 23;70(1):7-14. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Background: in dentistry, clinical problems could be resolved using many therapeutic approaches that may results in very different therapies. In order to choose the best option, a good evaluation of therapy long-term survival and success rate is mandatory. The routine use of a decision support analysis software is nowadays limited due to the lack of software's flexibility especially when a variety of possible therapeutic option are present. The aim of this research was to develop a new algorithm model for a Decision Support System software to give diagnosis support in dentistry.

Methods: Beta tests were designed to study the computer software in different clinical situations based on clinical data. The therapeutic options can be conservative/endodontic or extractive/prosthetic therapies. In two of clinical situation selected could be possible to choose both therapies.

Results: in clinical situations tested, the DDS software correctly identified the several therapeutic options. When multiple treatments were possible the beta test showed an output mask that correctly showed a range of options with their corresponding survival and success rate.

Conclusions: The software architecture proposed by the authors is technically feasible, can support the clinician choices based on scientific evidence and up-to-date references and gain informed consent based on data easily understandable for the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4970.20.04416-7DOI Listing
February 2021

Revision of the genus Tephrochlaena, with a key to genera of Palaearctic Heteromyzinae (Diptera: Heleomyzidae).

Zootaxa 2020 Jul 27;4820(1):zootaxa.4820.1.8. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Raggruppamento Carabinieri Biodiversità, Reparto Biodiversità Verona, Via del Ponte 256, Peri, Verona, Italy LaNaBIT-Laboratorio Nazionale Tassonomia e Biondicazione Invertebrati, Verona, Italy.

In order to fix the identity of the European monospecific genus of heleomyzid flies Tephrochlaena Czerny, 1924 (Figs. 1, 2), the type specimens of Helomyza halterata Meigen, 1830, and Tephrochlaena oraria Collin, 1943, were re-examined. Tephrochlaena oraria is redescribed, the lectotype is designated to clarify the application of the name to the taxon and the type species of Tephrochlaena Czerny, 1924 is fixed as Tephrochlaena oraria Collin, 1943 (= Helomyza halterata sensu Czerny, 1924, nec Meigen, 1830), under ICZN Article 70.3.2. External characters and male and female terminalia are illustrated. A key to the Palaearctic genera of the subfamily Heteromyzinae is provided. By First Reviser action, Tephrochlamys rufiventris (Meigen, 1830) is given precedence over Helomyza halterata Meigen, 1830 syn. nov. under ICZN Article 24.2.1. A lectotype is also designated for Helomyza rufiventris Meigen, 1830 under ICZN Recommendation 73F.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4820.1.8DOI Listing
July 2020

Spectrophotometric Evaluation of Enamel Color Variation Using Infiltration Resin Treatment of White Spot Lesions at One Year Follow-Up.

Dent J (Basel) 2020 Apr 10;8(2). Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, Messina University, 98100 Messina, Italy.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the color changes and the stability at a 1-year follow-up of white spot lesions (WSLs) treated with an infiltrating technique by using etching and TEGDMA resin. The color of 22 white spot lesions and the sound adjacent enamel (SAE) were assessed with a spectrophotometer at T0 (baseline), T1 (after treatment), and T2 (1 year after). The color change ΔE (WSLs-SAE) at T0 vs. T1 were compared to evaluate the camouflage effect efficiency, and at T1 vs. T2 to assess the stability of outcomes. To evaluate the effect on the treatment outcome of gender, the presence or not of previous orthodontic treatment, WSLs onset more/less than 10 years, the age of the patient, and the ΔE WSL (T0 vs. T1) was analyzed. The difference between ΔE (WSLs-SAE) at T0 and T1 resulted in statistical significance ( < 0.01). No statistical difference was found between ΔE (WSLs-SAE) at T1 vs. T2. The variables considered showed no statistical differences in treatment outcomes. The results of our investigation show that the technique used is immediately effective and the camouflage effect keeps up and steady one year after treatment. Such results do not appear to be influenced by analyzed clinical variables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/dj8020035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7344573PMC
April 2020

The world woodlouse flies (Diptera, Rhinophoridae).

