Publications by authors named "Giulia Maria Camerino"

34 Publications

Gain-of-Function STIM1 L96V Mutation Causes Myogenesis Alteration in Muscle Cells From a Patient Affected by Tubular Aggregate Myopathy.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 26;9:635063. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Pharmacy-Drug Sciences, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Tubular Aggregate Myopathy (TAM) is a hereditary ultra-rare muscle disorder characterized by muscle weakness and cramps or myasthenic features. Biopsies from TAM patients show the presence of tubular aggregates originated from sarcoplasmic reticulum due to altered Ca homeostasis. TAM is caused by gain-of-function mutations in STIM1 or ORAI1, proteins responsible for Store-Operated-Calcium-Entry (SOCE), a pivotal mechanism in Ca signaling. So far there is no cure for TAM and the mechanisms through which or gene mutation lead to muscle dysfunction remain to be clarified. It has been established that post-natal myogenesis critically relies on Ca influx through SOCE. To explore how Ca homeostasis dysregulation associated with TAM impacts on muscle differentiation cascade, we here performed a functional characterization of myoblasts and myotubes deriving from patients carrying STIM1 L96V mutation by using fura-2 cytofluorimetry, high content imaging and real-time PCR. We demonstrated a higher resting Ca concentration and an increased SOCE in STIM1 mutant compared with control, together with a compensatory down-regulation of genes involved in Ca handling (. Differentiating STIM1 L96V myoblasts persisted in a mononuclear state and the fewer multinucleated myotubes had distinct morphology and geometry of mitochondrial network compared to controls, indicating a defect in the late differentiation phase. The alteration in myogenic pathway was confirmed by gene expression analysis regarding early () and late () differentiation markers together with mitochondrial markers (. We provided evidences of mechanisms responsible for a defective myogenesis associated to TAM mutant and validated a reliable cellular model usefull for TAM preclinical studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.635063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952532PMC
February 2021

Statin-Induced Myopathy: Translational Studies from Preclinical to Clinical Evidence.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 19;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy and Drug Sciences, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", 70125 Bari, Italy.

Statins are the most prescribed and effective drugs to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Nevertheless, these drugs can be responsible for skeletal muscle toxicity which leads to reduced compliance. The discontinuation of therapy increases the incidence of CVD. Thus, it is essential to assess the risk. In fact, many studies have been performed at preclinical and clinical level to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical implications of statin myotoxicity. Consequently, new toxicological aspects and new biomarkers have arisen. Indeed, these drugs may affect gene transcription and ion transport and contribute to muscle function impairment. Identifying a marker of toxicity is important to prevent or to cure statin induced myopathy while assuring the right therapy for hypercholesterolemia and counteracting CVD. In this review we focused on the mechanisms of muscle damage discovered in preclinical and clinical studies and highlighted the pathological situations in which statin therapy should be avoided. In this context, preventive or substitutive therapies should also be evaluated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921957PMC
February 2021

Pathophysiological Consequences of KATP Channel Overactivity and Pharmacological Response to Glibenclamide in Skeletal Muscle of a Murine Model of Cantù Syndrome.

Front Pharmacol 2020 30;11:604885. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy-Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Bari, Italy.

Cantù syndrome (CS) arises from mutations in and genes that lead to gain of function (GOF) of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels containing SUR2A and Kir6.1 subunits, respectively, of KATP channels. Pathological consequences of CS have been reported for cardiac and smooth muscle cells but consequences in skeletal muscle are unknown. Children with CS show muscle hypotonia and adult manifest fatigability. We analyzed muscle properties of Kir6.1[V65M] CS mice, by measurements of forelimb strength and ultrasonography of hind-limb muscles, as well as assessing KATP channel properties in native (FDB) and (SOL) fibers by the patch-clamp technique in parallel with histopathological, immunohistochemical and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis. Forelimb strength was lower in Kir6.1 mice than in WT mice. Also, a significant enhancement of echodensity was observed in hind-limb muscles of Kir6.1 mice relative to WT, suggesting the presence of fibrous tissue. There was a higher KATP channel current amplitude in Kir6.1 FDB fibers relative to WT and a reduced response to glibenclamide. The IC of glibenclamide to block KATP channels in FDB fibers was 1.3 ± 0.2 × 10 M in WT and 1.2 ± 0.1 × 10 M in Kir6.1 mice, respectively; and it was 1.2 ± 0.4 × 10 M in SOL WT fibers but not measurable in Kir6.1 fibers. The sensitivity of the KATP channel to MgATP was not modified in Kir6.1 fibers. Histopathological/immunohistochemical analysis of SOL revealed degeneration plus regressive-necrotic lesions with regeneration, and up-regulation of Atrogin-1, MuRF1, and BNIP3 mRNA/proteins in Kir6.1 mice. Kir6.1 mutation in skeletal muscle leads to changes of the KATP channel response to glibenclamide in FDB and SOL fibers, and it is associated with histopathological and gene expression changes in slow-twitch muscle, suggesting marked atrophy and autophagy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.604885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734337PMC
November 2020

Pathomechanisms of a Mutation Found in a Russian Family Suffering From Becker's Myotonia.

Front Neurol 2020 4;11:1019. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.

Myotonia congenita (MC) is a rare muscle disease characterized by sarcolemma over-excitability inducing skeletal muscle stiffness. It can be inherited either as an autosomal dominant (Thomsen's disease) or an autosomal recessive (Becker's disease) trait. Both types are caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene, encoding for ClC-1 chloride channel. We found a ClC-1 mutation, p.G411C, identified in Russian patients who suffered from a severe form of Becker's disease. The purpose of this study was to provide a solid correlation between G411C dysfunction and clinical symptoms in the affected patient. We provide clinical and genetic information of the proband kindred. Functional studies include patch-clamp electrophysiology, biotinylation assay, western blot analysis, and confocal imaging of G411C and wild-type ClC-1 channels expressed in HEK293T cells. The G411C mutation dramatically abolished chloride currents in transfected HEK cells. Biochemical experiments revealed that the majority of G411C mutant channels did not reach the plasma membrane but remained trapped in the cytoplasm. Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 reduced the degradation rate of G411C mutant channels, leading to their expression at the plasma membrane. However, despite an increase in cell surface expression, no significant chloride current was recorded in the G411C-transfected cell treated with MG132, suggesting that this mutation produces non-functional ClC-1 chloride channels. These results suggest that the molecular pathophysiology of G411C is linked to a reduced plasma membrane expression and biophysical dysfunction of mutant channels, likely due to a misfolding defect. Chloride current abolition confirms that the mutation is responsible for the clinical phenotype.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.01019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7500137PMC
September 2020

Changes in Expression and Cellular Localization of Rat Skeletal Muscle ClC-1 Chloride Channel in Relation to Age, Myofiber Phenotype and PKC Modulation.

