Publications by authors named "Giulia Chiabotto"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A First Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Placental Extracellular Vesicles from Women with Multiple Sclerosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 12;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Neuroscience Institute Cavalieri Ottolenghi (NICO), Orbassano, 10043 Turin, Italy.

Pregnancy is a unique situation of physiological immunomodulation, as well as a strong Multiple Sclerosis (MS) disease modulator whose mechanisms are still unclear. Both maternal (decidua) and fetal (trophoblast) placental cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are known to mediate cellular communication and modulate the maternal immune response. Their contribution to the MS disease course during pregnancy, however, is unexplored. Here, we provide a first phenotypic and functional characterization of EVs isolated from cultures of term placenta samples of women with MS, differentiating between decidua and trophoblast. In particular, we analyzed the expression profile of 37 surface proteins and tested the functional role of placental EVs on mono-cultures of CD14 monocytes and co-cultures of CD4 T and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Results indicated that placental EVs are enriched for surface markers typical of stem/progenitor cells, and that conditioning with EVs from samples of women with MS is associated to a moderate decrease in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines by activated monocytes and in the proliferation rate of activated T cells co-cultured with Tregs. Overall, our findings suggest an immunomodulatory potential of placental EVs from women with MS and set the stage for a promising research field aiming at elucidating their role in MS remission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001892PMC
March 2021

Molecular Pathways Modulated by Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Their Extracellular Vesicles in Experimental Models of Liver Fibrosis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 8;8:594794. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

End-stage liver fibrosis is common to all chronic liver diseases. Since liver transplantation has several limitations, including lack of donors, immunological rejection, and high medical costs, therapeutic alternatives are needed. The administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been proven effective in tissue regeneration after damage. However, the risk of uncontrolled side effects, such as cellular rejection and tumorigenesis, should be taken into consideration. A safer alternative to MSC transplantation is represented by the MSC secretome, which retains the same beneficial effect of the cell of origin, without showing any considerable side effect. The paracrine effect of MSCs is mainly carried out by secreted particles in the nanometer range, known as extracellular vesicles (EVs) that play a fundamental role in intercellular communication. In this review, we discuss the current literature on MSCs and MSC-EVs, focusing on their potential therapeutic action in liver fibrosis and on their molecular content (proteins and RNA), which contributes in reverting fibrosis and prompting tissue regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.594794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794013PMC
December 2020

Extracellular Vesicles: A Therapeutic Option for Liver Fibrosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 15;21(12). Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Medical Sciences and Molecular Biotechnology Center, University of Torino, 10126 Torino, Italy.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous population of small membrane vesicles released by all types of cells in both physiological and pathological conditions. EVs shuttle different types of molecules and are able to modify the behavior of target cells by various mechanisms of action. In this review, we have summarized the papers present in the literature, to our acknowledge, that reported the EV effects on liver diseases. EVs purified from serum, stem cells, and hepatocytes were investigated in different experimental in vivo models of liver injury and in particular of liver fibrosis. Despite the different EV origin and the different types of injury (toxic, ischemic, diet induced, and so on), EVs showed an anti-fibrotic effect. In particular, EVs had the capacities to inhibit activation of hepatic stellate cells, one of the major players of liver fibrosis development; to reduce inflammation and apoptosis; to counteract the oxidative stress; and to increase hepatocyte proliferation, contributing to reducing fibrosis and ameliorating liver function and morphology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352992PMC
June 2020

Pazopanib and Trametinib as a Synergistic Strategy against Osteosarcoma: Preclinical Activity and Molecular Insights.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 10;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Division of Medical Oncology, Candiolo Cancer Institute, FPO-IRCCS, Str. Prov. 142 km 3.95, 10060 Candiolo (TO), Italy.

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) inhibitors' activity in advanced osteosarcoma is significant but short-lived. To prevent or at least delay drug resistance, we explored a vertical inhibition by combining drugs acting at different levels of the RTK pathways (pazopanib + trametinib). We studied pazopanib + trametinib antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo (MNNG-HOS and KHOS xenografts in NOD/SCID mice) investigating the molecular mechanisms and potential escapes. The involvement of MAPK-PI3K pathways was validated by Nanostring technology, western blot and by silencing/overexpression experiments. Pazopanib targets were expressed on seven osteosarcoma cell lines and their pathways were activated. Pazopanib + trametinib exhibited synergistic antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting ERK1/2 and Akt. In vivo antitumor activity was shown in osteosarcoma-bearing mice. The drug combination significantly down-modulated RTK Ephrin Type-A Receptor 2 (EphA2) and Interleukin-7 Receptor (IL-7R), whereas induced mitogen-activated protein-kinase kinase (MAPKK) MEK6. EphA2 silencing significantly reduced osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration, while impeding MEK6 up-regulation in the treated cells significantly increased the antitumor effect of the studied drugs. Moreover, the up-regulation of MEK6 reduced combination activity. Pazopanib + trametinib demonstrated synergistic antitumor effects in osteosarcoma models through ERK and Akt inhibition and EphA2 and IL-7R down-modulation. MEK6 up-regulation might evoke escaping mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352822PMC
June 2020

