Publications by authors named "Gity Sotoudeh"

83 Publications

Interaction between the dietary indices and PPAR-γ Pro12Ala gene variants on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Apr 30:e14307. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Cellular, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of edical Sciences (TUMS), Molecular Nutrition, Tehran, Iran.

Aims: We investigated the interaction between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) Pro12Ala polymorphism and Healthy Eating Index (HEI), Dietary Quality Index-International (DQI-I) and Dietary Phytochemical Index (DPI) on Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 393 diabetic patients. PPAR-γ Pro12Ala was genotyped by PCR-RFLP method. Biochemical markers including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), C-reactive protein (CRP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), pentraxin-3 (PTX3), isoprostaneF2α (PGF2α). interleukin 18 (IL18), leptin and ghrelin were measured by standard protocol. Food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ) was used for dietary indices (DQI-I, DPI, HEI) calculation.

Results: Homozygous carriers of the rs1801282 C allele showed higher leptin compared G allele carriers (P=0.015). The rs1801282-DQI-I interactions were significant on waist circumference (WC) (P= 0.019). Thus, C-allele carriers in the higher tertile of DQI-I had higher WC compared to GG homozygous. Further, an interaction was observed between PPAR rs1801282 polymorphism and DQI-I on serum IL-18 level (P = 0.032). Besides, a significant rs1801282-DPI interaction was shown on HDL concentration (P= 0.041), G allele carriers who were in the highest tertile of DPI, had lower HDL. Moreover, there were significant rs1801282-HEI interactions on serum leptin (P = 0.021). Individuals with (CC, CG) genotypes in the higher tertile of HEI, had lower leptin concentration.

Conclusion: Higher dietary indices (DQI-I, DPI, HEI) may affect the relationship between PPAR-γ Pro12Ala polymorphism and WC, ghrelin, leptin, HDL and IL-18 concentration in patients with T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14307DOI Listing
April 2021

Relationship between dietary diversity score and general health in female students.

Minerva Pediatr (Torino) 2021 Feb;73(1):50-58

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Adolescence is a critical period with respect to mental and psychological issues. The role of nutrients is well known in health condition in adolescents, but little emphasis is placed on total diet quality. Dietary diversity score (DDS) is often used to assess diet quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between DDS and general health in girl students.

Methods: The present research is a cross-sectional study which used descriptive-analytical approach. A total of 384 high-school female students selected using proportional stratified sampling. Physical activity level, diet and general health information collected using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Dietary Diversity Questionnaire (FAO-2013) and 28-item self-reported general health questionnaire (GHQ-28), respectively. In addition, weight, height and waist circumference (WC) measured. Data analyzed using Chi-Square test, one-way ANOVA and Multinomial Logistic Regression.

Results: Mean DDS was 4.43±1.09. After adjustment for confounders of age, body mass index, physical activity, socioeconomic status and nutritional supplement intake, students with higher DDS were less prone to general health disorders (P≤0.05).

Conclusions: These finding implicate higher DDS in adolescents may associate with better general health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5276.16.04419-4DOI Listing
February 2021

A personalised diet study: The interaction between ApoA2 -265T > C polymorphism and dietary inflammatory index on oxidative and inflammatory markers and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Mar 24:e14178. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the interaction between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and apolipoproteinA2 265T > C (ApoA2 -265T > C) polymorphism on inflammatory and oxidative markers and lipid profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 157 patients with T2DM were recruited. A food-frequency questionnaire was used for DII calculation. Inflammatory, oxidative and lipid biomarkers were measured. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for ApoA2 genotyping determination.

Results: In the current study, serum 8-iso-PGF2α and CRP were significantly higher, and serum SOD activity was significantly lower in subjects with CC genotype than TT homozygous in both crude and adjusted (for DII and AAs intake) models. Also, C-allele carriers compared with people with TT genotype had lower PTX3 in both models. In addition, serum TG level was significantly higher in TC genotype than TT homozygous in adjusted model. Moreover, subjects with CC homozygous and high DII level had significantly higher 8-iso-PGF2α level compared to those with TT genotype and low DII (reference group) in adjusted (for BMI, age, sexuality and AAs intake) model. Our results also showed that in TC genotypes with low DII and CC homozygous with both low and high DII, PTX3 concentrations were significantly lower than the reference group. In addition, CC carriers with low DII had significantly higher CRP level compared to the reference group. Moreover, our results reported significant higher TG in TC genotype with low DII and also higher total cholesterol level in CC genotype with low DII than the reference group.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that CC genotype might predict higher inflammatory and oxidative status level compared to T allele carriers. An inflammatory diet may accelerate oxidative stress in subjects with CC genotype. However, the association between APOA2 -265T > C polymorphism and inflammation and lipid profile is presented less modifiable by DII.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14178DOI Listing
March 2021

Relationship between dietary carbohydrate quality index and metabolic syndrome among type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects: a case-control study from Ghana.

BMC Public Health 2021 Mar 17;21(1):526. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Hojatdost street, Naderi street, Keshavarz Blv, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Dietary carbohydrate quality may play an important role in disease development. We evaluated the association between carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and the odds of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects in Ghana.

Methods: In this case-control study, we analyzed data using 124 T2DM subjects. We obtained dietary information using 2-day 24-h dietary recalls. We calculated CQI from dietary fiber, glycemic index, whole grains/total grains ratio, and solid carbohydrates/total carbohydrates ratio. Serum lipid profiles were measured after an overnight fast of 8-12 h.