Front Pharmacol 2020 15;11:714. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Pharmacy-Drug Sciences, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Bari, Italy.

The ClC-1 chloride channel 1 is important for muscle function as it stabilizes resting membrane potential and helps to repolarize the membrane after action potentials. We investigated the contribution of ClC-1 to adaptation of skeletal muscles to needs induced by the different stages of life. We analyzed the ClC-1 gene and protein expression as well as mRNA levels of protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and theta involved in ClC-1 modulation, in soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of rats in all stage of life. The cellular localization of ClC-1 in relation to age was also investigated. Our data show that during muscle development ClC-1 expression differs according to phenotype. In fast-twitch EDL muscles ClC-1 expression increased 10-fold starting at 7 days up to 8 months of life. Conversely, in slow-twitch SOL muscles ClC-1 expression remained constant until 33 days of life and subsequently increased fivefold to reach the adult value. Aging induced a downregulation of gene and protein ClC-1 expression in both muscle types analyzed. The mRNA of PKC-theta revealed the same trend as ClC-1 except in old age, whereas the mRNA of PKC-alpha increased only after 2 months of age. Also, we found that the ClC-1 is localized in both membrane and cytoplasm, in fibers of 12-day-old rats, becoming perfectly localized on the membrane in 2-month-old rats. This study could represent a point of comparison helpful for the identification of accurate pharmacological strategies for all the pathological situations in which ClC-1 protein is altered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243361PMC
May 2020

Functional Study of Novel Bartter's Syndrome Mutations in ClC-Kb and Rescue by the Accessory Subunit Barttin Toward Personalized Medicine.

Front Pharmacol 2020 17;11:327. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Pharmacy-Drug Sciences, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Bari, Italy.

Type III and IV Bartter syndromes (BS) are rare kidney tubulopathies caused by loss-of-function mutations in the and genes coding respectively for the ClC-Kb chloride channels and accessory subunit barttin. ClC-K channels are expressed in the Henle's loop, distal convoluted tubule, and cortical collecting ducts of the kidney and contribute to chloride absorption and urine concentration. In our Italian cohort, we identified two new mutations in , G167V and G289R, in children affected by BS and previously reported genetic variants, A242E, a chimeric gene and the deletion of the whole . All the patients had hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis, increased serum renin and aldosterone levels and were treated with a symptomatic therapy. In order to define the molecular mechanisms responsible for BS, we co-expressed ClC-Kb wild type and channels with point mutations with barttin in HEK 293 cells and characterized chloride currents through the patch-clamp technique. In addition, we attempted to revert the functional defect caused by BS mutations through barttin overexpression. G167V and A242E channels showed a drastic current reduction compared to wild type, likely suggesting compromised expression of mutant channels at the plasma membrane. Conversely, G289R channel was similar to wild type raising the doubt that an additional mutation in another gene or other mechanisms could account for the clinical phenotype. Interestingly, increasing ClC-K/barttin ratio augmented G167V and A242E mutants' chloride current amplitudes towards wild type levels. These results confirm a genotype-phenotype correlation in BS and represent a preliminary proof of concept that molecules functioning as molecular chaperones can restore channel function in expression-defective ClC-Kb mutants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7092721PMC
March 2020

Elucidating the Contribution of Skeletal Muscle Ion Channels to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in search of new therapeutic options.

Sci Rep 2019 02 28;9(1):3185. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Pharmacy-Drug Sciences, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70125, Bari, Italy.

The discovery of pathogenetic mechanisms is essential to identify new therapeutic approaches in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Here we investigated the role of the most important ion channels in skeletal muscle of an ALS animal model (MLC/SOD1) carrying a mutated SOD1 exclusively in this tissue, avoiding motor-neuron involvement. Ion channels are fundamental proteins for muscle function, and also to sustain neuromuscular junction and nerve integrity. By a multivariate statistical analysis, using machine learning algorithms, we identified the discriminant genes in MLC/SOD1 mice. Surprisingly, the expression of ClC-1 chloride channel, present only in skeletal muscle, was reduced. Also, the expression of Protein Kinase-C, known to control ClC-1 activity, was increased, causing its inhibition. The functional characterization confirmed the reduction of ClC-1 activity, leading to hyperexcitability and impaired relaxation. The increased expression of ion channel coupled AMPA-receptor may contribute to sustained depolarization and functional impairment. Also, the decreased expression of irisin, a muscle-secreted peptide protecting brain function, may disturb muscle-nerve connection. Interestingly, the in-vitro application of chelerythrine or acetazolamide, restored ClC-1 activity and sarcolemma hyperexcitability in these mice. These findings show that ion channel function impairment in skeletal muscle may lead to motor-neuron increased vulnerability, and opens the possibility to investigate on new compounds as promising therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39676-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395744PMC
February 2019

A long-term treatment with taurine prevents cardiac dysfunction in mdx mice.

Transl Res 2019 02 28;204:82-99. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy - Drug Sciences, University of Bari "A. Moro", Bari, Italy. Electronic address:

Taurine is an amino acid abundantly present in heart and skeletal muscle. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder in which the absence of dystrophin leads to skeletal muscle wasting and heart failure. An altered taurine metabolism has been described in dystrophic animals and short-term taurine administration exerts promising amelioration of early muscular alterations in the mdx mouse model of DMD. To reinforce the therapeutic and nutraceutical taurine potential in DMD, we evaluated the effects of a long-term treatment on cardiac and skeletal muscle function of mdx mice in a later disease stage. Taurine was administered in drinking water (1 g/kg/day) to wt and mdx mice for 6 months, starting at 6 months of age. Ultrasonography evaluation of heart and hind limb was performed, in parallel with in vivo and ex vivo functional tests and biochemical, histological and gene expression analyses. 12-month-old mdx mice showed a significant worsening of left ventricular function parameters (shortening fraction, ejection fraction, stroke volume), which were significantly counteracted by the taurine treatment. In parallel, histologic signs of damage were reduced by taurine along with the expression of proinflammatory myocardial IL-6. Interestingly, no effects were observed on hind limb volume and percentage of vascularization or on in vivo and ex vivo muscle functional parameters, suggesting a tissue-specific action of taurine in relation to the disease phase. A trend toward increase in taurine was found in heart and quadriceps from treated animals, paralleled by a slight decrease in mdx mice plasma. Our study provides evidences that taurine can prevent late heart dysfunction in mdx mice, further corroborating the interest on this amino acid toward clinical trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2018.09.004DOI Listing
February 2019

