Publications by authors named "Giselle Chamberlain"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Expression of sterile-α and armadillo motif in rheumatoid arthritis monocytes correlates with TLR2 induced IL-1β and disease activity.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9PS, U.K.

Objective: Cartilage and bone damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are associated with elevated IL-1β. The effects of IL-1β can be reduced by biological therapies that target IL-1β or TNFα. However, the mechanisms responsible for increased IL-1β and the effect of anti-TNFα have not been fully elucidated. Recently, sterile-α and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) was identified as a negative regulator of toll-like receptor (TLR) induced IL-1β secretion through an interaction with the inflammasome. This study set out to investigate SARM during TLR induced IL-1β secretion in RA peripheral blood monocytes and in patients commencing anti-TNFα treatment.

Methods: Monocytes were isolated from RA patients and healthy controls; disease activity was measured by DAS28. IL-1β secretion was measured by ELISA following TLR1/2, TLR4 and TLR7/8 stimulation. The mRNA expression of SARM, IL-1β and the components of the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome were measured by quantitative PCR. SARM protein expression was measured by western blotting.

Results: TLR1/2 activation induced elevated IL-1β in RA monocytes compared with heathy controls (p= 0.0009), which negatively correlated with SARM expression (p = 0.0086). Lower SARM expression also correlated with higher disease activity (p = 0.0246). Additionally, patients responding to anti-TNFα treatment demonstrated a rapid upregulation of SARM, which was not observed in non-responders.

Conclusion: Together, these data highlight a potential contribution from SARM to RA pathophysiology where decreased SARM may lead to elevated IL-1β associated with RA pathogenesis. Furthermore, the data additionally present a potential mechanism by which TNFα blockade can modify IL-1β secretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keab162DOI Listing
February 2021

TLR1/2 and 5 induce elevated cytokine levels from rheumatoid arthritis monocytes independent of ACPA or RF autoantibody status.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2020 11;59(11):3533-3539

Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.

Objective: RA is an autoimmune inflammatory joint disease. Both RF and ACPA are associated with more progressive disease and higher levels of systemic inflammation. Monocyte activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) by endogenous ligands is a potential source of increased production of systemic cytokines. RA monocytes have elevated TLRs, some of which are associated with the disease activity score using 28 joints (DAS28). The aim of this study was to measure TLR-induced cytokine production from monocytes, stratified by autoantibody status, to assess if their capacity to induce cytokines is related to autoantibody status or DAS28.

Methods: Peripheral blood monocytes isolated from RA patients and healthy controls were stimulated with TLR1/2, TLR2/6, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 ligands for 18 h before measuring IL-6, TNFα and IL-10. Serum was used to confirm the autoantibody status. Cytokine levels were compared with RF, ACPA and DAS28.

Results: RA monocytes demonstrated significantly increased IL-6 and TNFα upon TLR1/2 stimulation and IL-6 and IL-10 upon TLR5 activation. TLR7 and TLR9 activation did not induce cytokines and no significant differences were observed between RA and healthy control monocytes upon TLR2/6, TLR4 or TLR8 activation. When stratified by ACPA or RF status there were no correlations between autoantibody status and elevated cytokine levels. However, TLR1/2-induced IL-6 did correlate with DAS28.

Conclusions: Elevated TLR-induced cytokines in RA monocytes were not related to ACPA or RF status. However, TLR1/2-induced IL-6 was associated with disease activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keaa220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590412PMC
November 2020

Structural Modification of the Antidepressant Mianserin Suggests That Its Anti-inflammatory Activity May Be Independent of 5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptors.

Front Immunol 2019 24;10:1167. Epub 2019 May 24.

Drug Discovery Centre, Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Antidepressants are increasingly recognized to have anti-inflammatory properties in addition to their ability to treat major depressive disorders. To explore if engagement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors was required for the anti-inflammatory effect of the tetracyclic antidepressant mianserin, a series of structural derivatives were generated with the aim of reducing 5-HT receptor binding. Primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to screen for anti-inflammatory activity. The lead compound demonstrated a significant loss in 5-HT receptor binding, as assessed by non-selective 5-HT binding of radiolabelled serotonin in rat cerebral cortex. However, it retained the ability to inhibit endosomal toll-like receptor 8 signaling in primary human macrophages and spontaneous cytokine production from human rheumatoid synovial tissue equivalent to that previously observed for mianserin. These data demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of mianserin may be independent of 5-HT receptor activity. This research offers new insights into the mechanism and structural requirements for the anti-inflammatory action of mianserin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6542943PMC
August 2020

A feasibility study exploring the role of pre-operative assessment when examining the mechanism of 'chemo-brain' in breast cancer patients.