Results: Upon adjustments for the effects of covariates, the CQI showed a positive association with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (beta coefficient (β) = 0.24; standard error (SE) = 0.20; P for trend = 0.01), and an inverse relationship with waist circumference (β = - 17.29; SE = 4.00; P for trend < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (β = - 15.74; SE = 4.69; P for trend < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (β = - 7.23; SE = 2.97; P for trend = 0.02), and triglyceride concentrations (β = - 0.43; SE = 0.11; P for trend < 0.001). Overall, the CQI had an inverse relationship with the odds of MetS (Odds ratio 0.05; 95% Confidence interval: 0.01-0.23; p-trend < 0.001). Also, a positive correlation was found between the CQI and fiber, but the CQI showed a negative relationship with dietary glycemic index.

Conclusions: The present results suggest an inverse association between the CQI of a diet and the odds of MetS. The CQI approach of dietary recommendation may be a useful strategy for dietary carbohydrate selection for the prevention of MetS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10593-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968214PMC
March 2021

Dietary Fat Quality and Pre-diabetes: A Case-control Study.

Int J Prev Med 2020 5;11:160. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The relationship between dietary fat quality (DFQ) indices and pre-diabetes has not been well studied. This study aimed to determine the association of DFQ indices and fatty acid intake with pre-diabetes.

Methods: This case-control study included 150 subjects with normal fasting blood glucose (FBG) and 147 pre-diabetic subjects. Dietary intake was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire. DFQ indices including atherogenicity (AI) and thrombogenicity (TI), the ratios of hypo- and hypercholesterolemic (h:H), polyunsaturated:saturated (P:S) and n-3:n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids were calculated. FBG test and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured.

Results: After adjustment for some confounding variables, a positive association was found between intake of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), myristic acid, palmitic acid, and pre-diabetes, and a negative association was observed among -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids intake and pre-diabetes. AI was found to be positively associated with pre-diabetes (OR 6.68, 95% CI 2.57-17.34). An inverse relationship was observed between -3:-6 (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.93) and h:H (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.07-0.52) ratios with pre-diabetes.

Conclusions: Higher intake of dietary -3 fatty acids was adversely, whereas SFA intake was positively related to pre-diabetes morbidity. DFQ indices may be a useful measure to investigate fat intakes and blood glucose disturbances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_243_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716603PMC
October 2020

Correction to: Association of dietary inflammatory potential with cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2020 Dec 3;12(1):106. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13098-020-00615-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712617PMC
December 2020

Association of dietary inflammatory potential with cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2020 7;12:86. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

Context: The association of dietary inflammatory index (DII®), as an index of inflammatory quality of diet, with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) and risk factors (CMRFs) has been inconsistent in previous studies.

Objective: The current systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association of the DII score with CMDs and CMRFs.

Data Sources: All published observational studies (cohort, case-control and cross-sectional) using PubMed/Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were retrieved from inception through November 2019.

Data Extraction: Two reviewers independently extracted the data from included studies.

Data Analysis: Pooled hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) were calculated by using a random-effects model.

Results: Ten prospective cohort studies (total n = 291,968) with 31,069 CMDs-specific mortality, six prospective cohort studies (total n = 43,340) with 1311 CMDs-specific morbidity, two case-control studies with 2140 cases and 6246 controls and one cross-sectional study (total n = 15,613) with 1734 CMDs-specific morbidity were identified for CMDs. Meta-analyses of published observational studies demonstrated that the highest DII score category versus the lowest DII score category was associated with 29% increased risk of CMDs mortality (HR = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18, 1.41). Moreover, there was a significant association between the DII score and risk of CMDs in cohort studies (HR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.13, 1.61) and non-cohort study (HR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.18, 1.57). We found a significant association between the DII score and metabolic syndrome (MetS) (OR: 1.13; 95% CI 1.03, 1.25), hyperglycemia and hypertension. None-linear dose response meta-analysis showed that there was a significant association between the DII score and risk of CMDs mortality (P < 0.001). Moreover, evidence of none-linear association between the DII score and risk of CMDs was not observed (p-value = 0.1).

Conclusions: Adherence to pro-inflammatory diet was associated with increased risk of CMDs, mortality and MetS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13098-020-00592-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590706PMC
October 2020

Vitamin D deficiency mediates the relationship between dietary patterns and depression: a case-control study.

Ann Gen Psychiatry 2020 3;19:37. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Nutrition, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Vakilabad Blv. Azadi Squre, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Depression is a major contributor to disability-adjusted life years (DALY) lost in the world. Dietary patterns are widely used to investigate diet-disease relations. In the current study, the relationship between dietary patterns and depression was investigated. Besides, the role of serum vitamin D, zinc, magnesium, and total antioxidant capacity as potential mediatory variables was studied.

Methods: It was an individually matched case-control study in which 330 depressed and healthy subjects were recruited for the extraction of dietary patterns; psychiatrists diagnosed major depressive disorder, using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Serum vitamin D and aforementioned biomarkers were measured for a number of randomly selected depressed and healthy individuals. We conducted mediatory analysis by regression models.