Zookeys 2020 15;903:1-130. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The world Rhinophoridae are catalogued, recognising 33 genera and 177 species. Nomenclatural information is provided for all genus-group and species-group names, including lists of synonyms and name-bearing type data. Species distributions are recorded by country. A key to the world genera is presented. Four new genera are erected to accommodate five new species, which do not fit within any of the current generic concepts in Rhinophoridae, according to the results of a morphology-based phylogenetic analysis: Cerretti & Pape with type species Cerretti & Pape, (Ecuador); Cerretti & Pape with type species Cerretti & Pape, (Mauritius); Cerretti & Pape with type species Cerretti & Pape, (Trinidad and Tobago) and Cerretti & Pape, (Peru); Cerretti & Pape with type species Cerretti & Pape, (Malaysia, Sabah). The genus Pape & Shima (type species Pape & Shima), originally assigned to Tachinidae, is here reassigned to Rhinophoridae based on a reassessment of the homologies of the male terminalia. The following five species-group names, which were previously treated as junior synonyms or nomina dubia, are recognised as valid species names: (Villeneuve, 1908), [from nomen dubium to valid species]; (Villeneuve, 1936), [from nomen dubium to valid species]; (Rondani, 1865), [from nomen dubium to valid species]; Villeneuve, 1920, [from junior synonym of Loew, 1847 to valid species]; (Villeneuve, 1911), [from junior synonym of Loew, 1847 to valid species]. Reversal of precedence is invoked for the following case of subjective synonymy to promote stability in nomenclature: (Meigen, 1824), , and Harris, 1780: 144, . New generic and specific synonymies are proposed for the following two names: Rohdendorf, 1935, junior synonym of Rondani, 1856, and Rondani, 1865, junior synonym of (Loew, 1847), The following new combinations are proposed: (Villeneuve, 1936), [transferred from Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830]; (Rohdendorf, 1935), [transferred from Rohdendorf, 1935]; (Rohdendorf, 1935), [transferred from Rohdendorf, 1935]; (Rohdendorf, 1961), [transferred from Rohdendorf, 1935]; (Rohdendorf, 1935), [transferred from Rohdendorf, 1935]; (Rohdendorf, 1935), [transferred from Rohdendorf, 1935]; (Rohdendorf, 1935), [transferred from Rohdendorf, 1935]; (Rohdendorf, 1935), [transferred from Rohdendorf, 1935] and (Rohdendorf, 1935), [transferred from Rohdendorf, 1935].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.903.37775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6976704PMC
January 2020

Correlation of s-IgA and IL-6 Salivary with Caries Disease and Oral Hygiene Parameters in Children.

Dent J (Basel) 2019 Dec 27;8(1). Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, 98100 Messina, Italy.

This study evaluates salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in saliva of children and its correlation to tooth decay severity. Fifty-nine patients were divided into two groups: caries free (A group) and caries active (B group). B group was investigated according to Mount and Monse indices. Mean salivary IgA rate between two groups (A 16.7 ± 4.5 mg/dL vs. B 21.8 ± 12.9 mg/dL) was not significant, while IL-6 rate (A 19.02 ± 5.3 pg/mL vs. B 30.2 ± 11.8 pg/mL) was statistically different. This study revealed that salivary IL-6 levels were significantly higher in children with active caries when compared with the caries-free group, while the s-IgA rate showed no significant differences between the two groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/dj8010003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7175292PMC
December 2019

Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of a Hollow Endodontic Post by Three Point Test and SEM Analysis: A Pilot Study.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Jun 20;12(12). Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, Messina University, 98122 Messina, Italy.

The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of a fiber hollow endodontic post characterized by the presence of an empty central cylindrical channel extended along the whole length. This particular shape allows clinicians to use the post also as a cementation resin carrier. Ten hollow posts were divided in two groups: the control group (unfilled hollow posts) (Group 0) and hollow posts filled with dual resin cement (Group 1). The samples of both groups were subjected to mechanical and micromorphological analysis by performing a three-point test and SEM observations. In the three-point test, the Group 1 samples exhibited a fracture load of 57.09 ± 5.06 N, a flexural strength of 1323.53 ± 110.09 MPa, and a Young's modulus of 42.87 ± 0.86 GPa. The samples of Group 2 exhibited a fracture load of 38.17 ± 1.7 N, a flexural strength of 908.87 ± 30.98 MPa, and a Young's modulus of 40.33 ± 1.9 GPa. The difference between fracture load, flexural strength, and deflection between the two groups was statistically highly significant ( < 0.01). Further, the difference between the Young's modulus of the two groups was statistically significant ( < 0.05). The values obtained are similar to those of other posts available on the market.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12121983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6630250PMC
June 2019

Prevalence of diabetes and diabetic macular edema in patients undergoing senile cataract surgery in Italy: The DIabetes and CATaract study.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2020 Mar 11;30(2):315-320. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Firenze, Florence, Italy.