Effect of a long-term treatment with metformin in dystrophic mdx mice: A reconsideration of its potential clinical interest in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Biochem Pharmacol 2018 08 21;154:89-103. Epub 2018 Apr 21.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy - Drug Sciences, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Bari, Italy. Electronic address:

The pharmacological stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via metabolic enhancers has been proposed as potential therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Metformin, a widely-prescribed anti-hyperglycemic drug which activates AMPK via mitochondrial respiratory chain, has been recently tested in DMD patients in synergy with nitric oxide (NO)-precursors, with encouraging results. However, preclinical data supporting the use of metformin in DMD are still poor, and its actions on skeletal muscle appear controversial. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a long-term treatment with metformin (200 mg/kg/day in drinking water, for 20 weeks) in the exercised mdx mouse model, characterized by a severe mechanical-metabolic maladaptation. Metformin significantly ameliorated histopathology in mdx gastrocnemius muscle, in parallel reducing TGF-β1 with a recovery score (r.s) of 106%; this was accompanied by a decreased plasma matrix-metalloproteinase-9 (r.s. 43%). In addition, metformin significantly increased mdx diaphragm twitch and tetanic tension ex vivo (r.s. 44% and 36%, respectively), in spite of minor effects on in vivo weakness. However, no clear protective actions on dystrophic muscle metabolism were observed, as shown by the poor metformin effect on AMPK activation measured by western blot, on the expression of mechanical-metabolic response genes analyzed by qPCR, and by the lack of fast-to-slow fiber-type-shift assessed by SDH staining in tibialis anterior muscle. Similar results were obtained in the milder phenotype of sedentary mdx mice. The lack of metabolic effects could be, at least partly, due to metformin inability to increase low mdx muscle levels of l-arginine, l-citrulline and taurine, found by HPLC. Our findings encourage to explore alternative, metabolism-independent mechanisms of action to differently repurpose metformin in DMD, supporting its therapeutic combination with NO-sources.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2018.04.022DOI Listing
August 2018

Ryanodine channel complex stabilizer compound S48168/ARM210 as a disease modifier in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice: proof-of-concept study and independent validation of efficacy.

FASEB J 2018 02 3;32(2):1025-1043. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Pharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacy-Drug Sciences, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Muscle fibers lacking dystrophin undergo a long-term alteration of Ca homeostasis, partially caused by a leaky Ca release ryanodine (RyR) channel. S48168/ARM210, an RyR calcium release channel stabilizer (a Rycal compound), is expected to enhance the rebinding of calstabin to the RyR channel complex and possibly alleviate the pathologic Ca leakage in dystrophin-deficient skeletal and cardiac muscle. This study systematically investigated the effect of S48168/ARM210 on the phenotype of mdx mice by means of a first proof-of-concept, short (4 wk), phase 1 treatment, followed by a 12-wk treatment (phase 2) performed in parallel by 2 independent laboratories. The mdx mice were treated with S48168/ARM210 at two different concentrations (50 or 10 mg/kg/d) in their drinking water for 4 and 12 wk, respectively. The mice were subjected to treadmill sessions twice per week (12 m/min for 30 min) to unmask the mild disease. This testing was followed by in vivo forelimb and hindlimb grip strength and fatigability measurement, ex vivo extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and diaphragm (DIA) force contraction measurement and histologic and biochemical analysis. The treatments resulted in functional (grip strength, ex vivo force production in DIA and EDL muscles) as well as histologic improvement after 4 and 12 wk, with no adverse effects. Furthermore, levels of cellular biomarkers of calcium homeostasis increased. Therefore, these data suggest that S48168/ARM210 may be a safe therapeutic option, at the dose levels tested, for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).-Capogrosso, R. F., Mantuano, P., Uaesoontrachoon, K., Cozzoli, A., Giustino, A., Dow, T., Srinivassane, S., Filipovic, M., Bell, C., Vandermeulen, J., Massari, A. M., De Bellis, M., Conte, E., Pierno, S., Camerino, G. M., Liantonio, A., Nagaraju, K., De Luca, A. Ryanodine channel complex stabilizer compound S48168/ARM210 as a disease modifier in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice: proof-of-concept study and independent validation of efficacy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201700182RRRDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5888399PMC
February 2018

Growth hormone secretagogues hexarelin and JMV2894 protect skeletal muscle from mitochondrial damages in a rat model of cisplatin-induced cachexia.

Sci Rep 2017 10 12;7(1):13017. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Department of Biosciences, Biotechnologies and Biopharmaceutics, University of Bari "A. Moro", Bari, Italy.

Chemotherapy can cause cachexia, which consists of weight loss associated with muscle atrophy. The exact mechanisms underlying this skeletal muscle toxicity are largely unknown and co-therapies to attenuate chemotherapy-induced side effects are lacking. By using a rat model of cisplatin-induced cachexia, we here characterized the mitochondrial homeostasis in tibialis anterior cachectic muscle and evaluated the potential beneficial effects of the growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) hexarelin and JMV2894 in this setting. We found that cisplatin treatment caused a decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, NRF-1, TFAM, mtDNA, ND1), mitochondrial mass (Porin and Citrate synthase activity) and fusion index (MFN2, Drp1), together with changes in the expression of autophagy-related genes (AKT/FoxO pathway, Atg1, Beclin1, LC3AII, p62) and enhanced ROS production (PRX III, MnSOD). Importantly, JMV2894 and hexarelin are capable to antagonize this chemotherapy-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, our findings reveal a key-role played by mitochondria in the mechanism responsible for GHS beneficial effects in skeletal muscle, strongly indicating that targeting mitochondrial dysfunction might be a promising area of research in developing therapeutic strategies to prevent or limit muscle wasting in cachexia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13504-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5638899PMC
October 2017

Growth hormone secretagogues prevent dysregulation of skeletal muscle calcium homeostasis in a rat model of cisplatin-induced cachexia.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2017 Jun 10;8(3):386-404. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

Department of Pharmacy - Drug Sciences, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari, Italy.

Background: Cachexia is a wasting condition associated with cancer types and, at the same time, is a serious and dose-limiting side effect of cancer chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle loss is one of the main characteristics of cachexia that significantly contributes to the functional muscle impairment. Calcium-dependent signaling pathways are believed to play an important role in skeletal muscle decline observed in cachexia, but whether intracellular calcium homeostasis is affected in this situation remains uncertain. Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS), a family of synthetic agonists of ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a), are being developed as a therapeutic option for cancer cachexia syndrome; however, the exact mechanism by which GHS interfere with skeletal muscle is not fully understood.

