Publications by authors named "Giske Ursin"

263 Publications

Incidence of breast cancer subtypes in immigrant and non-immigrant women in Norway.

Breast Cancer Res 2022 Jan 10;24(1). Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Cancer Registry of Norway, Postbox 5313, 0304, Majorstuen, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Breast cancer incidence differs between non-immigrants and immigrants from low- and middle-income countries. This study investigates whether immigrants also have different subtype-specific incidences.

Methods: We used national health registries in Norway and calculated subtype-specific incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for invasive breast cancer among women aged 20-75 and 20-49 years between 2005 and 2015. Immigrant groups were classified by country of birth broadly defined based on WHO regional groupings. Subtype was defined using estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status as luminal A-like (ER+ PR+ HER2-), luminal B-like/HER2- (ER+ PR- HER2-), luminal B-like/HER2+ (ER+ PR any HER2+), HER2+ (ER-PR-HER2+) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (ER-PR-HER2-).

Results: Compared to non-immigrants, incidence of the luminal A-like subtype was lower in immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa (IRR 0.43 95% CI 0.28-0.66), South East Asia (IRR 0.63 95% CI 0.51-0.79), South Asia (IRR 0.67 95% CI 0.52-0.86) and Eastern Europe (IRR 0.86 95% CI 0.76-0.99). Immigrants from South Asia had higher rates of HER2 + tumors (IRR 2.02 95% CI 1.26-3.23). The rates of TNBC tended to be similar regardless of region of birth, except that women from South East Asia had an IRR of 0.54 (95% CI 0.32-0.91).

Conclusions: Women from Eastern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia had different subtype-specific incidences compared to women from high-income countries (including non-immigrants). These differences in tumor characteristics between immigrant groups should be taken into consideration when planning preventive or screening strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-021-01498-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8751256PMC
January 2022

Open science and sharing personal data widely - legally impossible for Europeans?

Acta Oncol 2021 12 19;60(12):1555-1556. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2021.1995894DOI Listing
December 2021

Bariatric surgery in patients with breast and endometrial cancer in California: population-based prevalence and survival.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2022 Jan 28;18(1):42-52. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Medicine, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Background: The number of bariatric surgeries performed in the United States has increased substantially since the 1990's. However, the prevalence and prognostic impact of bariatric surgery, or weight loss surgery (WLS), among patients with cancer are not known.

Objectives: We investigated the population-based prevalence of WLS in women with breast or endometrial cancer and conducted exploratory analysis to examine whether postdiagnosis WLS is associated with survival.

Setting: Administrative statewide database.

Methods: WLS records for women with nonmetastasized breast (n = 395,146) or endometrial (n = 69,859) cancer were identified from the 1991-2014 California Cancer Registry data linked with the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development database. Characteristics of the patients were examined according to history of WLS. Using body mass index data available since 2011, a retrospective cohort of patients with breast or endometrial cancer and obesity (n = 12,540) was established and followed until 2017 (5% lost to follow-up). Multivariable cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations between postdiagnostic WLS and time to death.

Results: WLS records were identified for 2844 (.7%) patients with breast cancer and 1140 (1.6%) patients with endometrial cancer; about half of the surgeries were performed after cancer diagnosis. Postdiagnosis WLS was performed in ∼1% of patients with obesity and was associated with a decreased hazard for death (cause-specific hazard ratio = .37; 95% confidence interval = .014-.99; P = .049), adjusting for age, stage, co-morbidity, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

Conclusion: About 2000 patients with breast or endometrial cancer in California underwent post-diagnosis WLS between 1991 and 2014. Our data support survival benefits of WLS after breast and endometrial cancer diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2021.09.017DOI Listing
January 2022

Survival trends for patients with primary metastatic prostate cancer before and after the introduction of new antitumor drugs.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway.