Background: The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of diabetes and diabetic macular edema in patients undergoing senile cataract surgery in Italy.

Methods: It is a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study. Thirteen ophthalmic units equally distributed across the Italian territory have been involved in the study. For a period of 3 months, all subjects undergoing phacoemulsification received an Optical Coherence Tompgraphy (OCT) scan and were screened for the anamnestic presence of diabetes. In addition, five selected units collected blood samples from all their patients to measure glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and detect the presence of occult diabetes (HbA1c > 6.5%). In diabetic patients, levels of retinopathy were measured and diabetic macular edema was considered significant (clinically significant macular edema) when foveal thickness was above 30% of normal levels.

Results: A total number of 3657 subjects have been screened. Among them, 20.4% were diabetics. Prevalence of diabetes was significantly higher in males (24.7%) than in females (17%). Levels of HbA1c were tested in a representative sample of 1216 consecutive subjects, and occult diabetes was diagnosed in 4.8% of cases. No significant differences were observed between age groups or different geographic areas. Among diabetic patients, diabetic macular edema of any kind was present in 27.5% (clinically significant macular edema (6.6%)). No significant differences were seen in the prevalence of diabetic macular edema between males and females or between age groups. Among the 745 diabetic patients, no signs of retinopathy were seen in 537 subjects (76.3%), while 101 patients (14.3%) had nonproliferative retinopathy, 13 (1.7%) had nontreated proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and 53 (7.5%) had laser-treated retinopathy. In the entire sample of 3657 subjects, a normal macula was present in 90.9% of cases, diabetic macular edema of any kind in 5.4%, and other maculopathies in 3.4%.

Conclusion: In this large cohort study on patients undergoing cataract surgery, more than one-fourth were diabetics and more than one-fourth of these had diabetic macular edema. These high prevalences suggest the opportunity to plan an adequate preoperative assessment in all patients in order to reduce the risk of postoperative development or worsening of a sight-threatening complication such as chronic diabetic macular edema.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1120672119830578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079292PMC
March 2020

Oral Health Impact Profile in Celiac Patients: Analysis of Recent Findings in a Literature Review.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2018 24;2018:7848735. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphological and Functional Imaging, Messina University, 98100 Messina, Italy.

The increment of recording atypical oral manifestation in young patients often related to systematic disease is today a challenge for the therapists. Sometime, the presence of tooth enamel lesions correlated with soft tissue lesions is just a symptom or a trigger sign for a deeper and undetermined disease. Recently, high impact has been developed toward the influence of the diet as a controlled and modifiable factor in patients affected by celiac pathologies. The celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated disorder triggered by the ingestion of gluten that appears in genetically predisposed patients. Gluten is a proline-rich and glutamine-rich protein present in wheat (gliadin), barley (hordein), and rye (secalin). The gluten-free diet (GFD) seems to better influence the oral health status of the CD patients. For this reason, the main objective of this revision was to analyze the international data highlighting the relationship between celiac patients and the oral health impact profile. A comprehensive review of the current literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines by accessing the NCBI PubMed database. Authors conducted the search of articles in the English language published from 2008 to 2018. The first analysis with filters recorded 67 manuscripts accordingly with the selected keywords. Finally, a number of 16 appropriate published papers were comprehended in the review. The studies were different in terms of the structure, findings, outcomes, and diet quality evaluation, and for this reason, it was not possible to accomplish a meta-analysis of the recorded data. This manuscript offers some observational evidence to justify the advantages of gluten-free diets related to a better oral health status in the patients involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/7848735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6220388PMC
October 2018

The IG- file use to Gauge the Apical Diameter in Endodontics: An Study.

Open Dent J 2018 28;12:638-646. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department. of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, Messina University, Messina, Italy.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the IG-file, a new instrument designed for apical diameter gauging.

Materials And Methods: After shaping with F1 Universal Protaper, 60 roots were randomly divided into two groups and assigned to two operators, One Expert in Endodontics (EO) and One Unexpert (UO).In each sample, after canal curvatures have been detected, the apical diameters were measured with the IG-file and the K-NiTi. The results were compared with the reference value obtained by retrograde apical gauging. The data were statistically analyzed.