Results: Healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns were associated with the lower and higher odds of depression (OR 0.39, CI 0.17-0.92 and OR 2.6, CI 1.04-6.08), respectively. A significant relationship between serum vitamin D with depression after adjusting for potential confounders was observed as well (OR 0.93, CI 0.87-0.99). According to the mediatory analysis the unhealthy dietary patterns were related to depression via altering the serum vitamin D concentration.

Conclusion: This study showed that vitamin D deficiency mediates the relationship between unhealthy dietary patterns and depression. However, to get a clearer result further prospective studies are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12991-020-00288-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271480PMC
June 2020

The effects of green cardamom supplementation on blood pressure and endothelium function in type 2 diabetic patients: A study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 May;99(18):e11005

Department of Community Nutrition.

Introduction: Cardamom possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and blood pressure lowering properties, which might improve endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients. However, no study has examined the effect of cardamom on diabetic patients. The present study aimed to examine the effects of 10-week green cardamom intake on blood pressure, concentrations of inflammatory and endothelial function biomarkers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, and its potential mechanisms.

Methods And Analysis Design: Eighty overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (aged 30-60 years) will be recruited into the trial and will assign to receive either cardamom (3 g/day, 6 capsules) or placebo (rusk powder, 6 capsules) for a period of 10 weeks. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and nitric oxide will be measured. Serum inflammatory markers namely interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-α, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and factors related to endothelial function including intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, CD62 antigen-like family member E, and cluster of differentiation 163 will be measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Sociodemographic, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and three 24-hour dietary recall questionnaires will be collected for each participant.

Ethics And Dissemination: The study has been approved by The Ethics Committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (IR.TUMS.REC.1395.2700). Each participant will sign a written informed consent at the beginning of the study. At the end of the study, results will be published timely manner.

Trial Registration Number: (http://www.irct.ir, identifier: IRCT-2016042717254N5) Date of registration: 2016-11-23.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000011005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7440108PMC
May 2020

Dietary fat quantity and quality in relation to general and abdominal obesity in women: a cross-sectional study from Ghana.

Lipids Health Dis 2020 Apr 11;19(1):67. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Hojatdost street, Naderi street, Keshavarz Blv, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Although relationships between obesity and total fat and fat types have been widely examined, the associations between the relative proportions of fatty acids calculated in the form of indices and obesity/overweight are lacking. The objective of this study was to assess associations between dietary fat quality indices and odds of obesity/overweight in women from Ghana.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, dietary information was obtained using 24-h dietary recall. The odds of obesity were evaluated across quintiles of specific DFQ indices [atherogenicity index (AI), thrombogenic index (TI), hypo- and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids ratio (h/H), omega-3 to omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (∑ω-3/∑ω-6), polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio (PSR), dietary lipophilic index (LI) and percentage of energy from total fat (TF)].

Results: After adjustment for covariates, general obesity and overweight were inversely associated with ∑ω-3/∑ω-6 ratio (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.24-1.63; P for trend (P) = 0.005) and positively with TI (4.14; 95% CI: 1.78-9.66; P = 0.01) and LI (2.49; 95% CI: 1.14-5.43; P = 0.01). The odds of abdominal obesity based on waist circumference (WC) were significantly higher among participants in the fifth quintile (Q) compared with those in the first Q of AI (1.24; 95% CI: 0.56-2.74; P = 0.01), TI (4.14; 95% CI: 1.78-9.66; P = 0.009), LI (2.11; 95% CI: 0.98-4.55; P = 0.02) and TF (1.59; 95% CI: (0.73-3.46; P = 0.003). Similarly, waist to height ratio (WHtR) was positively associated with AI (2.89; 95% CI: 1.32-6.31; P = 0.04), TI (2.65; 95% CI: 1.22-5.76; P = 0.03), LI (3.32; 95% CI: 1.52-7.28; P = 0.007) and TF (1.83; 95% CI: 0.85-3.93; P = 0.009).

Conclusion: There was an inverse association between ∑ω-3/∑ω-6 ratio and general obesity and WC. We also found positive associations between abdominal obesity and AI and TF. Furthermore, TI and LI showed positive relationships with both general and abdominal obesity. Therefore, intake of dietary fatty acids in favor of higher ratios of ∑ω-3/∑ω-6 may be important in obesity prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-020-01227-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7149837PMC
April 2020

Higher dietary fat quality is associated with lower anxiety score in women: a cross-sectional study.

Ann Gen Psychiatry 2020 26;19:14. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

1Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Hojatdost street, Naderi street, Keshavarz Blv., Tehran, Iran.

Background: The relationship between anxiety and dietary fat quality (DFQ) has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety disorder and fatty acids' intake in women.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 300 women aged 18-49 attending healthcare centers. Dietary exposure was measured by a 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). To determine the status of anxiety, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) questionnaire was used. Based on the total score of anxiety, the participants were divided into two groups of without anxiety (< 8) and with anxiety (≥ 8). The relationship between fatty acids intake and odd ratio (OR) for anxiety was analyzed by simple logistic regression.

Results: About 37.7% of individuals reported anxiety. After adjustment for covariates, an increase in the OR for anxiety was observed across the quintuples of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) (OR 3.17; 95% CI 1.43-7.00; -trend = 0.005). In addition, higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) (OR 0.15; 95% CI 0.05-0.44; -trend = 0.001), oleic acid (OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.09-0.67; -trend = 0.002), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.02-0.23; -trend < 0.001), and -3:-6 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.24-1.03; -trend = 0.02) were found to be related with lower OR of anxiety.