Methods: By a multidisciplinary approach ranging from cytofluorometry and electrophysiology to gene expression and histology, we characterized the calcium homeostasis in fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of adult rats with cisplatin-induced cachexia and established the potential beneficial effects of two GHS (hexarelin and JMV2894) at this level. Additionally, in vivo measures of grip strength and of ultrasonography recordings allowed us to evaluate the functional impact of GHS therapeutic intervention.

Results: Cisplatin-treated EDL muscle fibres were characterized by a ~18% significant reduction of the muscle weight and fibre diameter together with an up-regulation of atrogin1/Murf-1 genes and a down-regulation of Pgc1-a gene, all indexes of muscle atrophy, and by a two-fold increase in resting intracellular calcium, [Ca ] , compared with control rats. Moreover, the amplitude of the calcium transient induced by caffeine or depolarizing high potassium solution as well as the store-operated calcium entry were ~50% significantly reduced in cisplatin-treated rats. Calcium homeostasis dysregulation parallels with changes of functional ex vivo (excitability and resting macroscopic conductance) and in vivo (forelimb force and muscle volume) outcomes in cachectic animals. Administration of hexarelin or JMV2894 markedly reduced the cisplatin-induced alteration of calcium homeostasis by both common as well as drug-specific mechanisms of action. This effect correlated with muscle function preservation as well as amelioration of various atrophic indexes, thus supporting the functional impact of GHS activity on calcium homeostasis.

Conclusions: Our findings provide a direct evidence that a dysregulation of calcium homeostasis plays a key role in cisplatin-induced model of cachexia gaining insight into the etiopathogenesis of this form of muscle wasting. Furthermore, our demonstration that GHS administration efficaciously prevents cisplatin-induced calcium homeostasis alteration contributes to elucidate the mechanism of action through which GHS could potentially ameliorate chemotherapy-associated cachexia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5703021PMC
June 2017

Contractile efficiency of dystrophic mdx mouse muscle: in vivo and ex vivo assessment of adaptation to exercise of functional end points.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2017 Apr 5;122(4):828-843. Epub 2017 Jan 5.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy and Drug Sciences, University of Bari "Aldo Moro," Bari, Italy;

Progressive weakness is a typical feature of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and is exacerbated in the benign mdx mouse model by in vivo treadmill exercise. We hypothesized a different threshold for functional adaptation of mdx muscles in response to the duration of the exercise protocol. In vivo weakness was confirmed by grip strength after 4, 8, and 12 wk of exercise in mdx mice. Torque measurements revealed that exercise-related weakness in mdx mice correlated with the duration of the protocol, while wild-type (WT) mice were stronger. Twitch and tetanic forces of isolated diaphragm and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were lower in mdx compared with WT mice. In mdx, both muscle types exhibited greater weakness after a single exercise bout, but only in EDL after a long exercise protocol. As opposite to WT muscles, mdx EDL ones did not show any exercise-induced adaptations against eccentric contraction force drop. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the maladaptation of genes involved in metabolic and structural remodeling, while damage-related genes remained significantly upregulated and angiogenesis impaired. Phosphorylated AMP kinase level increased only in exercised WT muscle. The severe histopathology and the high levels of muscular TGF-β1 and of plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 confirmed the persistence of muscle damage in mdx mice. Therefore, dystrophic muscles showed a partial degree of functional adaptation to chronic exercise, although not sufficient to overcome weakness nor signs of damage. The improved understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying maladaptation of dystrophic muscle paves the way to a better managment of DMD patients. We focused on the adaptation/maladaptation of dystrophic mdx mouse muscles to a standard protocol of exercise to provide guidance in the development of more effective drug and physical therapies in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The mdx muscles showed a modest functional adaptation to chronic exercise, but it was not sufficient to overcome the progressive in vivo weakness, nor to counter signs of muscle damage. Therefore, a complex involvement of multiple systems underlies the maladaptive response of dystrophic muscle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00776.2015DOI Listing
April 2017

Statin-induced myotoxicity is exacerbated by aging: A biophysical and molecular biology study in rats treated with atorvastatin.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2016 09 1;306:36-46. Epub 2016 Jul 1.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy & Drug Sciences, University of Bari - Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy. Electronic address:

Statin-induced skeletal muscle damage in rats is associated to the reduction of the resting sarcolemmal chloride conductance (gCl) and ClC-1 chloride channel expression. These drugs also affect the ClC-1 regulation by increasing protein kinase C (PKC) activity, which phosphorylate and close the channel. Also the intracellular resting calcium (restCa) level is increased. Similar alterations are observed in skeletal muscles of aged rats, suggesting a higher risk of statin myotoxicity. To verify this hypothesis, we performed a 4-5-weeks atorvastatin treatment of 24-months-old rats to evaluate the ClC-1 channel function by the two-intracellular microelectrodes technique as well as transcript and protein expression of different genes sensitive to statins by quantitative real-time-PCR and western blot analysis. The restCa was measured using FURA-2 imaging, and histological analysis of muscle sections was performed. The results show a marked reduction of resting gCl, in agreement with the reduced ClC-1 mRNA and protein expression in atorvastatin-treated aged rats, with respect to treated adult animals. The observed changes in myocyte-enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) expression may be involved in ClC-1 expression changes. The activity of PKC was also increased and further modulate the gCl in treated aged rats. In parallel, a marked reduction of the expression of glycolytic and mitochondrial enzymes demonstrates an impairment of muscle metabolism. No worsening of restCa or histological features was found in statin-treated aged animals. These findings suggest that a strong reduction of gCl and alteration of muscle metabolism coupled to muscle atrophy may contribute to the increased risk of statin-induced myopathy in the elderly.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2016.06.032DOI Listing
September 2016

Multidisciplinary study of a new ClC-1 mutation causing myotonia congenita: a paradigm to understand and treat ion channelopathies.

FASEB J 2016 10 20;30(10):3285-3295. Epub 2016 Jun 20.

Department of Pharmacy, Drug Sciences, University of Bari "Aldo Moro," Bari, Italy.

