Publications by authors named "Giulia Remoli"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A supervised machine learning algorithm predicts intraoperative CSF leak in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas: model development and prospective validation.

J Neurosurg Sci 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Unit of Neurosurgery, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Background: Despite advances in endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal surgery (ETNS) for pituitary adenomas (PAs), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage remains a life-threatening complication predisposing to major morbidity and mortality. In the current study we developed a supervised ML model able to predict the risk of intraoperative CSF leakage by comparing different machine learning (ML) methods and explaining the functioning and the rationale of the best performing algorithm.

Methods: A retrospective cohort of 238 patients treated via E-TNS for PAs was selected. A customized pipeline of several ML models was programmed and trained; the best five models were tested on a hold-out test and the best classifier was then prospectively validated on a cohort of 35 recently treated patients.

Results: Intraoperative CSF leak occurred in 54 (22,6%) of 238 patients. The most important risk's predictors were: non secreting status, older age, x-, y- and z-axes diameters, ostedural invasiveness, volume, ICD and R-ratio. The random forest (RF) classifier outperformed other models, with an AUC of 0.84, high sensitivity (86%) and specificity (88%). Positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 88% and 80% respectively. F1 score was 0.84. Prospective validation confirmed outstanding performance metrics: AUC (0,81), sensitivity (83%), specificity (79%), negative predictive value (95%) and F1 score (0,75).

Conclusions: The RF classifier showed the best performance across all models selected. RF models might predict surgical outcomes in heterogeneous multimorbid and fragile populations outperforming classical statistical analyses and other ML models (SVM, ANN etc.), improving patient management and reducing preventable morbidity and additional costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0390-5616.21.05295-4DOI Listing
August 2021

Supporting and Protecting People with Dementia in the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;83(1):43-49

Department of Human Neuroscience, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

We aimed to explore the awareness and preparedness of dementia caregivers and people with mild cognitive deficits on how to prevent COVID-19 infection and cope with the indirect consequences of the pandemic. A total of 139 patient-caregiver dyads received a telephone survey and 109 completed the survey. The majority of respondents reported having a moderate-to-good knowledge of the typical manifestations of COVID-19. Conversely, only few of them were informed of the atypical presentations and on how to recognize emergency warning signs. Filling the knowledge gaps on COVID-19 in the most vulnerable people may represent a significant resource to tackle the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-210264DOI Listing
September 2021

Exploring the association of early life physical activity and risk of dementia: a systematic review.

Minerva Med 2021 Aug 10;112(4):448-455. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neuroscience, Mental Health, and Sense Organs (NESMOS), Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Physical activity has been included in the list of twelve modifiable risk factors for dementia, despite conflicting results from observational and controlled studies. In particular it is not clear whether physical inactivity near the time of dementia diagnosis is a consequence or cause of dementia. We review all available studies reporting the possible association between having engaged in PA before 60 years of age and the risk of dementia.

Evidence Acquisition: We performed a systematic review based on the methodology reported in the Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews and following the PRISMA statement. Bibliographic searches were carried out on the databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Further references were retrieved from published systematic reviews on the same topic. Included studies were assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa scale.

Evidence Synthesis: The bibliographic search yielded 1381 records. A total of 11 studies were included. Three of the included studies were case control studies, while the remaining 8 were cohort studies The overall quality of included studies was high. However, clinical criteria for the diagnosis of dementia, criteria to define and measure and PA and time-reference of exposure were heterogeneous, with some studies considering specific age range of exposure, and other reports dealing with more generic "adult age."

Conclusions: This review suggests that there is insufficient evidence to conclude whether PA in early life may affect the incidence of dementia in later life. Studies in this field are very complicated and recognizing the impact of PA in early life given all the confounding factors is very difficult. Further studies are warranted. In these studies, it will be crucial to define the type, quantity and intensity of PA as well as to stratify analysis by sex, cultures and social classes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.21.07542-XDOI Listing
August 2021

Anticancer drugs repurposed for Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 05 5;13(1):96. Epub 2021 May 5.

National Center for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Italian National Institute of Health, Via Giano della Bella 34, 00162, Rome, Italy.

Background: The relationship between cancer and dementia is triggering growing research interest. Several preclinical studies have provided the biological rationale for the repurposing of specific anticancer agents in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and a growing number of research protocols are testing their efficacy and safety/tolerability in patients with AD.

Methods: The aim of the present systematic review was to provide an overview on the repurposing of approved anticancer drugs in clinical trials for AD by considering both ongoing and completed research protocols in all phases. In parallel, a systematic literature review was conducted on PubMed, ISI Web, and the Cochrane Library to identify published clinical studies on repurposed anticancer agents in AD.

Results: Based on a structured search on the ClinicalTrials.gov and the EudraCT databases, we identified 13 clinical trials testing 11 different approved anticancer agents (five tyrosine kinase inhibitors, two retinoid X receptor agonists, two immunomodulatory agents, one histone deacetylase inhibitor, and one monoclonal antibody) in the AD continuum. The systematic literature search led to the identification of five published studies (one phase I, three phase II, and one phase IIb/III) reporting the effects of antitumoral treatments in patients with mild cognitive impairment or AD dementia. The clinical findings and the methodological characteristics of these studies are described and discussed.