Conclusion: Intake of SFAs was positively related to anxiety disorder, whereas MUFAs, oleic acid, ALA, and -3: -6 PUFAs intake were inversely related to anxiety score. For investigating the association of fat intake and anxiety disorder, DFQ may be a useful measure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12991-020-00264-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045483PMC
February 2020

Higher Dietary Inflammatory Index Scores are Associated with Increased Odds of Benign Breast Diseases in a Case-Control Study.

J Inflamm Res 2020 5;13:61-69. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool for assessing the inflammatory potential of diet. Since there is no study that has investigated the association of DII and benign breast diseases (BBD), the aim of our study was to compare DII scores in patients with and without BBD.

Methods: One hundred and eleven (111) subjects with BBD and 104 healthy women attending the Iranian Center for Breast Cancer affiliated with the Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research were enrolled in a case-control study. Dietary data collected using a 168‑item validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Energy-adjusted DII was calculated based on FFQ. Socio demographic data were collected by interview. In addition, physical activity was measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Weight, height and waist circumference were also measured.

Results: After adjustment for multiple confounding variables, participants at the highest tertile of DII had increased OR for BBD (OR=1.7, 95% CI=0.75-3.95) (P-trend =0.04).

Conclusion: The increased chance of BBD was suggested with a higher consumption of diets with inflammatory potential. However, this result should be interpreted with caution as OR was not statistically significant. Interventional studies are warranted to elucidate the role of inflammatory diets in the development of BBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S232157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008174PMC
February 2020

Dietary inflammatory index and dietary energy density are associated with menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

Menopause 2020 05;27(5):568-578

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: No previous study has evaluated the association of the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and dietary energy density (DED) with menopausal symptoms and its subclasses in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of DII score and DED with menopausal symptoms and its subtypes in Iranian postmenopausal women.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 393 postmenopausal women who attended health centers in the south of Tehran, Iran. The DII score was calculated using dietary factors obtained by a validated food frequency questionnaire. DED was defined as average daily energy intake (kcal) per gram of food. The Menopause Rating Scale questionnaire was used to evaluate the menopausal symptoms. The total Menopause Rating Scale score (TMRSS) was the sum of the somatic score (SS), psychological score (PS), and urogenital score. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of the DII score and DED with menopausal symptoms.

Results: After adjusting for covariates, participants in the highest tertile of DII score had greater SS compared to those in the lowest tertile (βDIIt3vs1= 0.032, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.004-0.068, P = 0.04). No significant relationship was found between DII score and PS, urogenital score or TMRSS. Furthermore, higher DED was associated with greater SS (βDIIt3vs1 = 0.071, 95% CI: 0.028-0.115, P = 0.001), PS (βDIIt3vs1 = 0.065, 95% CI: 0.012-0.121, P = 0.01) and TMRSS (βDIIt3vs1 = 0.053, 95% CI: 0.017-0.088, P = 0.004).

Conclusion: A proinflammatory diet was associated with higher menopause-specific somatic symptoms and higher DED was positively associated with menopausal symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001502DOI Listing
May 2020

Higher intakes of fruits and vegetables are related to fewer menopausal symptoms: a cross-sectional study.

Menopause 2020 05;27(5):593-604

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the associations between fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, and its subgroups and menopausal symptoms along with its subtypes in postmenopausal women.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 393 postmenopausal women in municipality health centers in the south of Tehran, Iran. Sociodemographic data, dietary intakes, and anthropometric measures were obtained from individuals. Menopause rating scale (MRS) questionnaire was employed to measure menopausal symptoms. The total MRS score (TMRSS) was the sum of the somatic score (SS), psychological score (PS), and urogenital score (US). Participants were divided into low and high total MRS and its domain scores.

Results: After adjustment for confounding variables, an inverse relationship was found between total FV with TMRSS (odds ratio [OR] 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.06-0.81) and SS (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.82). In addition, the consumption of total fruits was significantly related to lower SS (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.10-0.71). Only intake of citrus fruits was inversely associated with TMRSS (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.71) and SS (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.70). Likewise, intakes of total FV (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.37-4.41), total vegetables (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.10-5.88), green leafy vegetables (OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.47-8.75), dark yellow vegetables (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.00-5.18), other vegetables (OR 5.23, 95% CI 1.17-15.39), and citrus fruits were linked to higher US (OR 4.35, 95% CI 1.77-10.71).

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that some FV subgroups had inverse associations with climacteric symptoms, whereas higher intake of some subgroups of FV appeared to be associated with more urogenital symptoms in postmenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001511DOI Listing
May 2020

The relationship between dietary patterns and depression mediated by serum levels of Folate and vitamin B12.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 02 13;20(1):63. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Nutrition, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: Major depressive disorder is among main worldwide causes of disability. The low medication compliance rates in depressed patients as well as the high recurrence rate of the disease can bring up the nutrition-related factors as a potential preventive or treatment agent for depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary patterns and depression via the intermediary role of the serum folate and vitamin B12, total homocysteine, tryptophan, and tryptophan/competing amino acids ratio.

Methods: This was an individually matched case-control study in which 110 patients with depression and 220 healthy individuals, who completed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire were recruited. We selected the depressed patients from three districts in Tehran through non-probable convenience sampling from which healthy individuals were selected, as well. The samples selection and data collection were performed during October 2012 to June 2013. In addition, to measure the serum biomarkers 43 patients with depression and 43 healthy people were randomly selected from the study population. To diagnose depression the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, were utilized.