Results: Among 60 samples, 10% of errors were recorded when the IG-files were used; in the K-NiTi group the incorrect measurements were 70%.In both groups (expert and unexpert) the IG-file measurements were more accurate than the K-NiTi (90 33 and 90 26,7). The differences were statistically significant.In curved canals, the difference between measurement rates performed with both instruments was statistically significant (85,7% IG-file 28,6% K-NiTi) as well as for the samples without curvatures (92,3% IG file 30,8% NiTi file).In root canals without curvatures overestimation errors in K-NiTi file group are more frequent than underestimation errors. This difference was statistically significant.

Conclusion: A proper gauging of the apical diameter has a key role in endodontic therapy; an incorrect measurement can lead to clinical failures. This "" study highlights that IG-file improves measurement accuracy independently from clinician experience. Furthermore, in curved canals, the IG-file is more accurate than K-NiTi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1745017901814010638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6182883PMC
September 2018

The ability of marginal detection using different intraoral scanning systems: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

Am J Dent 2018 Oct;31(5):272-276

Department of Reconstructive Dentistry, University Center for Dental Medicine Basel UZB, Switzerland.

Purpose: To assess the clinical ability of marginal detection of different intraoral optical scanning (IOS) systems.

Methods: The Ethics Committee of the University of Siena, Italy approved the research project. Thirty patients in need of an onlay/inlay with supra-gingival margins were included and randomly divided in three groups of 10 (3× n=10) according to the IOS for chairside capturing:(A) GC-Europe (Aadva); (B) True-Definition-TD; (C) Trios. A total of 1 scans from each IOS test group (A-C), were obtained clinically and stored as STL-files. In addition, corresponding conventional impressions were taken for all 30 patients, poured with stone, and then processed by a laboratory scanner (Aadva), serving as controls. All 60 STL-files were imported to the Exocad platform for analysis. The horizontal distance between each preparation margin and the adjacent tooth was measured using the ruler tool in the software. The distance at which the detection of the margin started to become visibly unclear was recorded for the horizontal distances. Data was processed statistically by one-way ANOVA (P> 0.05).

Results: No statistically significant inter-test group differences could be identified (IOS A-C). The minimum distance from which a clear margin was visible, was 4.5 (SD 0.1) mm for all images, regardless of which IOS was used. Under these experimental clinical conditions, all tested IOS performed similarly. In contrast, all margins of the controls were clearly visible.

Clinical Significance: None of the tested intraoral scanning systems in this study were capable of recording a clear impression when the cervical margin for a posterior partial crown was located at a distance of less than 0.5 mm from the interproximal neighbor.
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October 2018

Differential effects of high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (hf-tRNS) on contrast sensitivity and visual acuity when combined with a short perceptual training in adults with amblyopia.

Neuropsychologia 2018 06 25;114:125-133. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Via Venezia 8, 35131 Padova, Italy; Human Inspired Technology Research Centre, University of Padova, Via Luzzati 4, 35121 Padova, Italy. Electronic address:

Amblyopia is a neuro-developmental disorder characterised by several functional impairments in spatial vision even with the best optical correction. There is evidence that extensive perceptual training can improve visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) in adults with amblyopia. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of a recently developed neuro-modulatory technique (i.e., high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation; hf-tRNS) combined with a short perceptual training in adults with amblyopia. One group of ten participants underwent a short (8 sessions) monocular training in a contrast detection task with concurrent hf-tRNS, whereas another group of ten participants underwent the same training protocol but with Sham stimulation (control group). The training consisted of a two-interval forced choice (2IFC) contrast detection task in which participants had to detect the presence of a central Gabor patch flanked by two high-contrast collinear Gabors (lateral masking). The results showed a significant and similar improvement of CS for both groups, suggesting that hf-tRNS is not crucial for the improvement of CS. However, for VA, a significant improvement was only observed in the hf-tRNS group with a mean VA improvement of 0.19 LogMAR in the amblyopic eye. Most notably, this improvement was achieved after eight training sessions. The results are discussed in terms of the influence of hf-tRNS on short-term neural plasticity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.04.017DOI Listing
June 2018

Optical coherence tomography angiography of circumscribed choroidal hemangioma treated with photodynamic therapy.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct;65(10):1049-1051

San Paolo Ophthalmic Center, San Antonio Hospital, Padova, Italy.