Myotonia congenita is an inherited disease that is characterized by impaired muscle relaxation after contraction caused by loss-of-function mutations in the skeletal muscle ClC-1 channel. We report a novel ClC-1 mutation, T335N, that is associated with a mild phenotype in 1 patient, located in the extracellular I-J loop. The purpose of this study was to provide a solid correlation between T335N dysfunction and clinical symptoms in the affected patient as well as to offer hints for drug development. Our multidisciplinary approach includes patch-clamp electrophysiology on T335N and ClC-1 wild-type channels expressed in tsA201 cells, Western blot and quantitative PCR analyses on muscle biopsies from patient and unaffected individuals, and molecular dynamics simulations using a homology model of the ClC-1 dimer. T335N channels display reduced chloride currents as a result of gating alterations rather than altered surface expression. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the I-J loop might be involved in conformational changes that occur at the dimer interface, thus affecting gating. Finally, the gene expression profile of T335N carrier showed a diverse expression of K channel genes, compared with control individuals, as potentially contributing to the phenotype. This experimental paradigm satisfactorily explained myotonia in the patient. Furthermore, it could be relevant to the study and therapy of any channelopathy.-Imbrici, P., Altamura, C., Camerino, G. M., Mangiatordi, G. F., Conte, E., Maggi, L., Brugnoni, R., Musaraj, K., Caloiero, R., Alberga, D., Marsano, R. M., Ricci, G., Siciliano, G., Nicolotti, O., Mora, M., Bernasconi, P., Desaphy, J.-F., Mantegazza, R., Camerino, D. C. Multidisciplinary study of a new ClC-1 mutation causing myotonia congenita: a paradigm to understand and treat ion channelopathies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201500079RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5024700PMC
October 2016

Kidney CLC-K chloride channels inhibitors: structure-based studies and efficacy in hypertension and associated CLC-K polymorphisms.

J Hypertens 2016 May;34(5):981-92

aDipartimento di Farmacia - Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari, Bari bIstituto di Biofisica, CNR, Genova, Italy *Antonella Liantonio and Paola Imbrici contributed equally to the writing of this article.

Objective: Alterations in the handling of renal salt reabsorption may contribute to interindividual differences in blood pressure regulation and susceptibility to hypertension. CLC-K chloride channels and their accessory subunit barttin play a pivotal role in kidney by controlling chloride and water absorption. Compounds selective for CLC-Ks, such as the benzofuran derivative MT-189, may have a significant therapeutic potential. Here, we assessed the feasibility of using CLC-K blockers in hypertension and aimed at enhancing drug inhibitory affinity.

Methods And Results: We demonstrated that acute in-vivo administration of MT-189 to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) caused a reduction of blood pressure and defined the CLC-K/barttin gene expression pattern in kidney of SHR in comparison with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Based on MT-189, we designed and tested a new series of benzofuran derivatives on CLC-K chloride channels heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. These studies enabled us to elucidate the causative molecular relationship for obtaining the most potent and selective inhibitor (SRA-36) described so far, with an IC50 of 6.6 ± 1 μmol/l. The biophysical and pharmacological characterization of A447T CLC-Ka and Y315F CLC-Ka, both polymorphisms associated with hypertension, showed that SRA-36 is an efficacious inhibitor of the chloride currents sustained by these polymorphisms. Molecular docking studies allowed hypothesizing an inhibition mechanism for the considered ligands, laying the foundations for the rational design of new and more effective CLC-K inhibitors.

Conclusion: The SRA-36 molecule represents a new potential therapeutic option for hypertension.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000000876DOI Listing
May 2016

Assessment of resveratrol, apocynin and taurine on mechanical-metabolic uncoupling and oxidative stress in a mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy: A comparison with the gold standard, α-methyl prednisolone.

Pharmacol Res 2016 Apr 27;106:101-113. Epub 2016 Feb 27.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy & Drug Sciences, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Bari, Italy. Electronic address:

Antioxidants have a great potential as adjuvant therapeutics in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, although systematic comparisons at pre-clinical level are limited. The present study is a head-to-head assessment, in the exercised mdx mouse model of DMD, of natural compounds, resveratrol and apocynin, and of the amino acid taurine, in comparison with the gold standard α-methyl prednisolone (PDN). The rationale was to target the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via disease-related pathways that are worsened by mechanical-metabolic impairment such as inflammation and over-activity of NADPH oxidase (NOX) (taurine and apocynin, respectively) or the failing ROS detoxification mechanisms via sirtuin-1 (SIRT1)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) (resveratrol). Resveratrol (100mg/kg i.p. 5days/week), apocynin (38mg/kg/day per os), taurine (1g/kg/day per os), and PDN (1mg/kg i.p., 5days/week) were administered for 4-5 weeks to mdx mice in parallel with a standard protocol of treadmill exercise and the outcome was evaluated with a multidisciplinary approach in vivo and ex vivo on pathology-related end-points and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Resveratrol≥taurine>apocynin enhanced in vivo mouse force similarly to PDN. All the compounds reduced the production of superoxide anion, assessed by dihydroethidium staining, with apocynin being as effective as PDN, and ameliorated electrophysiological biomarkers of oxidative stress. Resveratrol also significantly reduced plasma levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. Force of isolated muscles was little ameliorated. However, the three compounds improved histopathology of gastrocnemius muscle more than PDN. Taurine>apocynin>PDN significantly decreased activated NF-kB positive myofibers. Thus, compounds targeting NOX-ROS or SIRT1/PGC-1α pathways differently modulate clinically relevant DMD-related endpoints according to their mechanism of action. With the caution needed in translational research, the results show that the parallel assessment can help the identification of best adjuvant therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2016.02.016DOI Listing
April 2016

In vivo longitudinal study of rodent skeletal muscle atrophy using ultrasonography.

Sci Rep 2016 Feb 1;6:20061. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Department of Biomedical Sciences &Human Oncology, Polyclinic Biological Research Institute, University of Bari Aldo Moro, P.zza Giulio Cesare 11, Bari, 70124 Italy.

Muscle atrophy is a widespread ill condition occurring in many diseases, which can reduce quality of life and increase morbidity and mortality. We developed a new method using non-invasive ultrasonography to measure soleus and gastrocnemius lateralis muscle atrophy in the hindlimb-unloaded rat, a well-accepted model of muscle disuse. Soleus and gastrocnemius volumes were calculated using the conventional truncated-cone method and a newly-designed sinusoidal method. For Soleus muscle, the ultrasonographic volume determined in vivo with either method was linearly correlated to the volume determined ex-vivo from excised muscles as muscle weight-to-density ratio. For both soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, a strong linear correlation was obtained between the ultrasonographic volume and the muscle fiber cross-sectional area determined ex-vivo on muscle cryosections. Thus ultrasonography allowed the longitudinal in vivo evaluation of muscle atrophy progression during hindlimb unloading. This study validates ultrasonography as a powerful method for the evaluation of rodent muscle atrophy in vivo, which would prove useful in disease models and therapeutic trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep20061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4735519PMC
February 2016

Effects of Nandrolone in the Counteraction of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Muscle Disuse: Molecular Biology and Functional Evaluation.

