Publications by authors named "Giulia Castorani"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy related inflammation: A little known but not to be underestimated disease.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Sep 3;16(9):2514-2521. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tricase, Italy.

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy related inflammation (CAA-ri) is a rare encephalopathy resulting from perivascular inflammation after β-βamyloid (A) deposition in cerebral vessels leading to progressive dementia, focal neurological signs, seizures and intracerebral hemorrhages. This condition is characterized on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by patchy or confluent T2/fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensities in the cortex and subcortical white matter located mainly in the same areas of pre-existing multiple microhemorrhages. In this report of 2 cases of "probable" CAA-ri women aged 71 and 68, we propose a review on the pathophysiological, clinical, radiological, therapeutic and prognostic aspects of this little-known and poor outcome condition. Even though an apparently favorable initial evolution after steroid and/or immunosuppressive treatment, CAA-ri course is unpredictable and often associated with low survival rates. We suggest the importance of timely and proper clinico-radiological evaluation in suspected CAA-ri cases, in order to start an appropriate treatment even without the brain biopsy.
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September 2021

Diagnosis of COVID-19 in Patients with Negative Nasopharyngeal Swabs: Reliability of Radiological and Clinical Diagnosis and Accuracy Versus Serology.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Feb 25;11(3). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Unit of Internal Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, 71013 San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.

Background: The diagnosis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) relies on the positivity of nasopharyngeal swab. However, a significant percentage of symptomatic patients may test negative. We evaluated the reliability of COVID-19 diagnosis made by radiologists and clinicians and its accuracy versus serology in a sample of patients hospitalized for suspected COVID-19 with multiple negative swabs.

Methods: Admission chest CT-scans and clinical records of swab-negative patients, treated according to the COVID-19 protocol or deceased during hospitalization, were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists and two clinicians, respectively.

Results: Of 254 patients, 169 swab-confirmed cases and one patient without chest CT-scan were excluded. A total of 84 patients were eligible for the reliability study. Of these, 21 patients died during hospitalization; the remaining 63 underwent serological testing and were eligible for the accuracy evaluation. Of the 63, 26 patients showed anti-Sars-Cov-2 antibodies, while 37 did not. The inter-rater agreement was "substantial" (kappa 0.683) between radiologists, "moderate" (kappa 0.454) between clinicians, and only "fair" (kappa 0.341) between radiologists and clinicians. Both radiologic and clinical evaluations showed good accuracy compared to serology.

Conclusions: The radiologic and clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 for swab-negative patients proved to be sufficiently reliable and accurate to allow a diagnosis of COVID-19, which needs to be confirmed by serology and follow-up.
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February 2021

Balò's concentric sclerosis in a case of cocaine-levamisole abuse.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2020 17;8:2050313X20940532. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, IRCCS Ospedale Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.

Baló's concentric sclerosis is a rare variant of multiple sclerosis. It belongs to the group of primary inflammatory central nervous system demyelinating diseases having no clear etiology. Peculiar radiological findings on magnetic resonance imaging are alternating rings of demyelinated and myelinated axons resembling an "onion bulb." We report on a case of a patient with cocaine abuse who presented with Balò's-like acute multifocal leukoencephalopathy supported by histological and radiological findings. The abuse of cocaine and its most frequent adulterant, levamisole, may induce ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke and metabolic or multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy. Only a few studies described levamisole-induced leukoencephalopathy mimicking Balò round lesions. Nevertheless, it has not yet been established the correlation between them; it might also be possible that the cocaine/levamisole addiction represents just a coincidence in some of those patients affected by Balò sclerosis disease.
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July 2020

Assessment of lumbar disc herniaton using fractional anisotropy in diffusion tensor imaging along with conventional T2-weighted imaging.

Neuroradiol J 2020 Feb 27;33(1):24-31. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Radiology Department, IRCCS Ospedale Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, Italy.

Objective: To assess the usefulness of diffusion tensor imaging and its fractional anisotropy map along with conventional T2-weighted imaging in evaluating the anisotropic water diffusion variations of annulus fibres involved in herniation disc pathology.

Materials And Methods: Seventy-five patients with previous medical ethics committee approval and informed consent experiencing low back pain were selected for this prospective randomised blinded trial. Lumbar disc fractional anisotropy maps were obtained acquiring diffusion tensor sequences on a 3T machine. The matrix of nucleus pulposus and structures of annulus fibres were analysed using fractional anisotropy textural features to highlight any presence of lumbar disc herniation. Observer variability and reliability between two neuroradiologists were evaluated. The χ test, two-tailed test and linear regression analysis were used to focus differences in patients' demographic data and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

Results: Annular fissures with extrusions were identified using diffusion tensor imaging in 10 out of 17 discs (study group) previously assessed as bulging discs using conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Eighteen extrusions out of 39 (study group) disc levels were identified on diffusion tensor imaging compared to eight extrusions highlighted on T2-weighted imaging ( < 0.01). All eight (study group) disc extrusions evaluated on T2-weighted imaging showed annular fissures on diffusion tensor imaging. Seven out of 14 (study group) protrusions highlighted on T2-weighted imaging had no annular fissures on diffusion tensor imaging; thirty-six disc levels in the control group had no evidence of annular fissures on diffusion tensor imaging ( > 0.01).

Conclusions: The addition of diffusion tensor imaging sequences and fractional anisotropy mapping to a conventional magnetic resonance imaging protocol could be useful in detecting annular fissures and lumbar disc herniation.
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February 2020