HLSC-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Attenuate Liver Fibrosis and Inflammation in a Murine Model of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis.

Mol Ther 2020 02 28;28(2):479-489. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino, Italy; Molecular Biotechnology Centre, University of Torino, Torino, Italy. Electronic address:

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane vesicles released virtually by all cell types. Several studies have shown that stem cell-derived EVs may mimic both in vitro and in vivo the biological effects of the cells. We recently demonstrated that non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is inhibited by treatment with human liver stem cells (HLSCs). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether EVs released by HLSCs influence the progression of NASH, induced by a diet deprived of methionine and choline, in immunocompromised mice. EV treatment was initiated after 2 weeks of diet with a biweekly administration of three different doses. Bio-distribution evaluated by optical imaging showed a preferential accumulation in normal and, in particular, in fibrotic liver. EV treatment significantly improved liver function and reduced signs of liver fibrosis and inflammation at both morphological and molecular levels. In particular, we observed that, out of 29 fibrosis-associated genes upregulated in NASH liver, 28 were significantly downregulated by EV treatment. In conclusion, HLSC-derived EVs display anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects in a model of chronic liver disease, leading to an improvement of liver function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2019.10.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001005PMC
February 2020

ZnO nanocrystals shuttled by extracellular vesicles as effective Trojan nano-horses against cancer cells.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2019 11 21;14(21):2815-2833. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Department of Applied Science & Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin, Italy.

The effective application of nanoparticles in cancer theranostics is jeopardized by their aggregation in biological media, rapid degradation and clearance. The design of biomimetic nanoconstructs with enhanced colloidal stability and non-immunogenicity is therefore essential. We propose naturally stable cell-derived extracellular vesicles to encapsulate zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals as efficacious nanodrugs, to obtain highly biomimetic and stable Trojan nano-horses (TNHs). Coupling efficiency, biostability, cellular cytotoxicity and internalization were tested. studies showed a high internalization of TNHs into cancer cells and efficient cytotoxic activity thanks to ZnO intracellular release. TNHs represent an efficient biomimetic platform for future nanotheranostic applications, with biomimetic extracellular vesicle-lipid envelope, facilitated ZnO cellular uptake and potential therapeutic implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nnm-2019-0231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610546PMC
November 2019

Salivary Extracellular Vesicle-Associated exRNA as Cancer Biomarker.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Jun 26;11(7). Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino 10126, Italy.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted in biological fluids contain several transcripts of the cell of origin, which may modify the functions and phenotype of proximal and distant cells. Cancer-derived EVs may promote a favorable microenvironment for cancer growth and invasion by acting on stroma and endothelial cells and may favor metastasis formation. The transcripts contained in cancer EVs may be exploited as biomarkers. Protein and extracellular RNA (exRNA) profiling in patient bio-fluids, such as blood and urine, was performed to identify molecular features with potential diagnostic and prognostic values. EVs are concentrated in saliva, and salivary EVs are particularly enriched in exRNAs. Several studies were focused on salivary EVs for the detection of biomarkers either of non-oral or oral cancers. The present paper provides an overview of the available studies on the diagnostic potential of exRNA profiling in salivary EVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6679099PMC
June 2019

Role of extracellular vesicles in stem cell biology.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2019 08 15;317(2):C303-C313. Epub 2019 May 15.

Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Turin, Italy.

The extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane vesicles carrying proteins, nucleic acids, and bioactive lipids of the cell of origin. These vesicles released within the extracellular space and entering into the circulation may transfer their cargo to neighboring or distant cells and induce phenotypical and functional changes that may be relevant in several physiopathological conditions. In an attempt to define the biological properties of EVs, several investigations have focused on their cargo and on the effects elicited in recipient cells. EVs have been involved in modulation of tumor microenvironment and behavior, as well as in the immune and inflammatory response. In the present review, we address the paracrine action of EVs released by stem cells and their potential involvement in the activation of regenerative programs in injured cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00129.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6732418PMC
August 2019

TFEB controls vascular development by regulating the proliferation of endothelial cells.