Background: During the past two decades, new antitumor drugs (Abiraterone, Enzalutamide, Radium-223, Cabazitaxel, and Docetaxel) have been introduced for treatment of prostate cancer with distant metastases (mPCa). Each drug have demonstrated a survival gain in studies, but little is known about the impact in a general population of mPCa patients. In this study we assessed survival before and after introduction of the new drugs for Norwegian mPCa patients.

Methods: Survival was assessed in 5542 patients with primary mPCa. The patients were diagnosed between 2004 and 2018, identified in the Norwegian Cancer Registry. We also analyzed a subgroup of 2738 patients possibly eligible for treatment with new drugs (age <80 years, WHO performance status ≤2 and not dead within 3 months from diagnosis). We estimated overall (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) across three diagnostic time periods reflecting to the drugs' introduction in Norway: Before (2004-2009), "in between" (2010-2014) and after the introduction (2015-2018). We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariable Cox regression.

Results: Median OS increased from 2.3 years in 2004-2009 to 3.3 years in 2015-2018. 3-year OS improved from 41% in 2004-2009 to 51% in 2015-2018. An earlier diagnostic period, a more advanced T stage, higher ISUP grade group, lower WHO status and higher PSA levels were associated with a lower CSS. Similar results was found for the subgroup.

Conclusions: Median OS of mPCa has increased by one year since 2004 for mPCa patients in Norway. Survival improvement persisted after adjustment for recognized prognostic factors and may be related to the introduction of new drugs in Norway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41391-021-00445-xDOI Listing
September 2021

Persisting symptoms three to eight months after non-hospitalized COVID-19, a prospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(8):e0256142. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway.

Long-COVID-19 is a proposed syndrome negatively affecting the health of COVID-19 patients. We present data on self-rated health three to eight months after laboratory confirmed COVID-19 disease compared to a control group of SARS-CoV-2 negative patients. We followed a cohort of 8786 non-hospitalized patients who were invited after SARS-CoV-2 testing between February 1 and April 15, 2020 (794 positive, 7229 negative). Participants answered online surveys at baseline and follow-up including questions on demographics, symptoms, risk factors for SARS-CoV-2, and self-rated health compared to one year ago. Determinants for a worsening of self-rated health as compared to one year ago among the SARS-CoV-2 positive group were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and also compared to the population norm. The follow-up questionnaire was completed by 85% of the SARS-CoV-2 positive and 75% of the SARS-CoV-2 negative participants on average 132 days after the SARS-CoV-2 test. At follow-up, 36% of the SARS-CoV-2 positive participants rated their health "somewhat" or "much" worse than one year ago. In contrast, 18% of the SARS-CoV-2 negative participants reported a similar deterioration of health while the population norm is 12%. Sore throat and cough were more frequently reported by the control group at follow-up. Neither gender nor follow-up time was associated with the multivariate odds of worsening of self-reported health compared to one year ago. Age had an inverted-U formed association with a worsening of health while being fit and being a health professional were associated with lower multivariate odds. A significant proportion of non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, regardless of age, have not returned to their usual health three to eight months after infection.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256142PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8389372PMC
September 2021

The CRCbiome study: a large prospective cohort study examining the role of lifestyle and the gut microbiome in colorectal cancer screening participants.

BMC Cancer 2021 Aug 18;21(1):930. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces CRC incidence and mortality. However, current screening methods are either hampered by invasiveness or suboptimal performance, limiting their effectiveness as primary screening methods. To aid in the development of a non-invasive screening test with improved sensitivity and specificity, we have initiated a prospective biomarker study (CRCbiome), nested within a large randomized CRC screening trial in Norway. We aim to develop a microbiome-based classification algorithm to identify advanced colorectal lesions in screening participants testing positive for an immunochemical fecal occult blood test (FIT). We will also examine interactions with host factors, diet, lifestyle and prescription drugs. The prospective nature of the study also enables the analysis of changes in the gut microbiome following the removal of precancerous lesions.

