Publications by authors named "Giuseppe Genovesi"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Lack of contralateral suppression in transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions in multiple chemical sensitivity: a clinical correlation study.

Noise Health 2016 May-Jun;18(82):143-9

Department of Clinical Sciences and Traslational Medicine, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Rome, Italy.

Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic disorder characterized by a variety of symptoms associated with the exposure to chemicals at a concentration below the toxic level. Previous studies have demonstrated peculiar responses in brain activity in these patients with respect to sensory stimuli while the association between chemical sensitivity and other environmental intolerances such as noise sensitivity has been questioned by researchers. In this study, a cohort of 18 MCS patients underwent transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) testing with and without contralateral suppression to evaluate the functionality of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex involved in speech-in-noise sensitivity. Results were compared with an age- and gender-matched control group (n = 20) and correlation analysis with disease onset and quick environmental exposure sensitivity inventory (qEESI) symptom severity scale was performed. Subjects affected by MCS showed statistically significant impairment of MOC reflex, and the onset of the disease and several symptom subscales showed to be correlated to such reduction in some of the frequencies tested. These data suggest that alterations of MOC reflex could be part of the complex features of this disease although more studies are needed to further explore auditory perception disorders in environmental intolerances.
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August 2016

Involvement of Subcortical Brain Structures During Olfactory Stimulation in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.

Brain Topogr 2016 Mar 5;29(2):243-52. Epub 2015 Oct 5.

Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, "Tor Vergata" University, Rome, Italy.

Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) patients usually react to odour compounds and the majority of neuroimaging studies assessed, especially at the cortical level, many olfactory-related correlates. The purpose of the present study was to depict sub-cortical metabolic changes during a neutral (NC) and pure (OC) olfactory stimulation by using a recently validated (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computer tomography procedure in 26 MCS and 11 healthy (HC) resting subjects undergoing a battery of clinical tests. Twelve subcortical volumes of interest were identified by the automated anatomical labeling library and normalized to thalamus FDG uptake. In both groups, when comparing OC to NC, the within-subjects ANOVA demonstrated a relative decreased metabolism in bilateral putamen and hippocampus and a relative increased metabolism in bilateral amygdala, olfactory cortex (OLF), caudate and pallidum. The between-groups ANOVA demonstrated in MCS a significant higher metabolism in bilateral OLF during NC. As in HC subjects negative correlations were found in OC between FDG uptake in bilateral amygdala and hippocampus and odor pleasantness scale, the latter positively correlated with MCS subjects' bilateral putamen FDG uptake in OC. Besides FDG uptake resemblances in both groups were found, for the first time a relative higher metabolism increase in OLF in MCS subjects at rest with respect to HC was found. When merging this aspect to the different subcortical FDG uptake correlations patterns in the two groups, the present study demonstrated to describe a peculiar metabolic index of behavioral and neurological aspects of MCS complaints.
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March 2016

Cortical activity during olfactory stimulation in multiple chemical sensitivity: a (18)F-FDG PET/CT study.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2015 Apr 18;42(5):733-40. Epub 2015 Feb 18.

Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy,

Purpose: To investigate the differences in brain glucose consumption during olfactory stimulation between subjects affected by multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and a group of healthy individuals.

Methods: Two (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed in 26 subjects (6 men and 20 women; mean age 46.7 ± 11 years) with a clinical diagnosis of MCS and in 11 healthy controls (6 women and 5 men; mean age 45.7 ± 11 years), the first scan after a neutral olfactory stimulation (NS) and the second after a pure olfactory stimulation (OS). Differences in (18)F-FDG uptake were analysed by statistical parametric mapping (SPM2).

Results: In controls OS led to an increase in glucose consumption in BA 18 and 19 and a reduction in glucose metabolism in BA 10, 11, 32 and 47. In MCS subjects, OS led to an increase in glucose consumption in BA 20, 23, 18 and 37 and a reduction in glucose metabolism in BA 8, 9 and 10.

Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that cortical activity in subjects with MCS differs from that in healthy individuals during olfactory stimulation.
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April 2015

Obesity and metabolic comorbidities: environmental diseases?