Conclusion: Anticancer agents are triggering growing interest in the context of repurposed therapies in AD. Several clinical trials are underway, and data are expected to be available in the near future. To date, data emerging from published clinical studies are controversial. The promising results emerging from preclinical studies and identified research protocols should be confirmed and extended by larger, adequately designed, and high-quality clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-021-00831-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101105PMC
May 2021

Decreasing trend in the incidence and prevalence of dementia: a systematic review.

Minerva Med 2021 Aug 21;112(4):430-440. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

National Center for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Italian National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy -

Introduction: The progressive ageing of the population is one of the main socio-demographic phenomena, taking place at a global level. Several recent population-based studies conducted worldwide suggest that the age-specific risk of dementia may be changing in some countries and areas.

Evidence Acquisition: This systematic review was performed using the methodology proposed by the Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews and reported following the PRISMA statement. A structured bibliographic search was performed on the databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. All included studies were qualitatively assessed using the Methodological Evaluation of Observational REsearch (MORE).

Evidence Synthesis: The bibliographic search yielded 2394 records. Three more articles were retrieved from other sources. A total of ten studies were included, five reported data on a possible reduction in the prevalence of dementia, and five reported data on a possible reduction in its incidence.

Conclusions: The present systematic review focused on the recent observations of a possible decrease in the frequency of dementia and cognitive impairment in some Western countries (USA, UK, Sweden, the Netherlands, France, Iceland) between 1977 and 2014. The included studies have a high heterogeneity in terms of the clinical criteria used to diagnose dementia, and of the criteria used to define the clinical condition preceding dementia, such as isolated cognitive impairment. Moreover, the methodological quality with which they were conducted was also heterogeneous, with scores ranging from 1 to 7 using the MORE tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.21.07454-1DOI Listing
August 2021

The Italian national survey on Coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic spread in nursing homes.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2021 06 2;36(6):873-882. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

National Center for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Italian National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Residents in facilities such as nursing homes (NHs) are particularly vulnerable to Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A national survey was carried out to collect information on the spreading and impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in nursing homes, and on how suspected and/or confirmed cases were managed. We carried out a survey between 25 March 2020 and 5 May 2020.

Materials And Methods: All Italian nursing homes either public or providing services both privately and within the NHS were included in the study. An on-line questionnaire was sent to 3292 nursing homes across all Italian regions. Nursing homes were also contacted by telephone to provide assistance in completing the questionnaire.

Results: A total of 1356 nursing homes voluntarily participated to the survey, hosting a total of 100,806 residents. Overall, 9154 residents died due to any cause from February 1 to the time when the questionnaire was completed (from March 25 to May 5). Of these, 7.4% had COVID-19 and 33.8% had flu-like symptoms, corresponding to a cumulative incidence of 0.7 and 3.1, respectively. Lack of personnel, difficulty in transferring patients to hospital or other facility, isolating residents with COVID-19, number of beds and geographical area were the main factor positively associated to the presence of COVID-19 in nursing homes.

Discussion: This survey showed the dissemination and impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Italian nursing homes and on how older and potentially chronically ill people residing in these long-term care facilities were managed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.5487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247061PMC
June 2021

Adverse Events in Italian Nursing Homes During the COVID-19 Epidemic: A National Survey.

Front Psychiatry 2020 30;11:578465. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

National Center for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Italian National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy.

Older people living in nursing homes (NHs) are particularly vulnerable in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, due to the high prevalence of chronic diseases and disabilities (e.g., dementia). The phenomenon of adverse events (AEs), intended as any harm or injury resulting from medical care or to the failure to provide care, has not yet been investigated in NHs during the pandemic. We performed a national survey on 3,292 NHs, either public or providing services both privately and within the national health system, out of the 3,417 NHs covering the whole Italian territory. An online questionnaire was addressed to the directors of each facility between March 24 and April 27, 2020. The list of NHs was provided by the Dementia Observatory, an online map of Italian services for people with dementia, which was one of the objectives of the implementation of the Italian National Dementia Plan. About 26% of residents in the Italian NHs for older people listed within the Dementia Observatory site had dementia. The objective of our study was to report the frequency of AEs that occurred during the months when SARS-CoV-2 spreading rate was at its highest in the Italian NHs and to identify which conditions and attributes were most associated with the occurrence of AEs by means of multivariate regression logistic analysis. Data are referred to 1,356 NHs that participated in the survey. The overall response rate was 41.2% over a time-period of six weeks (from March 24 to May 5). About one third of the facilities (444 out of 1,334) (33.3%) reported at least 1 adverse event, with a total of 2,000 events. Among the included NHs, having a bed capacity higher than the median of 60 beds (OR=1.57, CI95% 1.17-2.09; p=0.002), an observed increased in the use of psychiatric drugs (OR=1.80, CI95% 1.05-3.07; p=0.032), adopting physical restraint measures (OR=1.97, CI95% 1.47-2.64; p<0.001), residents hospitalized due to flu-like symptoms (OR =1.73, CI95% 1.28-2.32; p<0.001), and being located in specific geographic areas (OR=3.59, CI95% 1.81-7.08; OR = 2.90, CI95% 1.45-5.81 and OR = 4.02, CI05% 2.01-8.04 for, respectively, North-West, North-East and Centre vs South, p<0.001) were all factors positively associated to the occurrence of adverse events in the facility. Future recommendations for the management and care of residents in NHs during the COVID-19 pandemic should include specific statements for the most vulnerable populations, such as people with dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.578465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7561357PMC
September 2020