Methods: The CRCbiome study recruits participants enrolled in the Bowel Cancer Screening in Norway (BCSN) study, a randomized trial initiated in 2012 comparing once-only sigmoidoscopy to repeated biennial FIT, where women and men aged 50-74 years at study entry are invited to participate. Since 2017, participants randomized to FIT screening with a positive test result have been invited to join the CRCbiome study. Self-reported diet, lifestyle and demographic data are collected prior to colonoscopy after the positive FIT-test (baseline). Screening data, including colonoscopy findings are obtained from the BCSN database. Fecal samples for gut microbiome analyses are collected both before and 2 and 12 months after colonoscopy. Samples are analyzed using metagenome sequencing, with taxonomy profiles, and gene and pathway content as primary measures. CRCbiome data will also be linked to national registries to obtain information on prescription histories and cancer relevant outcomes occurring during the 10 year follow-up period.

Discussion: The CRCbiome study will increase our understanding of how the gut microbiome, in combination with lifestyle and environmental factors, influences the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. This knowledge will be crucial to develop microbiome-based screening tools for CRC. By evaluating biomarker performance in a screening setting, using samples from the target population, the generalizability of the findings to future screening cohorts is likely to be high.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01538550 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08640-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371800PMC
August 2021

Can breast cancer be stopped? Modifiable risk factors of breast cancer among women with a prior benign or premalignant lesion.

Int J Cancer 2021 09 22;149(6):1247-1256. Epub 2021 May 22.

Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway.

Physical inactivity, high postmenopausal body mass index, alcohol consumption and use of menopausal hormone therapy are established risk factors for breast cancer. Less is known about whether these factors influence the risk of progression of benign and premalignant breast lesions to invasive breast cancer. This registry-based cohort study was based on women with a precancerous lesion who were followed for breast cancer. The cohort consisted of 11 270 women with a benign lesion, 972 women with hyperplasia with atypia and 2379 women with carcinoma in situ diagnosed and treated after participation in BreastScreen Norway, 2006-2016. Information on breast cancer risk factors was collected by a questionnaire administered with the invitation letter. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the association between breast cancer and physical activity, body mass index, alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking and menopausal hormone therapy, adjusted for age. During follow-up, 274 women with a benign lesion, 34 women with hyperplasia with atypia and 118 women with carcinoma in situ were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. We observed an increased risk of breast cancer associated with use of menopausal hormone therapy for women with a benign or premalignant lesion. Alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking showed suggestive increased risk of breast cancer among women with a benign lesion. We were only to a limited degree able to identify associations between modifiable risk factors of breast cancer and the disease among women with a precancerous lesion, and a larger study is needed to confirm or refute associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33680DOI Listing
September 2021

Patterns of aggressiveness: risk of progression to invasive breast cancer by mammographic features of calcifications in screen-detected ductal carcinoma in situ.

Acta Radiol 2021 Apr 22:2841851211006319. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Mammographic features of calcifications on mammograms showing invasive breast cancer are associated with survival. Less is known about mammographic features and progression to invasive breast cancer among women treated for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

Purpose: To investigate mammographic features of calcifications in screen-detected DCIS in women who later did and did not get diagnosed with invasive breast cancer.

Material And Methods: This registry-based nested case-control study analyzed data from women with screen-detected DCIS in BreastScreen Norway, 1995-2016. Within this cohort of women with DCIS, those who were later diagnosed with invasive breast cancer (cases) were matched (1:2) to women who were not diagnosed with invasive breast cancer (controls) after their DCIS and by the end of 2016. Information on mammographic features were collected by a national radiological review, where screening mammograms were reviewed locally at each of the 16 breast centers in Norway. We used conditional logistic regression analysis to estimate associations between mammographic features of calcifications in the DCIS mammogram and the risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer.

Results: We found a higher risk of invasive breast cancer associated with fine linear branching (casting) morphology (odds ratio 20.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-158.9) compared to fine linear or fine pleomorphic morphology. Regional or diffuse distribution showed an odds ratio of 2.8 (95% CI 1.0-8.2) compared to segmental or linear distribution.