PLoS One 2015 11;10(6):e0129686. Epub 2015 Jun 11.

Section of Pharmacology, Dept. of Pharmacy & Drug Sciences, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Bari, Italy.

Muscle disuse produces severe atrophy and a slow-to-fast phenotype transition in the postural Soleus (Sol) muscle of rodents. Antioxidants, amino-acids and growth factors were ineffective to ameliorate muscle atrophy. Here we evaluate the effects of nandrolone (ND), an anabolic steroid, on mouse skeletal muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb unloading (HU). Mice were pre-treated for 2-weeks before HU and during the 2-weeks of HU. Muscle weight and total protein content were reduced in HU mice and a restoration of these parameters was found in ND-treated HU mice. The analysis of gene expression by real-time PCR demonstrates an increase of MuRF-1 during HU but minor involvement of other catabolic pathways. However, ND did not affect MuRF-1 expression. The evaluation of anabolic pathways showed no change in mTOR and eIF2-kinase mRNA expression, but the protein expression of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 was reduced during HU and restored by ND. Moreover we found an involvement of regenerative pathways, since the increase of MyoD observed after HU suggests the promotion of myogenic stem cell differentiation in response to atrophy. At the same time, Notch-1 expression was down-regulated. Interestingly, the ND treatment prevented changes in MyoD and Notch-1 expression. On the contrary, there was no evidence for an effect of ND on the change of muscle phenotype induced by HU, since no effect of treatment was observed on the resting gCl, restCa and contractile properties in Sol muscle. Accordingly, PGC1α and myosin heavy chain expression, indexes of the phenotype transition, were not restored in ND-treated HU mice. We hypothesize that ND is unable to directly affect the phenotype transition when the specialized motor unit firing pattern of stimulation is lacking. Nevertheless, through stimulation of protein synthesis, ND preserves protein content and muscle weight, which may result advantageous to the affected skeletal muscle for functional recovery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0129686PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4466268PMC
May 2016

The large conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) (BKCa) channel regulates cell proliferation in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by activating the staurosporine-sensitive protein kinases.

Front Physiol 2014 9;5:476. Epub 2014 Dec 9.

Department of Pharmacy-Drug Science, University of Bari "Aldo Moro" Bari, Italy.

Here we investigated on the role of the calcium activated K(+)-channels(BKCa) on the regulation of the neuronal viability. Recordings of the K(+)-channel current were performed using patch-clamp technique in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) in parallel with measurements of the cell viability in the absence or presence of the BKCa channel blockers iberiotoxin(IbTX) and tetraethylammonium (TEA) and the BKCa channel opener NS1619. Protein kinase C/A (PKC, PKA) activities in the cell lysate were investigated in the presence/absence of drugs. The whole-cell K(+)-current showed a slope conductance calculated at negative membrane potentials of 126.3 pS and 1.717 nS(n = 46) following depolarization. The intercept of the I/V curve was -33 mV. IbTX(10(-8) - 4 × 10(-7) M) reduced the K(+)-current at +30 mV with an IC50 of 1.85 × 10(-7) M and an Imax of -46% (slope = 2.198) (n = 21). NS1619(10-100 × 10(-6) M) enhanced the K(+)-current of +141% (n = 6), at -10 mV(Vm). TEA(10(-5)-10(-3) M) reduced the K(+)-current with an IC50 of 3.54 × 10(-5) M and an Imax of -90% (slope = 0.95) (n = 5). A concentration-dependent increase of cell proliferation was observed with TEA showing a maximal proliferative effect(MPE) of +38% (10(-4) M). IbTX showed an MPE of +42% at 10(-8) M concentration, reducing it at higher concentrations. The MPE of the NS1619(100 × 10(-6) M) was +42%. The PKC inhibitor staurosporine (0.2-2 × 10(-6) M) antagonized the proliferative actions of IbTX and TEA. IbTX (10 × 10(-9) M), TEA (100 × 10(-6) M), and the NS1619 significantly enhanced the PKC and PKA activities in the cell lysate with respect to the controls. These results suggest that BKCa channel regulates proliferation of the SH-SY5Y cells through PKC and PKA protein kinases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2014.00476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260485PMC
December 2014

Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2014 Oct 30;307(7):C634-47. Epub 2014 Jul 30.

Unit of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy and Drug Sciences, University of Bari "A. Moro," Bari, Italy; and

Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 μM) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00372.2013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4187056PMC
October 2014

Gene expression in mdx mouse muscle in relation to age and exercise: aberrant mechanical-metabolic coupling and implications for pre-clinical studies in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Hum Mol Genet 2014 Nov 10;23(21):5720-32. Epub 2014 Jun 10.

Unit of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy and Drug Sciences, University of Bari 'A. Moro', Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy and

Weakness and fatigability are typical features of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and are aggravated in dystrophic mdx mice by chronic treadmill exercise. Mechanical activity modulates gene expression and muscle plasticity. Here, we investigated the outcome of 4 (T4, 8 weeks of age) and 12 (T12, 16 weeks of age) weeks of either exercise or cage-based activity on a large set of genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of mdx and wild-type (WT) mice using quantitative real-time PCR. Basal expression of the exercise-sensitive genes peroxisome-proliferator receptor γ coactivator 1α (Pgc-1α) and Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) was higher in mdx versus WT mice at both ages. Exercise increased Pgc-1α expression in WT mice; Pgc-1α was downregulated by T12 exercise in mdx muscles, along with Sirt1, Pparγ and the autophagy marker Bnip3. Sixteen weeks old mdx mice showed a basal overexpression of the slow Mhc1 isoform and Serca2; T12 exercise fully contrasted this basal adaptation as well as the high expression of follistatin and myogenin. Conversely, T12 exercise was ineffective in WT mice. Damage-related genes such as gp91-phox (NADPH-oxidase2), Tgfβ, Tnfα and c-Src tyrosine kinase were overexpressed in mdx muscles and not affected by exercise. Likewise, the anti-inflammatory adiponectin was lower in T12-exercised mdx muscles. Chronic exercise with minor adaptive effects in WT muscles leads to maladaptation in mdx muscles with a disequilibrium between protective and damaging signals. Increased understanding of the pathways involved in the altered mechanical-metabolic coupling may help guide appropriate physical therapies while better addressing pharmacological interventions in translational research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddu287DOI Listing
November 2014

Protein kinase C theta (PKCθ) modulates the ClC-1 chloride channel activity and skeletal muscle phenotype: a biophysical and gene expression study in mouse models lacking the PKCθ.

Pflugers Arch 2014 Dec 20;466(12):2215-28. Epub 2014 Mar 20.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy & Drug Sciences, University of Bari - Aldo Moro, 70125, Bari, Italy.