We describe features of a circumscribed choroidal hemangioma (CCH) treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) by means of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). A 40-year-old man had a complaint of decreasing visual acuity in his left eye for 10 days. A diagnosis of CCH was confirmed by fundus examination, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography. An OCT-A study of choroidal lesion before and after PDT was carried out. Segmented en face OCT-A of CCH showed multiple irregular connected vascular channels with hyperflow and a capillary-like lesion. Absent and/or reduced intrachannel flow in most of the intratumoral vessels was shown by OCT-A soon after treatment (2 days), with normalization of vascular flow 7 days and 1 month after PDT. OCT-A was able to noninvasively visualize intrinsic vasculature of CCH showing vascular remodeling after PDT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_237_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5678314PMC
October 2017

Rapid response to dexamethasone intravitreal implant in diabetic macular edema.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2018 Jan;28(1):74-79

1 San Paolo Ophthalmic Center, San Antonio Hospital, Padua - Italy.

Purpose: To evaluate the early effects of dexamethasone (DEX) intravitreal implants in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME).

Methods: This was a prospective, single-arm, interventional clinical series. Eighteen patients (18 eyes) with chronic/recalcitrant or naive DME were included. Patients underwent single DEX intravitreal implant. Clinical assessments, including ophthalmologic examination, central retinal thickness (CRT) measurement by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scan, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and intraocular pressure (IOP) were carried out at baseline, 1-3 hours, and then 3, 7, and 30 days after treatment. The main outcome was change in CRT on SD-OCT, while secondary outcome measures included visual acuity (VA) and changes in IOP following implant.

Results: Mean CRT significantly decreased from 565 ± 171 µm at baseline to 310 ± 89 µm at end of follow-up (p<0.001), with reduction becoming evident 1-3 hours after injection. Mean BCVA also significantly improved 7 days and 30 days after treatment up to 0.14 logMAR (p<0.05). All patients had a controlled IOP after the injection with only 1/18 eyes having a transient increase in IOP during follow-up.

Conclusions: This is the first study showing very early effects of DEX implants on CRT reduction and VA improvement in DME.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5301/ejo.5000989DOI Listing
January 2018

Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroidal haemangioma: small case series.

Acta Ophthalmol 2018 May 21;96(3):e408-e409. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

San Paolo Ophthalmic Center, San Antonio Hospital, Padova, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.13512DOI Listing
May 2018

A New Approach for the Treatment of Lateral Periodontal Cysts with an 810-nm Diode Laser.

Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2017 Jan/Feb;37(1):e120-e129

The aim of this study was to test whether the combination of diode laser therapy and surgical treatment for a lateral periodontal cyst (LPC) would result in greater clinical improvement compared with surgery alone. A total of 18 patients with LPCs were assessed for eligibility for this study. At baseline, each patient was randomly allocated to one of two regimens: diode laser plus surgery (test group) or traditional surgical treatment alone (control group). Healing parameters were assessed at 7 to 21 days to monitor short-term complications, and periodontal parameters were assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months to evaluate long-term healing. The test group demonstrated highly significant differences in both the short-term and long-term parameters compared with the control group. This study showed that diode laser treatment results in a shorter wound-healing period and could be considered valuable for the surgical treatment of LPCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/prd.2981DOI Listing
October 2017

The Effect of Different Cleaning Protocols on Post Space: A SEM Study.

Int J Dent 2016 28;2016:1907124. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Human Pathology Department, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

. Purpose of the present paper is to analyze the efficiency of different post-space irrigation protocols. . 28 single rooted teeth were endodontically treated. After post-space preparation every sample was assigned to one of three experimental groups and to one control group. In each group different irrigation protocols were performed as follows: EDTA (Group A), 37% orthophosphoric acid (Group B), and EDTA + 37% orthophosphoric acid with ultrasounds activation (Group C). In the control group (Group D) the irrigate association was not activated by ultrasounds. Three zones (coronal, middle, and apical) of each sample were analyzed by using Scan Electron Microscopy (SEM) without any metallization procedures. The presence of smear layer on the canal surface was qualitatively evaluated by applying Serafino's score with values included between 0 and 2. . The results of the research showed how Group C recorded the better results (0.81 ± 0.72). Group A and Group B showed lower mean scores (1.06 ± 0.69 and 1.08 ± 0.77); Group D showed the lowest mean score of 1.30 ± 0.69. The SEM observation analysis demonstrated how the smear layer presence decreased in the crown-apical direction. . The different post-space treatments statistically determine significant differences on the dentinal surfaces cleansing. The absence of ultrasonic activation lowers the cleansing efficacy of endocanalar irrigants, showing sensible differences among each post-space zone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1907124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5059547PMC
September 2016

Partial-thickness corneal tissue restoration after a chemical burn.

