Publications by authors named "Giulia Tabome"

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First report of causing root and crown rot on maize in Italy.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.


Maize (Zea mays L.) is a cereal crop of great economic importance in Italy; production is currently of 62,587,469 t, with an area that covers 628,801 ha, concentrated in northern Italy (ISTAT 2020). Fusarium species are associated with root and crown rot causing failures in crop establishment under high soil moisture. In 2019 maize seedlings collected in a farm located in San Zenone degli Ezzelini (VI, Italy) showed root and crown rot symptoms with browning of the stem tissues, wilting of the seedling, and collapsing due to the rotting tissues at the base of the stem. The incidence of diseased plants was approximately 15%. Seedlings were cleaned thoroughly from soil residues under tap water. Portions (about 3-5 mm) of tissue from roots and crowns of the diseased plants were cut and surface disinfected with a water solution of NaClO at 0.5% for 2 minutes and rinsed in sterile H20. The tissue fragments were plated on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) amended with 50 mg/l of streptomycin sulfate and incubated for 48-72 hours at 25oC. Over the 80 tissue fragments plated, 5% were identified as Fusarium verticillioides, 60% as Fusarium spp., 35% developed saprophytes. Fusarium spp. isolates that showed morphological characteristics not belonging to known pathogenic species on maize were selected and used for further investigation while species belonging to F. oxysporum were discarded. Single conidia of the Fusarium spp. colonies were cultured on PDA and Carnation Leaf Agar (CLA) for pathogenicity tests, morphological and molecular identification. The colonies showed white to pink, abundant, densely floccose to fluffy aerial mycelium. Colony reverse showed light violet pigmentation, in rings on PDA. On CLA the isolates produced slightly curved macronidia with 3 septa 28.1 - 65.5 µm long and 2.8-6.3 µm wide (n=50). Microconidia were cylindrical, aseptate, 4.5 -14.0 µm long and 1.5-3.9 µm wide (n=50). Spherical clamydospores were 8.8 ± 2.5 µm size (n=30), produced singly or in pairs on the mycelium, according to the description by Skovgaard et al. (2003) for F. commune. The identity of two single-conidia strains was confirmed by sequence comparison of the translation elongation factor-1α (tef-1α), and RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2) gene fragments (O'Donnell et al. 2010). BLASTn searches of GenBank, and Fusarium-ID database, using the partial tef-1α (MW419921, MW419922) and rpb2 (MW419923, MW419924) sequences of representative isolate DB19lug07 and DB19lug20, revealed 99% identity for tef-1α and 100% identity to F. commune NRRL 28387(AF246832, AF250560). Pathogenicity tests were carried out by suspending conidia from a 10-days old culture on PDA in sterile H2O to 5×104 CFU/ml. Fifty seeds were immersed in 50 ml of the conidial suspension of each isolate for 24 hours and in sterile water (Koch et al. 2020). The seeds were drained, dried at room temperature, and sown in trays filled with a steamed mix of white peat and perlite, 80:20 v/v, and maintained at 25°C and RH of 80-85% for 14 days with 12 hours photoperiod. Seedlings were extracted from the substrate, washed under tap water, and observed for the presence of root and crown rots like the symptoms observed on the seedlings collected in the field. Control seedlings were healthy and F. commune was reisolated from the symptomatic ones and identified by resequencing of tef-1α gene. F. commune has been already reported on maize (Xi et al. 2019) and other plant species, like soybean (Ellis et al. 2013), sugarcane (Wang et al. 2018), potato (Osawa et al. 2020), indicating that some attention must be paid in crop rotation and residue management strategies. To our knowledge this is the first report of F. commune as a pathogen of maize in Italy. References Ellis M L et al. 2013. Plant Disease, 97, doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-12-0644-PDN. ISTAT. 2020. Accessed December 28, 2020. Koch, E. et al. 2020. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection. 127, 883-893 doi: 10.1007/s41348-020-00350-w O'Donnell K et al. 2010. J. Clin. Microbiol. 48:3708. Osawa H et al. 2020. Journal of General Plant Pathology, Skovgaard K 2003. Mycologia, 95:4, 630-636, DOI: 10.1080/15572536.2004.11833067. Wang J et al. 2018. Plant Disease, 102, doi/10.1094/PDIS-07-17-1011-PDN Xi K et al. 2019. Plant Disease, 103, doi/10.1094/PDIS-09-18-1674-PDN.
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June 2021