In skeletal muscle, the resting chloride conductance (gCl), due to the ClC-1 chloride channel, controls the sarcolemma electrical stability. Indeed, loss-of-function mutations in ClC-1 gene are responsible of myotonia congenita. The ClC-1 channel can be phosphorylated and inactivated by protein kinases C (PKC), but the relative contribution of each PKC isoforms is unknown. Here, we investigated on the role of PKCθ in the regulation of ClC-1 channel expression and activity in fast- and slow-twitch muscles of mouse models lacking PKCθ. Electrophysiological studies showed an increase of gCl in the PKCθ-null mice with respect to wild type. Muscle excitability was reduced accordingly. However, the expression of the ClC-1 channel, evaluated by qRT-PCR, was not modified in PKCθ-null muscles suggesting that PKCθ affects the ClC-1 activity. Pharmacological studies demonstrated that although PKCθ appreciably modulates gCl, other isoforms are still active and concur to this role. The modification of gCl in PKCθ-null muscles has caused adaptation of the expression of phenotype-specific genes, such as calcineurin and myocyte enhancer factor-2, supporting the role of PKCθ also in the settings of muscle phenotype. Importantly, the lack of PKCθ has prevented the aging-related reduction of gCl, suggesting that its modulation may represent a new strategy to contrast the aging process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00424-014-1495-1DOI Listing
December 2014

Effects of pleiotrophin overexpression on mouse skeletal muscles in normal loading and in actual and simulated microgravity.

PLoS One 2013 28;8(8):e72028. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy & Drug Sciences, University of Bari - Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.

Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a widespread cytokine involved in bone formation, neurite outgrowth, and angiogenesis. In skeletal muscle, PTN is upregulated during myogenesis, post-synaptic induction, and regeneration after crushing, but little is known regarding its effects on muscle function. Here, we describe the effects of PTN on the slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles in mice over-expressing PTN under the control of a bone promoter. The mice were maintained in normal loading or disuse condition, induced by hindlimb unloading (HU) for 14 days. Effects of exposition to near-zero gravity during a 3-months spaceflight (SF) into the Mice Drawer System are also reported. In normal loading, PTN overexpression had no effect on muscle fiber cross-sectional area, but shifted soleus muscle toward a slower phenotype, as shown by an increased number of oxidative type 1 fibers, and increased gene expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV and citrate synthase. The cytokine increased soleus and EDL capillary-to-fiber ratio. PTN overexpression did not prevent soleus muscle atrophy, slow-to-fast transition, and capillary regression induced by SF and HU. Nevertheless, PTN exerted various effects on sarcolemma ion channel expression/function and resting cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in soleus and EDL muscles, in normal loading and after HU. In conclusion, the results show very similar effects of HU and SF on mouse soleus muscle, including activation of specific gene programs. The EDL muscle is able to counterbalance this latter, probably by activating compensatory mechanisms. The numerous effects of PTN on muscle gene expression and functional parameters demonstrate the sensitivity of muscle fibers to the cytokine. Although little benefit was found in HU muscle disuse, PTN may emerge useful in various muscle diseases, because it exerts synergetic actions on muscle fibers and vessels, which could enforce oxidative metabolism and ameliorate muscle performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0072028PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3756024PMC
May 2014

Emerging role of calcium-activated potassium channel in the regulation of cell viability following potassium ions challenge in HEK293 cells and pharmacological modulation.

PLoS One 2013 16;8(7):e69551. Epub 2013 Jul 16.

Department of Pharmacy-Drug-Science, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Emerging evidences suggest that Ca(2+)activated-K(+)-(BK) channel is involved in the regulation of cell viability. The changes of the cell viability observed under hyperkalemia (15 mEq/L) or hypokalemia (0.55 mEq/L) conditions were investigated in HEK293 cells expressing the hslo subunit (hslo-HEK293) in the presence or absence of BK channel modulators. The BK channel openers(10(-11)-10(-3)M) were: acetazolamide(ACTZ), Dichlorphenamide(DCP), methazolamide(MTZ), bendroflumethiazide(BFT), ethoxzolamide(ETX), hydrochlorthiazide(HCT), quercetin(QUERC), resveratrol(RESV) and NS1619; and the BK channel blockers(2 x 10(-7)M-5 x 10(-3)M) were: tetraethylammonium(TEA), iberiotoxin(IbTx) and charybdotoxin(ChTX). Experiments on cell viability and channel currents were performed using cell counting kit-8 and patch-clamp techniques, respectively. Hslo whole-cell current was potentiated by BK channel openers with different potency and efficacy in hslo-HEK293. The efficacy ranking of the openers at -60 mV(Vm) was BFT> ACTZ >DCP ≥RESV≥ ETX> NS1619> MTZ≥ QUERC; HCT was not effective. Cell viability after 24 h of incubation under hyperkalemia was enhanced by 82+6% and 33+7% in hslo-HEK293 cells and HEK293 cells, respectively. IbTx, ChTX and TEA enhanced cell viability in hslo-HEK293. BK openers prevented the enhancement of the cell viability induced by hyperkalemia or IbTx in hslo-HEK293 showing an efficacy which was comparable with that observed as BK openers. BK channel modulators failed to affect cell currents and viability under hyperkalemia conditions in the absence of hslo subunit. In contrast, under hypokalemia cell viability was reduced by -22+4% and -23+6% in hslo-HEK293 and HEK293 cells, respectively; the BK channel modulators failed to affect this parameter in these cells. In conclusion, BK channel regulates cell viability under hyperkalemia but not hypokalemia conditions. BFT and ACTZ were the most potent drugs either in activating the BK current and in preventing the cell proliferation induced by hyperkalemia. These findings may have relevance in disorders associated with abnormal K(+) ion homeostasis including periodic paralysis and myotonia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0069551PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3712936PMC
February 2014

An olive oil-derived antioxidant mixture ameliorates the age-related decline of skeletal muscle function.