Int Med Case Rep J 2016 6;9:87-90. Epub 2016 Apr 6.

San Paolo Ophthalmic Center, San Antonio Hospital, Padova, Italy.

Purpose: We describe a case of full-thickness corneal restoration after an acute corneal burn with an acid agent.

Methods: A 32-year-old male reported painful discomfort, redness, photophobia, and a decrease in visual acuity in the left eye after a unilateral burn with an acid agent. Slit-lamp examination revealed massive corneal melting involving necrotic sequestrum of the entire corneal surface. Surgical approach was carried out in order to preserve residual ocular tissues.

Results: Extensive corneal-conjunctival layer curettage of the necrotic tissue was performed showing perfectly clear undamaged deep lamellar corneal layers. The patient underwent multilayered amniotic membrane transplantation and total capsular-conjunctival flap in order to preserve ocular tissue from further melting or corneal perforation. A complete and spontaneous "restitutio ad integrum" of the corneal layers was shown during the follow-up. The cornea was perfectly clear with restored normal anatomical architecture.

Conclusion: In this case, a spontaneous full-thickness corneal tissue restoration occurred after an acute chemical burn. Studies about the mechanisms whereby different cells interact and replicate within the stroma may unveil the biology behind corneal regeneration and transparency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IMCRJ.S99293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4859808PMC
May 2016

Dental Implants Placed in Periodontally Infected Sites in Humans.

Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2017 Feb 16;19(1):131-139. Epub 2016 May 16.

Dental School, Vita-Salute University, Milan, Italy.

Background: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate fresh socket implant outcome leaving granulomatous tissue into the bone defects.

Materials And Methods: Subjects requiring tooth extractions in periodontal infected sites were selected for this prospective study. Only patients with 4-wall defects and asymptomatic ones were included. The fresh sockets were randomly scheduled into two groups: In one group (Removal Group, RG) granulomatous tissue was removed and, in the other group (Left Group, LG) granulomatous tissue was left. Implants were positioned immediately after tooth extraction, and were loaded after 3 months in both groups. Intraoral digital radiographs were performed at temporary prosthesis placement; at 12, 24 and 36 months to evaluate marginal bone levels changes. Moreover, clinical parameters were acquired at the same time points.

Results: Sixty patients were included in this study. Three-hundred seventy-two implants were placed immediately after tooth extraction and, at 3-year follow-up, a survival rate of 98.66% was reported, 2 implants were lost in RG and 3 implants in LG. At 36-month follow-up, not statistically significant differences were found between RG and LG in marginal bone level changes and clinical parameters (p > 005). Moreover, not statistically significant differences were found in intragroup comparisons over time (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: With the limits of this study it was concluded that granulomatous tissue left in infected fresh sockets doesn't injury dental implant outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cid.12425DOI Listing
February 2017

Immediate Implant Placement in Sockets with Asymptomatic Apical Periodontitis.

Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2017 Feb 28;19(1):20-27. Epub 2016 Apr 28.

Full Professor and Chairmen, Department of Dentistry, Vita Salute University, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Background: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if the presence of granulation tissue in asymptomatic apical periodontitis compromised immediate implant placement.

Methods: Patients requiring extraction of one tooth (maxillary and mandibular incisive, canine or premolar) with asymptomatic apical periodontitis, were recruited for this prospective study. They were randomly scheduled into two groups: in first group (A) including 30 teeth, reactive soft tissue was debrided before implant placement, and in second group (B) including 30 teeth, reactive soft tissue was left in the apical lesion. Implants were positioned immediately after tooth extraction, and were loaded after 3 months in both groups. Cone beam computed tomography was performed before tooth extraction and at 1-year follow-up to evaluate the radiolucency around the root apex and the implant, bucco-lingual bone levels were also checked.

Results: Sixty patients were included in this study. Sixty implants were placed immediately after tooth extraction and, at 1-year follow-up, a survival rate of 100% was reported. After one year both groups showed absence of radiolucent zone at the apical region of implants. All fresh sockets presented a buccal-palatal bone reduction in both groups after one year, even if not statistically significant differences were found between baseline bone levels and within groups.

Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, the immediate placement of implants into the extraction sockets with asymptomatic apical periodontitis, in presence of primary stability, did not lead to an increased rate of complications and rendered an equally favorable type of tissue integration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cid.12422DOI Listing
February 2017

Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Case Series with 3-Year Follow-Up.

Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2016 Jan-Feb;36(1):103-9

Invasive cervical resorption (ICR) lesion is an aggressive form of tooth destruction that usually begins immediately below the epithelial attachment. It has been described as a purely inflammatory reaction that can be started by microorganism infection, or an aseptic resorptive process that can be secondarily infected. The potential etiologic and predisposing factors for ICR are orthodontic treatment, traumatic injuries, bleaching, periodontal therapy, and idiopathic factors. This case series with a 3-year follow-up shows that Class 2 ICR lesions have a good prognosis in 100% of cases. Class 3 ICR lesions should be considered at risk. However, in the authors' experience, the treatment of Class 3 ICR lesions is compatible with tooth maintenance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/prd.2066DOI Listing
May 2017

Pattern of nodal involvement in papillary thyroid cancer: a challenge of quantitative analysis.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2015 1;8(9):11629-34. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Department of Human Pathology, University Hospital of Messina Via Consolare Valeria, 1, Messina 98125, Italy.

Introduction: Backgrounds of this study were to examine and analyse the relationship among the number of lymph nodes with metastases harvested in central and lateral compartments, the characteristics of tumours and patients, and the recurrences rate.

Methods: A retrospective review of 118 patients treated for a papillary thyroid cancer and underwent to neck dissection, including in all cases both central and lateral compartment, was realised. A quantitative analysis, on this homogeneous cohort of patients, was performed to hypothesize the minimum number of cervical lymph nodes to be necessarily excised in order to obtain an adequate management of these patients.

Results: The mean follow-up time was 75.9 months. Five-year overall survival was 96.6%. The correlation among the metastatic lymph node number of the ipsilateral central compartment, isolated or pooled with those of the ipsilateral lateral compartment, age of patient and tumour size revealed a statistical significance (P=0.01); both parameters, tumour size and age, may be considered as dependent predictor variables.

Conclusion: We suppose, notwithstanding the limited number of patients, that the number of lymph nodes harvested to achieve an optimal cervical dissection may be superior to 8 and 11 in central and lateral compartments, and 6 and 10 in contralateral ones, respectively. Moreover we recommend the bilateral dissection of central nodes compartment in presence of tumour localised in the isthmus.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4637717PMC
December 2016

Dentin Morphology of Root Canal Surface: A Quantitative Evaluation Based on a Scanning Electronic Microscopy Study.

Biomed Res Int 2015 27;2015:164065. Epub 2015 Aug 27.

Department of Human Pathology, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria, 98100 Messina, Italy.

Dentin is a vital, hydrated composite tissue with structural components and properties that vary in the different topographic portions of the teeth. These variations have a significant implication for biomechanical teeth properties and for the adhesive systems utilized in conservative dentistry. The aim of this study is to analyse the root canal dentin going from coronal to apical zone to find the ratio between the intertubular dentin area and the surface occupied by dentin tubules varies. Observations were conducted on 30 healthy premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons in patients aged between 10 and 14. A SEM analysis of the data obtained in different canal portions showed that, in the coronal zone, dentinal tubules had a greater diameter (4.32 μm) than the middle zone (3.74 μm) and the apical zone (1.73 μm). The average number of dentinal tubules (in an area of 1 mm(2)) was similar in coronal zone (46,798 ± 10,644) and apical zone (45,192 ± 10,888), while in the middle zone they were lower in number (30,940 ± 7,651). However, intertubular dentin area was bigger going from apical to coronal portion. The differences between the analysed areas must be considered for the choice of the adhesive system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/164065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4564583PMC
August 2016

P wave dispersion in cryptogenic stroke: A risk factor for cardioembolism?

Int J Cardiol 2015 23;190:202-4. Epub 2015 Apr 23.

Stroke Unit, Department of Neurological and Sensorineural Sciences, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, "Santa Maria alle Scotte" General Hospital, Siena, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.04.185DOI Listing
February 2016

Improving visual functions in adult amblyopia with combined perceptual training and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS): a pilot study.

Front Psychol 2014 9;5:1402. Epub 2014 Dec 9.

San Paolo Ophthalmic Center, San Antonio Hospital Padova, Italy.