EMBO J 2019 02 27;38(3). Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Oncology, University of Turin, Candiolo, Italy

Transcription factor TFEB is thought to control cellular functions-including in the vascular bed-primarily via regulation of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagic flux. Here, we report that TFEB also orchestrates a non-canonical program that controls the cell cycle/VEGFR2 pathway in the developing vasculature. In endothelial cells, TFEB depletion halts proliferation at the G1-S transition by inhibiting the CDK4/Rb pathway. TFEB-deficient cells attempt to compensate for this limitation by increasing VEGFR2 levels at the plasma membrane via microRNA-mediated mechanisms and controlled membrane trafficking. TFEB stimulates expression of the miR-15a/16-1 cluster, which limits VEGFR2 transcript stability and negatively modulates expression of MYO1C, a regulator of VEGFR2 trafficking to the cell surface. Altered levels of miR-15a/16-1 and MYO1C in TFEB-depleted cells cause increased expression of plasma membrane VEGFR2, but in a manner associated with low signaling strength. An endothelium-specific Tfeb-knockout mouse model displays defects in fetal and newborn mouse vasculature caused by reduced endothelial proliferation and by anomalous function of the VEGFR2 pathway. These previously unrecognized functions of TFEB expand its role beyond regulation of the autophagic pathway in the vascular system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.201798250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356157PMC
February 2019

Trabectedin and olaparib in patients with advanced and non-resectable bone and soft-tissue sarcomas (TOMAS): an open-label, phase 1b study from the Italian Sarcoma Group.

Lancet Oncol 2018 10 11;19(10):1360-1371. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Medical Oncology-Sarcoma Unit, Istituto di Candiolo-Fondazione del Piemonte per l'Oncologia, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Candiolo, Italy; Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Regione Gonzole, Orbassano, Italy.

Background: Trabectedin is an alkylating drug with a unique mechanism of action causing single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks that activate DNA damage-response pathways. Based on our preclinical data, we hypothesised that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitors might be an ideal partner of trabectedin and aimed to assess the safety, identify the recommended phase 2 dose, and explore preliminary signs of activity of trabectedin and olaparib combination treatment in patients with bone and soft-tissue sarcoma.

Methods: We did an open-label, multicentre, phase 1b study, recruiting patients from the national Italian sarcoma network aged 18 years and older with histologically confirmed bone and soft-tissue sarcoma progressing after standard treatments with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 or less. In a classic 3 + 3 design, patients received a 24 h infusion of trabectedin on day 1 and olaparib orally twice a day in 21-day cycles across six dose levels (trabectedin 0·675-1·3 mg/m every 3 weeks; olaparib 100-300 mg twice a day from day 1 to 21). Intermediate dose levels were permitted to improve safety and tolerability. The primary endpoint was determination of the recommended phase 2 dose (the maximum tolerated dose). Safety and antitumour activity were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of the study drugs. We report the results of the dose-escalation and dose-expansion cohorts. The trial is still active but closed to enrolment, and follow-up for patients who completed treatment is ongoing. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02398058.

Findings: Between Nov 17, 2014, and Jan 30, 2017, of 54 patients assessed for eligibility, we enrolled 50 patients: 28 patients in the dose-escalation cohort and 22 patients in the dose-expansion cohort. Patients received a median of four cycles of treatment (IQR 2-6; range 1-17 [the patients who received the highest number of cycles are still on treatment]) with a median follow-up of 10 months (IQR 5-23). Considering all dose levels, the most common grade 3-4 adverse events were lymphopenia (32 [64%] of 50 patients), neutropenia (31 [62%]), thrombocytopenia (14 [28%]), anaemia (13 [26%]), hypophosphataemia (20 [40%]), and alanine aminotransferase concentration increase (9 [18%]). No treatment-related life-threatening adverse events or deaths occurred. One (2%) patient interrupted treatment without progression without reporting any specific toxicity. Observed dose-limiting toxicities were thrombocytopenia, neutropenia for more than 7 days, and febrile neutropenia. We selected intermediate dose level 4b (trabectedin 1·1 mg/m every 3 weeks plus olaparib 150 mg twice a day) as the recommended phase 2 dose. Seven (14%; 95% CI 6-27) of 50 patients achieved a partial response according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors 1.1.