Age (Dordr) 2014 Feb 30;36(1):73-88. Epub 2013 May 30.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy & Drug Sciences, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Via Orabona 4-campus, 70125, Bari, Italy,

Age-related skeletal muscle decline is characterized by the modification of sarcolemma ion channels important to sustain fiber excitability and to prevent metabolic dysfunction. Also, calcium homeostasis and contractile function are impaired. In the aim to understand whether these modifications are related to oxidative damage and can be reverted by antioxidant treatment, we examined the effects of in vivo treatment with an waste water polyphenolic mixture (LACHI MIX HT) supplied by LACHIFARMA S.r.l. Italy containing hydroxytirosol (HT), gallic acid, and homovanillic acid on the skeletal muscles of 27-month-old rats. After 6-week treatment, we found an improvement of chloride ClC-1 channel conductance, pivotal for membrane electrical stability, and of ATP-dependent potassium channel activity, important in coupling excitability with fiber metabolism. Both of them were analyzed using electrophysiological techniques. The treatment also restored the resting cytosolic calcium concentration, the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release, and the mechanical threshold for contraction, an index of excitation-contraction coupling mechanism. Muscle weight and blood creatine kinase levels were preserved in LACHI MIX HT-treated aged rats. The antioxidant activity of LACHI MIX HT was confirmed by the reduction of malondialdehyde levels in the brain of the LACHI MIX HT-treated aged rats. In comparison, the administration of purified HT was less effective on all the parameters studied. Although muscle function was not completely recovered, the present study provides evidence of the beneficial effects of LACHI MIX HT, a natural compound, to ameliorate skeletal muscle functional decline due to aging-associated oxidative stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-013-9544-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3889891PMC
February 2014

GLPG0492, a novel selective androgen receptor modulator, improves muscle performance in the exercised-mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

Pharmacol Res 2013 Jun 22;72:9-24. Epub 2013 Mar 22.

Sezione di Farmacologia, Dipartimento di Farmacia - Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.

Anabolic drugs may counteract muscle wasting and dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); however, steroids have unwanted side effects. We focused on GLPG0492, a new non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator that is currently under development for musculo-skeletal diseases such as sarcopenia and cachexia. GLPG0492 was tested in the exercised mdx mouse model of DMD in a 4-week trial at a single high dose (30 mg/kg, 6 day/week s.c.), and the results were compared with those from the administration of α-methylprednisolone (PDN; 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and nandrolone (NAND, 5 mg/kg, s.c.). This assessment was followed by a 12-week dose-dependence study (0.3-30 mg/kg s.c.). The outcomes were evaluated in vivo and ex vivo on functional, histological and biochemical parameters. Similar to PDN and NAND, GLPG0492 significantly increased mouse strength. In acute exhaustion tests, a surrogate of the 6-min walking test used in DMD patients, GLPG0492 preserved running performance, whereas vehicle- or comparator-treated animals showed a significant increase in fatigue (30-50%). Ex vivo, all drugs resulted in a modest but significant increase of diaphragm force. In parallel, a decrease in the non-muscle area and markers of fibrosis was observed in GLPG0492- and NAND-treated mice. The drugs exerted minor effects on limb muscles; however, electrophysiological biomarkers were ameliorated in extensor digitorum longus muscle. The longer dose-dependence study confirmed the effect on mdx mouse strength and resistance to fatigue and demonstrated the efficacy of lower drug doses on in vivo and ex vivo functional parameters. These results support the interest of further studies of GLPG0492 as a potential treatment for DMD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2013.03.003DOI Listing
June 2013

Statin or fibrate chronic treatment modifies the proteomic profile of rat skeletal muscle.

Biochem Pharmacol 2011 Apr 15;81(8):1054-64. Epub 2011 Feb 15.

Department of Pharmacobiology, Section of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Via Orabona 4, 70124 Bari, Italy.

Statins and fibrates can cause myopathy. To further understand the causes of the damage we performed a proteome analysis in fast-twitch skeletal muscle of rats chronically treated with different hypolipidemic drugs. The proteomic maps were obtained from extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of rats treated for 2-months with 10mg/kg atorvastatin, 20 mg/kg fluvastatin, 60 mg/kg fenofibrate and control rats. The proteins differentially expressed were identified by mass spectrometry and further analyzed by immunoblot analysis. We found a significant modification in 40 out of 417 total spots analyzed in atorvastatin treated rats, 15 out of 436 total spots in fluvastatin treated rats and 21 out of 439 total spots in fenofibrate treated rats in comparison to controls. All treatments induced a general tendency to a down-regulation of protein expression; in particular, atorvastatin affected the protein pattern more extensively with respect to the other treatments. Energy production systems, both oxidative and glycolytic enzymes and creatine kinase, were down-regulated following atorvastatin administration, whereas fenofibrate determined mostly alterations in glycolytic enzymes and creatine kinase, oxidative enzymes being relatively spared. Additionally, all treatments resulted in some modifications of proteins involved in cellular defenses against oxidative stress, such as heat shock proteins, and of myofibrillar proteins. These results were confirmed by immunoblot analysis. In conclusions, the proteomic analysis showed that either statin or fibrate administration can modify the expression of proteins essential for skeletal muscle function suggesting potential mechanisms for statin myopathy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2011.01.022DOI Listing
April 2011

The KATP channel is a molecular sensor of atrophy in skeletal muscle.

J Physiol 2010 Mar 11;588(Pt 5):773-84. Epub 2010 Jan 11.

Pharmacobiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Bari, Via Orabona No. 4, 70120 Bari, Italy.

The involvement of ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels in the atrophy of slow-twitch (MHC-I) soleus (SOL) and fast-twitch (MHC-IIa) flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles was investigated in vivo in 14-day-hindlimb-unloaded (14-HU) rats, an animal model of disuse, and in vitro in drug-induced muscle atrophy. Patch-clamp and gene expression experiments were performed in combination with measurements of fibre diameters used as an index of atrophy, and with MHC labelling in 14-HU rats and controls. A down-regulation of K(ATP) channel subunits Kir6.2, SUR1 and SUR2B with marked atrophy and incomplete phenotype transition were observed in SOL of 14-HU rats. The observed changes in K(ATP) currents were well correlated with changes in fibre diameters and SUR1 expression, as well as with MHC-IIa expression. Half of the SOL fibres of 14-HU rats had reduced diameter and K(ATP) currents and were labelled by MHC-I antibodies. Non-atrophic fibres were labelled by MHC-IIa (22%) antibodies and had enhanced K(ATP) currents, or were labelled by MHC-I (28%) antibodies but had normal current. FDB was not affected in 14-HU rats and this is related to the high expression/activity of Kir6.2/SUR1 subunits characterizing this muscle phenotype. The long-term incubation of the control muscles in vitro with the K(ATP) channel blocker glibenclamide (10(6)m) reduced the K(ATP) currents with atrophy and these effects were prevented by the K(ATP) channel opener diazoxide (10(4)m). The in vivo down-regulation of SUR1, and possibly of Kir6.2 and SUR2B, or their in vitro pharmacological blockade activates atrophic signalling in skeletal muscle. All these findings suggest a new role for the K(ATP) channel as a molecular sensor of atrophy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2009.185835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2834937PMC
March 2010