Conclusion: Mammographic features of calcifications in screen-detected DCIS were of influence on the risk of invasive breast cancer. Unfavorable characteristics of DCIS were fine linear branching morphology, and regional or diffuse distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02841851211006319DOI Listing
April 2021

COVID-19 in Cancer Patients, Risk Factors for Disease and Adverse Outcome, a Population-Based Study From Norway.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:652535. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Cancer has been suggested as a risk factor for severe outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this population-based study we aimed to identify factors associated with higher risk of COVID-19 and adverse outcome.

Methods: Data on all confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive patients in the period January 1 to May 31, 2020 were extracted from the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases. Data on cancer and treatment was available from the Cancer Registry of Norway, the Norwegian Patient Registry and the Norwegian Prescription Database. Deaths due to COVID-19 were extracted from the Cause of Death Registry. From the Norwegian Intensive Care and Pandemic Registry we retrieved data on admittance to hospital and intensive care. We determined rates of COVID-19 disease in cancer patients and the rest of the population. We also ran multivariate analyses adjusting for age and gender.

Results: A total of 8 410 patients were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Norway during the study period, of which 547 (6.5%) were cancer patients. Overall, we found similar age adjusted rates of COVID-19 in the population with cancer as in the population without cancer. Unadjusted analysis showed that patients having undergone major surgery within the past 3 months had an increased risk of COVID-19 while we did not find increased Odds Ratio (OR) related to other oncological treatment modalities. No patients treated with stem cell or bone marrow transplant were diagnosed with COVID-19. The fatality rate of COVID-19 among cancer patients was 0.10. This was similar to non-cancer patients, when adjusting for age and sex with OR (95% CI) for death= 0.99 (0.68-1.42). Patients with distant metastases had significantly increased OR of death due to COVID-19 disease of 9.31 (95% CI 2.60-33.34). For the combined outcome death and/or admittance to hospital due to COVID-19, we found significant two-fold increased risk estimates for patients diagnosed with cancer less than one 1 year ago (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.14-3.80), for those treated with anti-cancer drugs during the past 3 months (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.07-3.01) and for patients undergoing major surgery during the past 3 months (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.40-3.44).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.652535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027113PMC
March 2021

In modern times, how important are breast cancer stage, grade and receptor subtype for survival: a population-based cohort study.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 02 1;23(1):17. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway.

Background: In breast cancer, immunohistochemistry (IHC) subtypes, together with grade and stage, are well-known independent predictors of breast cancer death. Given the immense changes in breast cancer treatment and survival over time, we used recent population-based data to test the combined influence of IHC subtypes, grade and stage on breast cancer death.

Methods: We identified 24,137 women with invasive breast cancer aged 20 to 74 between 2005 and 2015 in the database of the Cancer Registry of Norway. Kaplan-Meier curves, mortality rates and adjusted hazard ratios for breast cancer death were estimated by IHC subtypes, grade, tumour size and nodal status during 13 years of follow-up.

Results: Within all IHC subtypes, grade, tumour size and nodal status were independent predictors of breast cancer death. When combining all prognostic factors, the risk of death was 20- to 40-fold higher in the worst groups compared to the group with the smallest size, low grade and ER+PR+HER2- status. Among node-negative ER+HER2- tumours, larger size conferred a significantly increased breast cancer mortality. ER+PR-HER2- tumours of high grade and advanced stage showed particularly high breast cancer mortality similar to TNBC. When examining early versus late mortality, grade, size and nodal status explained most of the late (> 5 years) mortality among ER+ subtypes.

Conclusions: There is a wide range of risks of dying from breast cancer, also across small breast tumours of low/intermediate grade, and among node-negative tumours. Thus, even with modern breast cancer treatment, stage, grade and molecular subtype (reflected by IHC subtypes) matter for prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-021-01393-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7852363PMC
February 2021

Colorectal Cancer Screening With Repeated Fecal Immunochemical Test Versus Sigmoidoscopy: Baseline Results From a Randomized Trial.