Results: The findings suggest that the healthy dietary pattern was significantly associated with a reduced odds of depression (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.61-0.93) whereas the unhealthy dietary pattern increased it (OR: 1.382, CI: 1.116-1.71). The mediation analysis showed that the healthy dietary pattern was associated with a reduced risk of depression via increased serum levels of the folate and vitamin B12; however, the unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with increased risk of depression via decreased serum levels of folate and vitamin B12, based on tree adjusted logistic regression models.

Conclusion: Dietary patterns may be associated with depression by changing the serum levels of folate and vitamin B12. Further studies are required to confirm the mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-2455-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7020545PMC
February 2020

Association between Carbohydrate Quality Index and general and abdominal obesity in women: a cross-sectional study from Ghana.

BMJ Open 2019 12 23;9(12):e033038. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran, Iran (the Islamic Republic of)

Objectives: The relationships between carbohydrate intake and risk of obesity have been widely investigated. However, there are limited data on the associations between their relative proportions and quality contained in the same diet on risk of obesity, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between an overall Carbohydrate Quality Index (CQI) and general and abdominal obesity in women.

Setting And Participants: In this cross-sectional study, data from 277 women in Ghana were analysed. Dietary information was obtained from 2-day 24 hours dietary recalls. CQI was calculated from the four indices dietary fibre, Glycaemic Index, whole grains/total grains ratio and solid carbohydrates/total carbohydrates ratio.

Outcome Measures: Body mass index, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and Conicity Index were measured.

Results: After adjusting for covariates, the chance for general obesity (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.65) and abdominal obesity measured by WC (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.58) were significantly lower in the topmost quintile of CQI in comparison with the lowest quintile. In addition, the OR for higher WHtR (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.69) was significantly lower among participants in the fifth quintile of CQI compared with those in the first quintile.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that there is an inverse association between dietary CQI and both general and abdominal obesity. These findings suggest that CQI may be used for the improvement of dietary intake to prevent obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008417PMC
December 2019

Effects of DHA-enriched fish oil on gene expression levels of p53 and NF-κB and PPAR-γ activity in PBMCs of patients with T2DM: A randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2020 03 5;30(3):441-447. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) ligands. Activated PPAR-γ protects the cardiovascular system against atherosclerotic lesion formation and exerts its anti-inflammatory role by suppressing cytokines induced by nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) in endothelial cells (ECs), and it is hypothesized that apoptosis and cell cycle arrest induced by PPAR-γ ligands may be mediated by the p53-dependent pathway. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched fish oil supplement on PPAR-γ activity and mRNA expression levels of p53 and NF-κB.

Methods And Results: Fifty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) aged 30-70 years were randomly assigned to receive either 2400 mg/d DHA-rich fish oil or placebo for 8 weeks. Metabolic parameters were assessed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. PPAR-γ activity in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was measured using ELISA-based PPAR-γ Transcription Factor Assay Kit, and the gene expression levels of p53 and NF-κB were assessed using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). On the basis of our finding, 8 weeks of treatment with DHA-rich fish oil increased PPAR-γ activity in PBMCs of subjects with T2DM (p < 0.01) compared to that in placebo (p = 0.4). Between-group comparisons of mean PPAR-γ activity changes showed significant differences (p = 0.03), whereas mRNA expression levels of the p53 and NF-κB genes did not show significant differences between studied groups (p = 0.2 and p = 0.5, respectively).

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that short-term DHA-rich fish oil supplementation may modulate PPAR-γ activity in PBMCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2019.10.012DOI Listing
March 2020

Beneficial effects of nano-curcumin supplement on depression and anxiety in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Phytother Res 2020 Apr 1;34(4):896-903. Epub 2019 Dec 1.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Depression in patients with diabetes is associated with poor glycemic control and linked to an increased risk for diabetes complications such as neuropathy. Curcumin has shown potential antidepressant-like activities in some studies. The present study is the first randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of nano-curcumin supplementation on depression, anxiety, and stress in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy. Eighty patients with diabetes were enrolled in this parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The participants were allocated randomly to the intervention (n = 40) and control (n = 40) groups. They received 80 mg of nano-curcumin or placebo capsules daily for 8 weeks. At baseline and end of study, anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, physical activity, glycemic indices, and severity of neuropathy were assessed. The depression, anxiety, and stress level were measured by Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-21-items) questionnaire before and after the intervention. After intervention, there was a significant reduction in the mean score of depression in the nano-curcumin group (from 16.7 [3.1] to 15.3 [2.6]) compared with placebo group (17.5 [3.2] to 17.3 [3.1]; p = .02). In addition, a significant fall was found in the mean score of anxiety in the nano-curcumin group (from 22.4 [4.03] to 20.6 [3.4]) compared with the placebo group (21.9 [3.5] to 21.2 [3.5]; p = .009). Changes in stress score were not statistically significant between the two groups. These findings suggested that nano-curcumin supplementation for 8 weeks was effective in reducing depression and anxiety scores in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6571DOI Listing
April 2020

Dietary Phytochemical Index and Benign Breast Diseases: A Case-Control Study.