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2013 18;2013:640673. Epub 2013 Mar 18.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Pathophysiology, Endocrinology and Food Science, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Obesity and metabolic comorbidities represent increasing health problems. Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are exogenous agents that change endocrine function and cause adverse health effects. Most EDCs are synthetic chemicals; some are natural food components as phytoestrogens. People are exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals throughout their lives. EDCs impact hormone-dependent metabolic systems and brain function. Laboratory and human studies provide compelling evidence that human chemical contamination can play a role in obesity epidemic. Chemical exposures may increase the risk of obesity by altering the differentiation of adipocytes. EDCs can alter methylation patterns and normal epigenetic programming in cells. Oxidative stress may be induced by many of these chemicals, and accumulating evidence indicates that it plays important roles in the etiology of chronic diseases. The individual sensitivity to chemicals is variable, depending on environment and ability to metabolize hazardous chemicals. A number of genes, especially those representing antioxidant and detoxification pathways, have potential application as biomarkers of risk assessment. The potential health effects of combined exposures make the risk assessment process more complex compared to the assessment of single chemicals. Techniques and methods need to be further developed to fill data gaps and increase the knowledge on harmful exposure combinations.
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August 2013

Relationships between body fat distribution, epicardial fat and obstructive sleep apnea in obese patients with and without metabolic syndrome.

PLoS One 2012 8;7(10):e47059. Epub 2012 Oct 8.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Physiopathology, Endocrinology and Food Science, University of Rome "Sapienza", Italy.

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and metabolic syndrome, both closely related to obesity, often coexist in affected individuals; however, body mass index is not an accurate indicator of body fat and thus is not a good predictor of OSA and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the occurrence of OSA could be associated with an altered body fat distribution and a more evident cardio metabolic risk independently from obesity and metabolic syndrome.

Methods And Results: 171 consecutive patients (58 men and 113 women) were included in the study and underwent overnight polysomnography. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, lipid profile, glycaemic parameters were recorded. Body composition by DXA, two-dimensional echocardiography and carotid intima/media thickness measurement were performed. 67 patients (39.2%) had no OSA and 104 (60.8%) had OSA. The percentage of patients with metabolic syndrome was significantly higher among OSA patients (65.4%) that were older, heavier and showed a bigger and fatter heart compared to the control group. Upper body fat deposition index , the ratio between upper body fat (head, arms and trunk fat in kilograms) and lower body fat (legs fat in kilograms), was significantly increased in the OSA patients and significantly related to epicardial fat thickness. In patients with metabolic syndrome, multivariate regression analyses showed that upper body fat deposition index and epicardial fat showed the best association with OSA.

Conclusion: The occurrence of OSA in obese people is more closely related to cardiac adiposity and to abnormal fat distribution rather than to the absolute amount of adipose tissue. In patients with metabolic syndrome the severity of OSA is associated with increase in left ventricular mass and carotid intima/media thickness.
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May 2013

Biological definition of multiple chemical sensitivity from redox state and cytokine profiling and not from polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2010 Nov 27;248(3):285-92. Epub 2010 Apr 27.

Laboratory of Tissue Engineering & Skin Pathophysiology, Dermatology Institute (IDI IRCCS), Rome, Italy.

Background: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a poorly clinically and biologically defined environment-associated syndrome. Although dysfunctions of phase I/phase II metabolizing enzymes and redox imbalance have been hypothesized, corresponding genetic and metabolic parameters in MCS have not been systematically examined.

Objectives: We sought for genetic, immunological, and metabolic markers in MCS.

Methods: We genotyped patients with diagnosis of MCS, suspected MCS and Italian healthy controls for allelic variants of cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A5), UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT1A1), and glutathione S-transferases (GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1). Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids, antioxidant (catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and glutathione metabolizing (GST, glutathione peroxidase (Gpx)) enzymes, whole blood chemiluminescence, total antioxidant capacity, levels of nitrites/nitrates, glutathione, HNE-protein adducts, and a wide spectrum of cytokines in the plasma were determined.

Results: Allele and genotype frequencies of CYPs, UGT, GSTM, GSTT, and GSTP were similar in the Italian MCS patients and in the control populations. The activities of erythrocyte catalase and GST were lower, whereas Gpx was higher than normal. Both reduced and oxidised glutathione were decreased, whereas nitrites/nitrates were increased in the MCS groups. The MCS fatty acid profile was shifted to saturated compartment and IFNgamma, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1, PDGFbb, and VEGF were increased.

Conclusions: Altered redox and cytokine patterns suggest inhibition of expression/activity of metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in MCS. Metabolic parameters indicating accelerated lipid oxidation, increased nitric oxide production and glutathione depletion in combination with increased plasma inflammatory cytokines should be considered in biological definition and diagnosis of MCS.
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November 2010