Gastroenterology 2021 03 21;160(4):1085-1096.e5. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Section for Colorectal Cancer Screening, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway; Clinical Effectiveness Research Group, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo; Department of Medicine, Sorlandet Hospital Trust, Kristiansand, Norway.

Background & Aims: The comparative effectiveness of sigmoidoscopy and fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is unknown.

Methods: Individuals aged 50-74 years living in Southeast Norway were randomly invited between 2012 and 2019 to either once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy or FIT screening every second year. Colonoscopy was recommended after sigmoidoscopy if any polyp of ≥10 mm, ≥3 adenomas, any advanced adenomas, or CRC was found or, subsequent to, FIT >15 μg hemoglobin/g feces. Data for this report were obtained after complete recruitment in both groups and included 2 full FIT rounds and part of the third round. Outcome measures were participation, neoplasia detection, and adverse events. Age-standardized detection rates and age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated.

Results: We included 139,291 individuals: 69,195 randomized to sigmoidoscopy and 70,096 to FIT. The participation rate was 52% for sigmoidoscopy, 58% in the first FIT round, and 68% for 3 cumulative FIT rounds. Compared to sigmoidoscopy, the detection rate for CRC was similar in the first FIT round (0.25% vs 0.27%; OR, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.13) but higher after 3 FIT rounds (0.49% vs 0.27%; OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.54-2.27). Advanced adenoma detection rate was lower in the first FIT round compared to sigmoidoscopy at 1.4% vs 2.4% (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.53-0.62) but higher after 3 cumulative FIT rounds at 2.7% vs 2.4% (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.23). There were 33 (0.05%) serious adverse events in the sigmoidoscopy group compared to 47 (0.07%) in the FIT group (P = .13).

Conclusions: Participation was higher and more CRC and advanced adenomas were detected with repeated FIT compared to sigmoidoscopy. The risk of perforation and bleeding was comparable. Clinicaltrials.gov, Number: NCT01538550.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.11.037DOI Listing
March 2021

The power of empirical data; lessons from the clinical registry initiatives in Scandinavian cancer care.

Acta Oncol 2020 Nov 26;59(11):1343-1356. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

The Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway.

Background: In Scandinavia, there is a strong tradition for research and quality monitoring based on registry data. In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 63 clinical registries collect data on disease characteristics, treatment and outcome of various cancer diagnoses and groups based on process-related and outcome-related variables.

Aim: We describe the cancer-related clinical registries, compare organizational structures and quality indicators and provide examples of how these registries have been used to monitor clinical performance, develop prediction models, assess outcome and provide quality benchmarks. Further, we define unmet needs such as inclusion of patient-reported outcome variables, harmonization of variables and barriers for data sharing.

Results And Conclusions: The clinical registry framework provides an empirical basis for evidence-based development of high-quality and equitable cancer care. The registries can be used to follow implementation of new treatment principles and monitor patterns of care across geographical areas and patient groups. At the same time, the lessons learnt suggest that further developments and coordination are needed to utilize the full potential of the registry initiative in cancer care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2020.1820573DOI Listing
November 2020

Cancer incidence in non-immigrants and immigrants in Norway.

Acta Oncol 2020 Nov 15;59(11):1275-1283. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Major cancers are associated with lifestyle, and previous studies have found that the non-immigrant populations in the Nordic countries have higher incidence rates of most cancers than the immigrant populations. However, rates are changing worldwide - so these differences may disappear with time. Here we present recent cancer incidence rates among immigrant and non-immigrant men and women in Norway and investigate whether previous differences still exist.

Material And Methods: We took advantage of a recent change in the Norwegian Cancer Registry regulations that allow for the registry to have information on country of birth. The number of person years for 2014-2018 was aggregated for every combination of sex, five-year age-group and country of birth, by summing up each year's population in these groups. The number of cancer cases was then counted for the same groups, and age-standardised incidence rates calculated by weighing the age-specific incidence rates by the Nordic and World standard populations. Further, we calculated incidence rate ratios using the non-immigrant population as a reference.