Interpretation: Trabectedin and olaparib in combination showed manageable toxicities at active dose levels for both drugs. Preliminary data on antitumour activity are encouraging. Two dedicated phase 2 studies are planned to assess activity of this combination in both ovarian cancer (EudraCT2018-000230-35) and soft-tissue sarcomas.

Funding: Italian Association for Cancer Research, Italian Sarcoma Group, Foundation for Research on Musculoskeletal and Rare Tumors, and Italian Ministry of Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30438-8DOI Listing
October 2018

Renal Regenerative Potential of Different Extracellular Vesicle Populations Derived from Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

Tissue Eng Part A 2017 11 13;23(21-22):1262-1273. Epub 2017 Jun 13.

2 Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Biotechnology Center, University of Torino , Torino, Italy .

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) promote the regeneration of kidneys in different animal models of acute kidney injury (AKI) in a manner comparable with the cells of origin. However, due to the heterogeneity observed in the EVs isolated from MSCs, it is unclear which population is responsible for the proregenerative effects. We therefore evaluated the effect of various EV populations separated by differential ultracentrifugation (10K population enriched with microvesicles and 100K population enriched with exosomes) on AKI recovery. Only the exosomal-enriched population induced an improvement of renal function and morphology comparable with that of the total EV population. Interestingly, the 100K EVs exerted a proproliferative effect on murine tubular epithelial cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of the molecular content from the different EV populations revealed a distinct profile. The 100K population, for instance, was enriched in specific mRNAs (CCNB1, CDK8, CDC6) reported to influence cell cycle entry and progression; miRNAs involved in regulating proliferative/antiapoptotic pathways and growth factors (hepatocyte growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1) that could explain the effect of renal tubular cell proliferation. On the other hand, the EV population enriched in microvesicles (10K) was unable to induce renal regeneration and had a molecular profile with lower expression of proproliferative molecules. In conclusion, the different molecular composition of exosome- and microvesicle-enriched populations may explain the regenerative effect of EVs observed in AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEA.2017.0069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5689130PMC
November 2017

PARP1 expression drives the synergistic antitumor activity of trabectedin and PARP1 inhibitors in sarcoma preclinical models.

Mol Cancer 2017 04 28;16(1):86. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

Sarcoma Unit, Medical Oncology, Candiolo Cancer Institute - FPO, IRCCS, Candiolo, Torino, Italy.

Background: Enhancing the antitumor activity of the DNA-damaging drugs is an attractive strategy to improve current treatment options. Trabectedin is an isoquinoline alkylating agent with a peculiar mechanism of action. It binds to minor groove of DNA inducing single- and double-strand-breaks. These kinds of damage lead to the activation of PARP1, a first-line enzyme in DNA-damage response pathways. We hypothesized that PARP1 targeting could perpetuate trabectedin-induced DNA damage in tumor cells leading finally to cell death.

Methods: We investigated trabectedin and PARP1 inhibitor synergism in several tumor histotypes both in vitro and in vivo (subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor xenografts in mice). We searched for key determinants of drug synergism by comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and gene expression profiling (GEP) and validated their functional role.

Results: Trabectedin activated PARP1 enzyme and the combination with PARP1 inhibitors potentiated DNA damage, cell cycle arrest at G2/M checkpoint and apoptosis, if compared to single agents. Olaparib was the most active PARP1 inhibitor to combine with trabectedin and we confirmed the antitumor and antimetastatic activity of trabectedin/olaparib combination in mice models. However, we observed different degree of trabectedin/olaparib synergism among different cell lines. Namely, in DMR leiomyosarcoma models the combination was significantly more active than single agents, while in SJSA-1 osteosarcoma models no further advantage was obtained if compared to trabectedin alone. aCGH and GEP revealed that key components of DNA-repair pathways were involved in trabectedin/olaparib synergism. In particular, PARP1 expression dictated the degree of the synergism. Indeed, trabectedin/olaparib synergism was increased after PARP1 overexpression and reduced after PARP1 silencing.

Conclusions: PARP1 inhibition potentiated trabectedin activity in a PARP1-dependent manner and PARP1 expression in tumor cells might be a useful predictive biomarker that deserves clinical evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12943-017-0652-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5410089PMC
April 2017

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Epithelial Transition Induced by Renal Tubular Cells-Derived Extracellular Vesicles.

PLoS One 2016 13;11(7):e0159163. Epub 2016 Jul 13.

Department of Medical Science, University of Torino, Medical School, Torino, Italy.

Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions play an important role in renal tubular morphogenesis and in maintaining the structure of the kidney. The aim of this study was to investigate whether extracellular vesicles (EVs) produced by human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs) may induce mesenchymal-epithelial transition of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). To test this hypothesis, we characterized the phenotype and the RNA content of EVs and we evaluated the in vitro uptake and activity of EVs on MSCs. MicroRNA (miRNA) analysis suggested the possible implication of the miR-200 family carried by EVs in the epithelial commitment of MSCs. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were incubated with EVs, or RPTEC-derived total conditioned medium, or conditioned medium depleted of EVs. As a positive control, MSCs were co-cultured in a transwell system with RPTECs. Epithelial commitment of MSCs was assessed by real time PCR and by immunofluorescence analysis of cellular expression of specific mesenchymal and epithelial markers. After one week of incubation with EVs and total conditioned medium, we observed mesenchymal-epithelial transition in MSCs. Stimulation with conditioned medium depleted of EVs did not induce any change in mesenchymal and epithelial gene expression. Since EVs were found to contain the miR-200 family, we transfected MSCs using synthetic miR-200 mimics. After one week of transfection, mesenchymal-epithelial transition was induced in MSCs. In conclusion, miR-200 carrying EVs released from RPTECs induce the epithelial commitment of MSCs that may contribute to their regenerative potential. Based on experiments of MSC transfection with miR-200 mimics, we suggested that the miR-200 family may be involved in mesenchymal-epithelial transition of MSCs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0159163PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4943710PMC
August 2017

Isolation and characterization of renal cancer stem cells from patient-derived xenografts.

Oncotarget 2016 Mar;7(13):15507-24

INSERM U 1186, Equipe labellisée Ligue Contre le Cancer, Gustave Roussy Campus, Villejuif, France.

As rapidly developing patient-derived xenografts (PDX) could represent potential sources of cancer stem cells (CSC), we selected and characterized non-cultured PDX cell suspensions from four different renal carcinomas (RCC). Only the cell suspensions from the serial xenografts (PDX-1 and PDX-2) of an undifferentiated RCC (RCC-41) adapted to the selective CSC medium. The cell suspension derived from the original tumor specimen (RCC-41-P-0) did not adapt to the selective medium and strongly expressed CSC-like markers (CD133 and CD105) together with the non-CSC tumor marker E-cadherin. In comparison, PDX-1 and PDX-2 cells exhibited evolution in their phenotype since PDX-1 cells were CD133high/CD105-/Ecadlow and PDX-2 cells were CD133low/CD105-/Ecad-. Both PDX subsets expressed additional stem cell markers (CD146/CD29/OCT4/NANOG/Nestin) but still contained non-CSC tumor cells. Therefore, using different cell sorting strategies, we characterized 3 different putative CSC subsets (RCC-41-PDX-1/CD132+, RCC-41-PDX-2/CD133-/EpCAMlow and RCC-41-PDX-2/CD133+/EpCAMbright). In addition, transcriptomic analysis showed that RCC-41-PDX-2/CD133- over-expressed the pluripotency gene ERBB4, while RCC-41-PDX-2/CD133+ over-expressed several tumor suppressor genes. These three CSC subsets displayed ALDH activity, formed serial spheroids and developed serial tumors in SCID mice, although RCC-41-PDX-1/CD132+ and RCC-41-PDX-2/CD133+ displayed less efficiently the above CSC properties. RCC-41-PDX-1/CD132+ tumors showed vessels of human origin with CSC displaying peri-vascular distribution. By contrast, RCC-41-PDX-2 originated tumors exhibiting only vessels of mouse origin without CSC peri-vascular distribution.Altogether, our results indicate that PDX murine microenvironment promotes a continuous redesign of CSC phenotype, unmasking CSC subsets potentially present in a single RCC or generating ex novo different CSC-like subsets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.6266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4941257PMC
March 2016

Concise review: different mesenchymal stromal/stem cell populations reside in the adult kidney.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2014 Dec 29;3(12):1451-5. Epub 2014 Oct 29.

Departments of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Science and Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino, Italy

During fetal life, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) surround glomeruli and tubules and contribute to the development of the renal interstitium by secretion of growth factors that drive nephron differentiation. In the adult, an MSC-like population has been demonstrated in different compartments of human and murine nephrons. After injury, these cells might provide support for kidney regeneration by recapitulating the role they have in embryonic life. In this short review, we discuss the evidence of an MSC presence within the adult kidney and their potential contribution to the turnover of renal cells and injury repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5966/sctm.2014-0142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4250217PMC
December 2014