Amblyopia is a visual disorder due to an abnormal pattern of functional connectivity of the visual cortex and characterized by several visual deficits of spatial vision including impairments of visual acuity (VA) and of the contrast sensitivity function (CSF). Despite being a developmental disorder caused by reduced visual stimulation during early life (critical period), several studies have shown that extensive visual perceptual training can improve VA and CSF in people with amblyopia even in adulthood. With the present study we assessed whether a much shorter perceptual training regime, in association with high-frequency transcranial electrical stimulation (hf-tRNS), was able to improve visual functions in a group of adult participants with amblyopia. Results show that, in comparison with previous studies where a large number sessions with a similar training regime were used (Polat et al., 2004), here just eight sessions of training in contrast detection under lateral masking conditions combined with hf-tRNS, were able to substantially improve VA and CSF in adults with amblyopia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260493PMC
December 2014

Arterial stiffness in patients with deep and lobar intracerebral hemorrhage.

J Stroke 2014 Sep 30;16(3):184-8. Epub 2014 Sep 30.

Stroke Unit, Department of Neurological and Sensorineural Sciences, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, "Santa Maria alle Scotte" General Hospital, Siena, Italy.

Background And Purpose: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for approximately 10% of stroke cases. Hypertension may play a role in the pathogenesis of ICH that occurs in the basal ganglia, thalamus, pons, and cerebellum, but not in that of lobar ICH. Hypertension contributes to decreased elasticity of arteries, thereby increasing the likelihood of rupture in response to acute elevation in intravascular pressure. This study aimed to evaluate arterial stiffness (using the arterial stiffness index [ASI]) in patients with deep (putaminal and thalamic) ICH in comparison with patients with lobar ICH.

Methods: We enrolled 64 patients (mean±SD age: 69.3±10.7 years; 47 men and 17 women) among 73 who referred consecutively to our department for intraparenchymal hemorrhage and underwent brain computed tomography (CT) and cerebral angio-CT. In all the subjects, 24-hour heart rates and blood pressures were monitored. The linear regression slope of diastolic on systolic blood pressure was assumed as a global measure of arterial compliance, and its complement (1 minus the slope), ASI, has been considered as a measure of arterial stiffness.

Results: In the patients with deep ICH, ASI was significantly higher than in the patients with lobar ICH (0.64±0.19 vs. 0.53±0.17, P=0.04).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that in deep ICH, arterial stiffening represents a possible pathogenetic factor that modifies arterial wall properties and contributes to vascular rupture in response to intravascular pressure acute elevation. Therapeutic strategies that reduce arterial stiffness may potentially lower the incidence of deep hemorrhagic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5853/jos.2014.16.3.184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4200589PMC
September 2014

Intravitreal ranibizumab for naive extrafoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration.

Retina 2014 Nov;34(11):2167-70

*Department of Ophthalmology, University Vita-Salute, Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy; †G. B. Bietti Foundation for Study and Research in Ophthalmology, IRCCS, Rome, Italy; and ‡San Paolo Ophthalmic Center, Sant' Antonio Hospital, Padua, Italy.

Purpose: To investigate the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab on extrafoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration.

Methods: Eighteen eyes affected by extrafoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration were prospectively enrolled in this study. After an initial intravitreal ranibizumab, all patients were reevaluated monthly over 12 months of follow-up. Further retreatments were performed on a pro re nata basis, depending on detection of any type of fluid on optical coherence tomography and/or the presence of leakage on fluorescein angiography. Primary outcome measures were mean changes in best-corrected visual acuity and the proportion of eyes gaining at least 15 letters (3 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study [ETDRS] lines) at the end of the follow-up. Secondary outcome measures were central macular thickness variations and changes in choroidal neovascularization size.

Results: Mean best-corrected visual acuity presented a significant improvement during the follow-up period, being 0.3 ± 0.2 logMAR at baseline and 0.2 ± 0.2 logMAR at the 12-month examination (P < 0.001). An improvement of at least 3 EDTRS lines was achieved by 6 eyes (33.3%), whereas 6 patients (33.3%) gained 1 to 2 lines. The mean central macular thickness at baseline was 314 ± 87 μm, changing to 268 ± 65 μm at the 12-month examination (P = 0.003). The mean lesion size was 1.4 ± 1.4 mm and remained stable throughout the follow-up, being 1.8 ± 2.9 mm at 12 months (P = 0.64).

Conclusion: Intravitreal ranibizumab administered after a pro re nata regimen with monthly evaluation is a beneficial approach for the management of extrafoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration over 12 months of follow-up. Further studies are warranted to confirm our preliminary results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000000223DOI Listing
November 2014