Results: Immigrants from Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Asia had lower incidence of total cancer compared to the non-immigrant population in Norway and immigrants born in the other Nordic or high-income countries. However, some cancers were more common in certain immigrant groups. Asian men and women had threefold the incidence of liver cancer than non-immigrant men and women. Men from the other Nordic countries and from Eastern Europe had higher lung cancer rates than non-immigrant men.

Conclusion: National registries should continuously monitor and present cancer incidence stratified on important population subgroups such as country of birth. This can help assess population subgroup specific needs for cancer prevention and treatment, and could eventually help reduce the morbidity and mortality of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2020.1817549DOI Listing
November 2020

Education, income and risk of cancer: results from a Norwegian registry-based study.

Acta Oncol 2020 Nov 14;59(11):1300-1307. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway.

Introduction: Several studies have shown an association between socioeconomic status and incidence of cancer. In this study, we have examined the association between socioeconomic factors, using income and education as proxies, and cancer incidence in Norway, a country known to be egalitarian, with universal access to health care and scoring high on the human development index.

Methods: We linked individual data for the total Norwegian population with information on all cancer patients registered in the Cancer Registry of Norway (CRN) with any cancer diagnosed between 2012 and 2016. Data on education, and individual income, were provided from Statistics Norway. We used Poisson regression to obtain incidence rate ratios (IRR) across education and income levels for 23 cancer sites.

Results: A total of 9 cancers among men and 13 cancers among women were observed to have significantly higher incidence rates in cases with the lowest level of education. Melanoma for both sexes, testis and prostate cancer in men, and breast cancer in women were found to have a higher incidence rate among those with the highest level of education. The largest differences in IRR were found for lung cancer, where men and women with college or university education as their highest completed education had a two- to threefold decreased risk, compared to those with primary school (IRR men; 0.40 [0.37-0.43], women 0.34 [0.31-0.37]). The results for income mirrored the results for education among men, while for women we did not observe many differences in cancer risk across income groups.

Conclusion: Our findings were consistent with findings from other studies showing that the incidence rate of cancer differs across levels of socioeconomic status. We may need behavioral change campaigns focused on lifestyle changes that lower the risk of cancer and target perhaps to those with lower socioeconomic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2020.1817548DOI Listing
November 2020

Stage-specific survival has improved for young breast cancer patients since 2000: but not equally.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2020 Jul 3;182(2):477-489. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Cancer Registry of Norway, P.O. Box 5313, Majorstuen, 0304, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: The stage-specific survival of young breast cancer patients has improved, likely due to diagnostic and treatment advances. We addressed whether survival improvements have reached all socioeconomic groups in a country with universal health care and national treatment guidelines.

Methods: Using Norwegian registry data, we assessed stage-specific breast cancer survival by education and income level of 7501 patients (2317 localized, 4457 regional, 233 distant and 494 unknown stage) aged 30-48 years at diagnosis during 2000-2015. Using flexible parametric models and national life tables, we compared excess mortality up to 12 years from diagnosis and 5-year relative survival trends, by education and income as measures of socioeconomic status (SES).

Results: Throughout 2000-2015, regional and distant stage 5-year relative survival improved steadily for patients with high education and high income (high SES), but not for patients with low education and low income (low SES). Regional stage 5-year relative survival improved from 85 to 94% for high SES patients (9% change; 95% confidence interval: 6, 13%), but remained at 84% for low SES patients (0% change; - 12, 12%). Distant stage 5-year relative survival improved from 22 to 58% for high SES patients (36% change; 24, 49%), but remained at 11% for low SES patients (0% change; - 19, 19%).

Conclusions: Regional and distant stage breast cancer survival has improved markedly for high SES patients, but there has been little survival gain for low SES patients. Socioeconomic status matters for the stage-specific survival of young breast cancer patients, even with universal health care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05698-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297859PMC
July 2020

Socioeconomic inequalities in stage-specific breast cancer incidence: a nationwide registry study of 1.1 million young women in Norway, 2000-2015.