The Pipeline of Therapeutics Testing During the Emergency Phase of the COVID-19 Outbreak.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 24;7:552991. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a serious threat to the sustainability of healthcare systems and is currently having a significant effect on living conditions worldwide. No therapeutic agent has yet proven to be effective for the treatment of COVID-19. The management of this disease currently relies on supportive care and the off-label and compassionate use of antivirals and immunomodulators. Nevertheless, there has been a great worldwide effort to progress research and test the efficacy and safety/tolerability profiles of numerous candidate agents that may positively affect the various clinical syndromes associated with COVID-19. In parallel, vaccination and chemoprophylaxis strategies are being investigated. This article provides a summary of interventional studies targeting COVID-19 during the emergency phase of the outbreak to broadly inform clinicians and researchers on what happened and what they can expect in upcoming months. The clinicaltrials.gov database and the European Union (EU) Clinical Trials Register were investigated on March 31, 2020, to identify all ongoing phase 1-4 research protocols testing pharmacological interventions targeting SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or clinical syndromes associated with COVID-19. Overall, six phase 1, four phase 1-2, 14 phase 2, ten phase 2-3, 19 phase 3, and nine phase 4 studies were identified, and the features of these studies are described in the present review. We also provide an updated overview of the change overtime in the pipeline following this emergency phase and based on the current epidemiology of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.552991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7542224PMC
September 2020

Use of Biomarkers in Ongoing Research Protocols on Alzheimer's Disease.

J Pers Med 2020 Jul 24;10(3). Epub 2020 Jul 24.

National Center for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Italian National Institute of Health, 00161 Rome, Italy.

The present study aimed to describe and discuss the state of the art of biomarker use in ongoing Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. A review of 222 ongoing phase 1, 2, 3, and 4 protocols registered in the clinicaltrials.gov database was performed. All the trials (i) enrolling subjects with clinical disturbances and/or preclinical diagnoses falling within the AD continuum; and (ii) testing the efficacy and/or safety/tolerability of a therapeutic intervention, were analyzed. The use of biomarkers of amyloid deposition, tau pathology, and neurodegeneration among the eligibility criteria and/or study outcomes was assessed. Overall, 58.2% of ongoing interventional studies on AD adopt candidate biomarkers. They are mostly adopted by studies at the preliminary stages of the drug development process to explore the safety profile of novel therapies, and to provide evidence of target engagement and disease-modifying properties. The biologically supported selection of participants is mostly based on biomarkers of amyloid deposition, whereas the use of biomarkers as study outcomes mostly relies on markers of neurodegeneration. Biomarkers play an important role in the design and conduction of research protocols targeting AD. Nevertheless, their clinical validity, utility, and cost-effectiveness in the "real world" remain to be clarified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm10030068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7564515PMC
July 2020

Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Migrant Population Living in Europe: An Epidemiological Estimation of the Phenomenon.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;73(2):715-721

National Center for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy.

Background: The construct of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is triggering growing clinical and research interest. The detection of MCI may be affected by diverse ethno-cultural determinants possibly influencing the personal and social perception of the individual cognitive functioning as well as the reliability of objective cognitive assessment. These challenges may acquire special relevance in subjects with a migration background and composing ethnic minority groups.

Objective: The present study is aimed at providing an estimate of the number of MCI cases occurring in the migrant population living in the extended European Union (EU) in 2018.

Methods: The number of MCI cases in older migrants living in Europe and in each of the 32 considered countries was estimated by multiplying the number of migrants, provided by Eurostat, with the age-specific prevalence rates, derived by the harmonized data produced by the COSMIC collaboration and based on different operational definitions of MCI.

Results: Nearly 686,000 cases of MCI were estimated in the extended EU by applying age-specific prevalence rates based on the International Working Group criteria. Higher figures were obtained when the Clinical Dementia Rating- and the Mini Mental State Examination-based criteria were applied. The proportion of MCI cases in migrant subjects ranged from 1.1% (Romania) to 54.1% (Liechtenstein) (median: 8.4%; IQR: 4.7%-14.2%).

Conclusions: MCI represents and will increasingly constitute a relevant issue in the migrant population living in Europe. The present data reinforce the need of developing approaches and models of care that may be diversity-sensitive and inclusive for a culturally variegated population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-191012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7029332PMC
November 2020
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