Nutr Cancer 2020 2;72(6):1067-1073. Epub 2019 Sep 2.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

: Dietary phytochemical index (DPI) is an inexpensive method for estimating the amounts of phytochemicals in foods. No study has investigated the association of DPI and benign breast diseases (BBD). Our study aimed to compare DPI in patients with BBD and the control group. This is a case-control study of 115 subjects with BBD and 116 healthy women attending the Iranian Center for Breast Cancer affiliated with Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research. Energy-adjusted DPI was calculated based on data collected from 168-item validated food frequency questionnaire. Sociodemographic data, physical activity, and anthropometric measures such as body weight, height, and waist circumference were determined. After adjustment for age, estrogen therapy, family history of breast disease, intake of dietary supplement, menopause status, waist circumference and physical activity, the odds ratio (OR) of BBD across the energy-adjusted DPI quartiles decreased significantly (OR = 0.3, 95%CI = 0.12-0.93) (‑trend = 0.02). We found that higher DPI score is related to lower BBD OR. This simple method may be used for the improvement of dietary intake to prevent BBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2019.1658795DOI Listing
September 2019

The effect of different amounts of vitamin D supplementation on serum calcidiol, anthropometric status, and body composition in overweight or obese nursing women: a study protocol for a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Trials 2019 Aug 30;20(1):542. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Hojatdost street, Naderi street, Keshavarz Blvd, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The optimal vitamin D intake for nursing mothers with overweight or obesity has not been defined. Vitamin D concentrations are associated with body composition indices, particularly body fat mass. Few studies have investigated the relationship between hypovitaminosis D, obesity, anthropometric status, and body composition in nursing women. Thus, the present study aims to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation during lactation will improve vitamin D status, reduce body fat mass, and improve body composition.

Methods/design: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, after term delivery, 90 healthy women with overweight or obesity will be selected and randomly allocated into three groups to receive 2000 IU/d cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), 4000 IU/d cholecalciferol, or placebo (lactose) for 12 weeks while nursing. Measurements of height, weight, waist circumference, and body composition (fat mass (kg), lean mass (kg), body fat (%), fat mass index, and relative fat mass index) will be taken for all subjects at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. In addition, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus will be measured.

Discussion: This study is the first investigating the effect of different amounts of vitamin D supplementation on serum calcidiol, anthropometric status, and body composition in nursing women with overweight or obesity. Our findings will contribute to the growing body of knowledge regarding the role of vitamin D supplementation in obesity, anthropometric status, and body composition in nursing women.

Trial Registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT20140413017254N6 . Registered on 11 April 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3622-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6716881PMC
August 2019

The dietary acid load is higher in subjects with prediabetes who are at greater risk of diabetes: a case-control study.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2019 1;11:52. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

1Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Hojatdost Street, Naderi Street, KeshavarzBlv, Tehran, Iran.

Background: We aimed to examine the association of dietary acid load and prediabetes in a case-control study.

Methods: This study recruited 297 subjects including 147 prediabetic subjects and 150 controls referred to diabetes screening center in Shahreza, Iran. Participants were frequency-matched by sex and age. Blood pressure, anthropometric measures and blood glucose levels were measured. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated 168-items food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The dietary acid load scores including the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) were calculated based on nutrients intake. NEAP and PRAL scores were categorized by quartiles based on the distribution of controls. Logistic regression models were used to estimate multivariable odds ratio (OR) of prediabetes across the energy-adjusted and sex-specific quartiles of NEAP and PRAL scores.

Results: Participants of control group in the higher quartiles of NEAP and PRAL tended to have higher body weight compared to the lower quartiles (P-trend < 0.04). After adjustment for multiple confounding variables, participants in the highest quartiles of NEAP and PRAL had increased OR for prediabetes (OR = 14.48 95% CI 5.64-37.19), and (OR = 25.61 95% CI 9.63-68.08) (P-trend < 0.001), respectively.

Conclusion: Our data indicated subjects with prediabetes had diets with more acid-forming potential than control group. Our findings suggest that higher dietary acid load was associated with increased prediabetes morbidity. Interventional studies are warranted to elucidate the role of acidogenic diets in the development of prediabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13098-019-0447-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6604202PMC
July 2019

PPARγ Pro12Ala Polymorphism Influences the Relationship between Dietary Fat Intake, Adiposity and Lipid Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2018 12 12;88(5-6):263-269. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

4 Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000595DOI Listing
December 2018

Erythrocytes polyunsaturated fatty acids mediate relationship between dietary patterns and depression.

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2020 Oct 17;90(5-6):417-424. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study aimed to examine the association between depression and dietary patterns via the intermediary role of erythrocytes polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In this individually matched case-control study, the dietary patterns were extracted for 330 individuals using factor analysis. Furthermore, erythrocyte PUFAs including n-3 and n-6 were assessed using a GC-Mass spectrometry analytical method for 84 people. Depression was diagnosed using the criteria mentioned in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The dietary patterns were also extracted using a valid and reliable semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The findings showed that healthy dietary patterns were related to the risk of depression (P = 0.01, odds ratio (OR) = 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14-0.68) by the increase of ratio n-3 /n-6 PUFA (p ≤ 0.03) and decrease of ratio n-6 /n-3 PUFA (p ≤ 0.005). Moreover, the unhealthy dietary patterns were associated with the risk of depression (P = 0.02, OR = 2.7, 95%CI: 1.25-5.9) by the decrease of ratio n-3/n-6 PUFA (p ≤ 0.03) and increase of ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA (p ≤ 0.001). Based on the results, the type of dietary pattern is related to the risk of depression considering the changes in n-3 and n-6 PUFA as well as the ratio of n-3 to n-6 as the mediator variables. Of course, further studies are required in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000586DOI Listing
October 2020

Nano curcumin supplementation reduced the severity of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized double-blind placebo- controlled clinical trial.