Acta Oncol 2020 Nov 22;59(11):1284-1290. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Women with high socioeconomic status (SES) have the highest incidence rates of breast cancer. We wanted to determine if high SES women only have higher rates of localized disease, or whether they also have higher rates of non-localized disease. To study this, we used data on a young population with universal health care, but not offered screening.

Material And Methods: Using individually linked registry data, we compared stage-specific breast cancer incidence, by education level and income quintile, in a Norwegian cohort of 1,106,863 women aged 30-48 years during 2000-2015 ( = 7531 breast cancer cases). We calculated stage-specific age-standardized rates and incidence rate ratios and rate differences using Poisson models adjusted for age, period and immigration history.

Results: Incidence of localized and regional disease increased significantly with increasing education and income level. Incidence of distant stage disease did not vary significantly by education level but was significantly reduced in the four highest compared to the lowest income quintile. The age-standardized rates for tertiary versus compulsory educated women were: localized 28.2 vs 19.8, regional 50.8 vs 40.4 and distant 2.3 vs 2.6 per 100,000 person-years. The adjusted incidence rate ratios (tertiary versus compulsory) were: localized 1.40 (95% CI 1.25-1.56), regional 1.25 (1.15-1.35), distant 0.90 (0.64-1.26). The age-standardized rates for women in the highest versus lowest income quintile were: localized 28.9 vs 17.7, regional 52.8 vs 41.5 and distant 2.3 vs 3.2 per 100,000 person-years. The adjusted incidence rate ratios (highest versus lowest quintile) were: localized 1.63 (1.42-1.87), regional 1.27 (1.09-1.32), distant 0.64 (0.43-0.94).

Conclusion: Increased breast cancer rates among young high SES women is not just increased detection of small localized tumors, but also increased incidence of tumors with regional spread. The higher incidence of young high SES women is therefore real and not only because of excessive screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2020.1753888DOI Listing
November 2020

Adult weight change and premenopausal breast cancer risk: A prospective pooled analysis of data from 628,463 women.

Int J Cancer 2020 09 15;147(5):1306-1314. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.

Early-adulthood body size is strongly inversely associated with risk of premenopausal breast cancer. It is unclear whether subsequent changes in weight affect risk. We pooled individual-level data from 17 prospective studies to investigate the association of weight change with premenopausal breast cancer risk, considering strata of initial weight, timing of weight change, other breast cancer risk factors and breast cancer subtype. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using Cox regression. Among 628,463 women, 10,886 were diagnosed with breast cancer before menopause. Models adjusted for initial weight at ages 18-24 years and other breast cancer risk factors showed that weight gain from ages 18-24 to 35-44 or to 45-54 years was inversely associated with breast cancer overall (e.g., HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.95-0.98) and with oestrogen-receptor(ER)-positive breast cancer (HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.98). Weight gain from ages 25-34 was inversely associated with ER-positive breast cancer only and weight gain from ages 35-44 was not associated with risk. None of these weight gains were associated with ER-negative breast cancer. Weight loss was not consistently associated with overall or ER-specific risk after adjusting for initial weight. Weight increase from early-adulthood to ages 45-54 years is associated with a reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk independently of early-adulthood weight. Biological explanations are needed to account for these two separate factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365745PMC
September 2020

Serum Levels of Commonly Detected Persistent Organic Pollutants and Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) and Mammographic Density in Postmenopausal Women.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 01 17;17(2). Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94704, USA.

There are little epidemiological data on the impact of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and endocrine disruptors on mammographic density (MD), a strong predictor of breast cancer. We assessed MD in 116 non-Hispanic white post-menopausal women for whom serum concentrations of 23 commonly detected chemicals including 3 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 8 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and 12 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) had been measured. Linear regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders were used to examine the associations between the levels of the chemical compounds, modeled as continuous and dichotomized (above/below median) variables, and square-root-transformed MD. None of the associations were statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing. Prior to correction for multiple testing, all chemicals with un-corrected values < 0.05 had regression coefficients less than zero, suggesting inverse associations between increased levels and MD, if any. The smallest value was observed for PCB-153 (regression coefficient for above-median vs. below-median levels: -0.87, un-corrected 0.008). Neither parity nor body mass index modified the associations. Our results do not support an association between higher MD and serum levels of PBDEs, PCBs, or PFASs commonly detected in postmenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7013395PMC
January 2020

Immigration history, lifestyle characteristics, and breast density in the Vietnamese American Women's Health Study: a cross-sectional analysis.

Cancer Causes Control 2020 Feb 8;31(2):127-138. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA.

Purpose: Breast density is an important risk factor for breast cancer and varies substantially across racial-ethnic groups. However, determinants of breast density in Vietnamese immigrants in the United States (US) have not been studied. We investigated whether reproductive factors, immigration history, and other demographic and lifestyle factors were associated with breast density in Vietnamese Americans.

Methods: We collected information on demographics, immigration history, and other lifestyle factors and mammogram reports from a convenience sample of 380 Vietnamese American women in California aged 40 to 70 years. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density was abstracted from mammogram reports. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between lifestyle factors and having dense breasts (BI-RADS 3 or 4).

Results: All participants were born in Viet Nam and 82% had lived in the US for 10 years or longer. Younger age, lower body mass index, nulliparity/lower number of deliveries, and longer US residence (or younger age at migration) were associated with having dense breasts. Compared to women who migrated at age 40 or later, the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for having dense breasts among women who migrated between the ages of 30 and 39 and before age 30 were 1.72 (0.96-3.07) and 2.48 (1.43-4.32), respectively.

Conclusions: Longer US residence and younger age at migration were associated with greater breast density in Vietnamese American women. Identifying modifiable mediating factors to reduce lifestyle changes that adversely impact breast density in this traditionally low-risk population for breast cancer is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-019-01264-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7842111PMC
February 2020

Measurement challenge: protocol for international case-control comparison of mammographic measures that predict breast cancer risk.

BMJ Open 2019 12 31;9(12):e031041. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

University of Hawai'i Cancer Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

Introduction: For women of the same age and body mass index, increased mammographic density is one of the strongest predictors of breast cancer risk. There are multiple methods of measuring mammographic density and other features in a mammogram that could potentially be used in a screening setting to identify and target women at high risk of developing breast cancer. However, it is unclear which measurement method provides the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk.

Methods And Analysis: The measurement challenge has been established as an international resource to offer a common set of anonymised mammogram images for measurement and analysis. To date, full field digital mammogram images and core data from 1650 cases and 1929 controls from five countries have been collated. The measurement challenge is an ongoing collaboration and we are continuing to expand the resource to include additional image sets across different populations (from contributors) and to compare additional measurement methods (by challengers). The intended use of the measurement challenge resource is for refinement and validation of new and existing mammographic measurement methods. The measurement challenge resource provides a standardised dataset of mammographic images and core data that enables investigators to directly compare methods of measuring mammographic density or other mammographic features in case/control sets of both raw and processed images, for the purposes of the comparing their predictions of breast cancer risk.

Ethics And Dissemination: Challengers and contributors are required to enter a Research Collaboration Agreement with the University of Melbourne prior to participation in the measurement challenge. The Challenge database of collated data and images are stored in a secure data repository at the University of Melbourne. Ethics approval for the measurement challenge is held at University of Melbourne (HREC ID 0931343.3).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6955467PMC
December 2019

Author's reply to: "Detection by screening introduces biases into survival estimates for luminal A-like breast cancer patients".

Int J Cancer 2020 03 15;146(6):1767-1768. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32699DOI Listing
March 2020

Cancer registration in the era of modern oncology and GDPR.

Authors:
Giske Ursin

Acta Oncol 2019 Nov 30;58(11):1547-1548. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2019.1657586DOI Listing
November 2019
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