Complement Ther Med 2019 Apr 28;43:253-260. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Diabetic Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy (DSPN) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. Curcumin is the most important ingredient found in turmeric which has a very high potential for eliminating free radicals and inhibiting oxidative stress as an antioxidant agent. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Nano-curcumin supplementation on the severity of sensorimotor polyneuropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Method: This parallel, double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 80 diabetic patients. Participants were allocated randomly to the intervention (n = 40) and the control group (n = 40). They received 80 mg of nano-curcumin or placebo capsules for 8 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, physical activity, glycemic indices and the severity of DSPN were measured before and after the intervention.

Result: Supplementation of nano curcumin was accounted for a significant reduction in Glycated hemoglobin(HbA1c) (p < 0.001) and Fast Blood Sugar(FBS) (p = 0.004), total score of neuropathy (p < 0.001), total reflex score (p = 0.04) and temperature (p = 0.01) compared to placebo group.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that curcumin supplementation for 2 months improved and reduced the severity of DSPN in patients with T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2019.02.014DOI Listing
April 2019

Dietary total antioxidant capacity is inversely associated with depression, anxiety and some oxidative stress biomarkers in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

Ann Gen Psychiatry 2019 19;18. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

1Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Hojatdost Street, Naderi Street, Keshavarz Blv., Tehran, Iran.

Background: Postmenopausal women are at higher risk of mental disorders. Oxidative stress has implication in the development of these disorders. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (DTAC) has been proposed as a tool for assessing dietary antioxidants intake. The relationship between DTAC with depression, anxiety and stress has not been investigated in postmenopausal women. Thus, we aimed to assess the association between DTAC and depression, stress and anxiety as well as oxidative stress biomarkers.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 175 postmenopausal women. Data on dietary intake and mental health were collected by 147-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-42), respectively. Dietary and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized-LDL, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. ANOVA test was applied to compare the mean of variables across the tertiles of DTAC. The relationship between DTAC and oxidative stress biomarkers was determined through ANCOVA method. Simple and multivariate linear regression tests were performed to measure the relationship between DTAC and mental health.

Results: Serum MDA level was significantly lower in the subjects at the highest tertiles of DTAC (-value < 0.001). In addition, serum TAC level was significantly higher in subjects at the second tertile of DTAC (-value = 0.04). DTAC was inversely and independently related to depression (β = - 0.16, -value = 0.03) and anxiety scores (β = - 0.21, -value = 0.007). There was no significant association between DTAC and stress score (β = - 0.10, -value = 0.1).

Conclusion: An inverse relationship was found between DTAC with depression, anxiety scores and some oxidative stress biomarkers in postmenopausal women. These findings indicate DTAC may be used for developing effective dietary measures for reducing depression and anxiety in these women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12991-019-0225-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423824PMC
March 2019

Green cardamom supplementation improves serum irisin, glucose indices, and lipid profiles in overweight or obese non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2019 Mar 12;19(1):59. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Despite the reported health effects of cardamom on dyslipidemia, hepatomegaly, and fasting hyperglycemia, no human research has studied its potency in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as the hepatic part of metabolic syndrome. Our aim was determining the effects of green cardamom (GC) on serum glucose indices, lipids, and irisin level among overweight or obese NAFLD patients.

Methods: The place of participant recruitment was the polyclinic of the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) central hospital in Tehran. Based on the ultrasonography and eligibility criteria, 87 participants were randomly divided into two groups as cardamom (n = 43) or placebo (n = 44). The supplementation was two 500 mg capsules 3 times/day with meals for 3 months. Serum irisin, fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin (FBI), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were measured. Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were also calculated.

Results: In comparison with placebo, GC significantly increased irisin, HDL-c, and QUICKI and decreased FBI, TG, LDL-c, HOMA-IR, and the grade of fatty liver (P < 0.05). After adjustment for confounders, the changes were similar (P < 0.05) with an exception for LDL-c which had a trend (P = 0.07). The differences in FBS, TC, and body mass index (BMI) were not significant (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: GC supplement improved the grade of fatty liver, serum glucose indices, lipids, and irisin level among overweight or obese NAFLD patients. The changes in these biomarkers may yield beneficial effects on NAFLD. Further trials on the efficacy of GC for clinical practice are suggested.

Trial Registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, IRCT2015121317254N4 . Registered 27/12/2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2465-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419418PMC
March 2019

Beneficial effects of green cardamom on serum SIRT1, glycemic indices and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial.

J Sci Food Agric 2019 Jun 18;99(8):3933-3940. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Cardamom has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects which may help to remedy diseases. Studies on the health benefits of cardamom in diabetic patients are very limited. Thus, this study is designed to determine the effect of cardamom supplementation on blood lipids and glycemic indices in type 2 diabetic patients. To investigate the mechanism of cardamom effect on blood glucose and lipid levels, serum sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) was assessed.

Results: In a parallel, double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 83 overweight or obese type 2 diabetic patients were randomly allocated into an intervention (n = 41) or a control group (n = 42). The intervention and the placebo group received 3 g of green cardamom or rusk powder, respectively for 10 weeks. Physical activity level, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements (weight, height and waist circumference), glycemic indices [glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)], blood lipids [triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)] and SIRT1 levels were measured. Body mass index and homeostasis model assessment as an index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated before and after intervention. Compared to the control group, a significant decrease in serum HbA1C (-0.4%), insulin (-2.8 µIU dL ), HOMA-IR (-1.7) and TG (-39.9 mg dL ), and an increase in SIRT1 (2.3 ng mL ) was observed in cardamom group. There were no significant changes in serum TC, HDL-c and LDL-c levels between the two groups before and after adjustment for potential confounders including glyclaside dose, duration of disease and weight.

Conclusion: Our results showed that cardamom can decrease HbA1c, insulin level, HOMA-IR and TG level via increase in SIRT1 concentration in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9617DOI Listing
June 2019

Fruits and vegetables intake and its subgroups are related to depression: a cross-sectional study from a developing country.

Ann Gen Psychiatry 2018 1;17:46. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

1Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Hojatdost Street, Naderi Street, KeshavarzBlv., Tehran, Iran.

Background: The association of fruits and vegetables (FV) specific subgroups consumption and depression has not been investigated in healthy adult populations. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the relationship between intake of FV as well as their subgroups and depression.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 women attending healthcare centers. The scores of depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the 21-item depression, anxiety and stress scales questionnaire. The participants' anthropometric and physical activity data were collected and the 147-item semi-quantitative FFQ was used for estimating the FV intake.

Results: After adjustment for confounding variables, the participants in the lower quartiles of total FV, total vegetables, total fruits, citrus, other fruits and green leafy vegetables intake were more likely to experience depression compared to those in the higher quartiles ( trend < 0.03).

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that higher intake of total FV and some of its specific subgroups might be associated with depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12991-018-0216-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6211514PMC
November 2018

Dietary patterns and their association with menopausal symptoms: a cross-sectional study.

Menopause 2019 04;26(4):365-372

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Although menopause is a natural event in a woman's life, some of its symptoms can be severe enough to adversely affect her health. There is some evidence to suggest that diet has an influence on menopausal symptoms, but less attention has been paid to dietary patterns. The purpose of this study is to determine the association of dietary patterns with physical, mental, and genitourinary menopausal symptoms.

Methods: A cross-sectional study design was applied using a sample of 400 postmenopausal women who attended health centers in the south of Tehran, Iran. The menopausal symptoms were assessed by a Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) questionnaire; a 147-item, semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary information, and major dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between menopausal symptoms and dietary patterns.

Results: Three major dietary patterns were identified: vegetables and fruits (VF); mayonnaise, liquid oils, sweets, and desserts (MLSD); and solid fats and snacks (SFS). It has been found that the VF dietary pattern is inversely associated with general (β = -1.37; SE = 1.08; P for trend <0.001), physical (β = -1.54; SE = 1.09; P for trend <0.001), and mental (β = -1.58; SE = 1.11; P for trend <0.001) symptoms. A stronger adherence to the MLSD dietary pattern was directly associated with general (β = 1.15; SE = 1.08; P for trend <0.001) and genitourinary symptoms (β = 1.54; SE = 1.1; P for trend <0.001). Moreover, the SFS dietary pattern was directly related to the general (β = 1.23; SE = 1.09; P for trend = 0.01), physical (β = 1.24; SE = 1.09; P for trend = 0.04), and mental (β = 1.29; SE = 1.12; P for trend < 0.001) symptoms.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that there is an inverse association between VF dietary pattern and menopausal symptoms. In contrast, the MLSD and SFS dietary patterns were correlated to an increased risk of these symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001245DOI Listing
April 2019

Green cardamom increases Sirtuin-1 and reduces inflammation in overweight or obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2018 25;15:63. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

1Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, No.44, Hojjatdoust Alley, Naderi Ave, Keshavarz Blvd, Tehran, 1416643931 Iran.

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome. Despite the beneficial health effects of cardamom on dyslipidemia, hepatomegaly, and fasting hyperglycemia, no previous human study has been conducted on the efficacy of cardamom in NAFLD. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of green cardamom (GC) on serum Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1), inflammatory factors, and liver enzymes in overweight or obese NAFLD patients.

Methods: The recruitment of subjects was conducted at the polyclinic of the central hospital of National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), Tehran. Eighty-seven patients who participated were divided randomly into two groups according to the ultrasonography and eligibility criteria as cardamom ( = 43) or placebo ( = 44). The intervention involves taking two 500 mg capsules three times per day with meals for 3 months. General characteristics, dietary intake and physical activity status, weight and height were determined. In addition, serum Sirt1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), high sensitive c-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST) were measured. The degree of fatty liver was determined at beginning and end of the study.

Results: In comparison with placebo, GC significantly increased Sirt1 and decreased hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, ALT, and the degree of fatty liver ( < 0.05). The differences in weight, BMI, and AST were not significant ( > 0.05).

Conclusion: GC supplementation could improve some biomarkers related to fatty liver including inflammation, ALT, and Sirt1 in overweight/obese NAFLD patients. Further trials on cardamom's potential are suggested.

Trial Registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, IRCT2015121317254N4. Registered 27/12/2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-018-0297-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6156864PMC
September 2018