Springerplus 2016 31;5:390. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Sussex Health Outcomes Research and Education in Cancer (SHORE-C), Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.

Background: Women receiving chemotherapy treatment for breast cancer may experience problems with their memory and attention (cognition), which is distressing and interferes with quality of life. It is unclear what causes or contributes to the problems they report: psychological distress, fatigue, coping style, or specific biological changes for example to pro inflammatory cytokines. Research shows however, that approximately a third of women with breast cancer perform poorly on tests of cognition before commencing chemotherapy. We aimed to examine the acceptability and relevance of pre-surgical assessments (bloods, brain imaging, cognitive tests and self-report questionnaires) when investigating the phenomenon of 'chemo-brain' and investigate whether inflammatory markers mediate chemotherapy-induced neuropsychological impairments in women treated for breast cancer.

Methods: Women with early stage breast cancer completed neuropsychological and quality of life assessments at T1 (pre-surgery), T2 (post-surgery before chemotherapy) and T3 (6 months later). Blood cytokine levels were measured at the same time points and brain imaging was performed at T1 and T3.

Results: In total, 14/58 women participated (8 chemotherapy, 6 non-chemotherapy). Prior to the start of chemotherapy a decline in cognitive performance compared to baseline was observed in one participant. At T3 women who received chemotherapy reported poorer quality of life and greater fatigue. Increases in soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor II (sTNFRII), interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor occurred post chemotherapy only. Levels of sTNFRII were inversely correlated with grey matter volume (GMV) of the right posterior insula in both groups. At T3, the chemotherapy group displayed a greater reduction in GMV in the subgenual and dorsal anterior cingulate, and the inferior temporal gyrus.

Conclusions: Pre-operative recruitment to the study was challenging; however, the lack of significant changes in blood cytokine levels and neuropsychological tests at T2 implies that post surgery may be a valid baseline assessment, but this needs further investigation in a larger study. The preliminary results support the hypothesis that chemotherapy induced fatigue is mediated by a change in peripheral cytokine levels which could explain some symptoms of 'chemo brain' experienced by patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2030-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4816933PMC
April 2016

Oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition of Toll-like receptors 3, 7, 8, and 9 suppresses cytokine production in a human rheumatoid arthritis model.

Eur J Immunol 2016 Mar 16;46(3):772-81. Epub 2015 Dec 16.

Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Oxford, UK.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune receptors that respond to both exogenous and endogenous stimuli and are suggested to contribute to the perpetuation of chronic inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In particular, the endosomal TLRs 3, 7, 8, and 9 have more recently been postulated to be of importance in RA pathogenesis. In this study, pan inhibition of the endosomal TLRs by a phosphorothioate-modified inhibitory oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) is demonstrated in primary human B cells, macrophages, and RA fibroblasts. Inhibition of TLR8 was of particular interest as TLR8 has been associated with RA pathogenesis in both human and murine arthritis models. ODN1411 competitively inhibited TLR8 signaling and was observed to directly bind to a purified TLR8 ectodomain, suggesting inhibition was through a direct interaction with the receptor. Addition of ODN1411 to human RA synovial membrane cultures significantly inhibited spontaneous cytokine production from these cultures, suggesting a potential role for one or more of the endosomal TLRs in inflammatory cytokine production in RA and the potential for inhibitory ODNs as novel therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201546123DOI Listing
March 2016

Pattern recognition receptors as potential therapeutic targets in inflammatory rheumatic disease.

Arthritis Res Ther 2015 May 15;17:122. Epub 2015 May 15.

Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9RY, UK.

The pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system are part of the first line of defence against pathogens. However, they also have the ability to respond to danger signals that are frequently elevated during tissue damage and at sites of inflammation. Inadvertent activation of pattern recognition receptors has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of many conditions including inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Prolonged inflammation most often results in pain and damage to tissues. In particular, the Toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-like receptors that form inflammasomes have been postulated as key contributors to the inflammation observed in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gout and systemic lupus erythematosus. As such, there is increasing interest in targeting these receptors for therapeutic treatment in the clinic. Here the role of pattern recognition receptors in the pathogenesis of these diseases is discussed, with an update on the development of interventions to modulate the activity of these potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-015-0645-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4432834PMC
May 2015

Emerging role of endosomal toll-like receptors in rheumatoid arthritis.

Front Immunol 2014 16;5. Epub 2014 Jan 16.

Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Trafford Centre, University of Sussex , Brighton , UK.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their downstream signaling pathways have been comprehensively characterized in innate immunity. In addition to this function, these receptors have also been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Murine in vivo models and human in vitro tissue models of RA have provided a wealth of information on the potential activity of TLRs and components of the downstream signaling pathways. Whilst most early work investigated the cell surface TLRs, more recently the focus has moved to the endosomal TLRs 3, 7, 8, and 9. These receptors recognize self and foreign double-stranded RNA and single-stranded RNA and DNA. The development of therapeutics to inhibit the endosomal TLRs or components of their signaling cascades may represent a way to target inflammation upstream of cytokine production. This may allow for greater specificity than existing therapies including cytokine blockade. Here, we review the current information suggesting a role for the endosomal TLRs in RA pathogenesis and the efforts to target these receptors therapeutically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2014.00001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3893714PMC
June 2014

Mesenchymal stem cells exhibit firm adhesion, crawling, spreading and transmigration across aortic endothelial cells: effects of chemokines and shear.

PLoS One 2011 28;6(9):e25663. Epub 2011 Sep 28.

Leopold Muller Arthritis Research Centre, Medical School, Keele University, RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire, United Kingdom.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties and may be useful in the therapy of diseases such as arteriosclerosis. MSCs have some ability to traffic into inflamed tissues, however to exploit this therapeutically their migratory mechanisms need to be elucidated. This study examines the interaction of murine MSCs (mMSCs) with, and their migration across, murine aortic endothelial cells (MAECs), and the effects of chemokines and shear stress. The interaction of mMSCs with MAECs was examined under physiological flow conditions. mMSCs showed lack of interaction with MAECs under continuous flow. However, when the flow was stopped (for 10 min) and then started, mMSCs adhered and crawled on the endothelial surface, extending fine microvillous processes (filopodia). They then spread extending pseudopodia in multiple directions. CXCL9 significantly enhanced the percentage of mMSCs adhering, crawling and spreading and shear forces markedly stimulated crawling and spreading. CXCL9, CXCL16, CCL20 and CCL25 significantly enhanced transendothelial migration across MAECs. The transmigrated mMSCs had down-regulated receptors CXCR3, CXCR6, CCR6 and CCR9. This study furthers the knowledge of MSC transendothelial migration and the effects of chemokines and shear stress which is of relevance to inflammatory diseases such as arteriosclerosis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0025663PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3182247PMC
January 2012

Idd9.1 locus controls the suppressive activity of FoxP3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cells.

Diabetes 2010 Jan 15;59(1):272-81. Epub 2009 Oct 15.

Julia McFarlane Diabetes Research Centre (JMDRC) and Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Institute for Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Objective: The approximately 45-cM insulin-dependent diabetes 9 (Idd9) region on mouse chromosome 4 harbors several different type 1 diabetes-associated loci. Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice congenic for the Idd9 region of C57BL/10 (B10) mice, carrying antidiabetogenic alleles in three different Idd9 subregions (Idd9.1, Idd9.2, and Idd9.3), are strongly resistant to type 1 diabetes. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to define mechanisms underlying the type 1 diabetes resistance afforded by B10 Idd9.1, Idd9.2, and/or Idd9.3.

Research Design And Methods: We used a reductionist approach that involves comparing the fate of a type 1 diabetes-relevant autoreactive CD8(+) T-cell population, specific for residues 206-214 of islet-specific glucose 6 phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP(206-214)), in noncongenic versus B10 Idd9-congenic (Idd9.1 + Idd9.2 + Idd9.3, Idd9.2 + Idd9.3, Idd9.1, Idd9.2, and Idd9.3) T-cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic (8.3) NOD mice.

Results: Most of the protective effect of Idd9 against 8.3-CD8(+) T-cell-enhanced type 1 diabetes was mediated by Idd9.1. Although Idd9.2 and Idd9.3 afforded some protection, the effects were small and did not enhance the greater protective effect of Idd9.1. B10 Idd9.1 afforded type 1 diabetes resistance without impairing the developmental biology or intrinsic diabetogenic potential of autoreactive CD8(+) T-cells. Studies in T- and B-cell-deficient 8.3-NOD.B10 Idd9.1 mice revealed that this antidiabetogenic effect was mediated by endogenous, nontransgenic T-cells in a B-cell-independent manner. Consistent with this, B10 Idd9.1 increased the suppressive function and antidiabetogenic activity of the FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) T-cell subset in both TCR-transgenic and nontransgenic mice.

Conclusions: A gene(s) within Idd9.1 regulates the development and function of FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T-cells and, in turn, the activation of CD8(+) effector T-cells in the pancreatic draining lymph nodes, without affecting their development or intrinsic diabetogenic potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db09-0648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2797933PMC
January 2010

Genetic evidence that the differential expression of the ligand-independent isoform of CTLA-4 is the molecular basis of the Idd5.1 type 1 diabetes region in nonobese diabetic mice.

J Immunol 2009 Oct 25;183(8):5146-57. Epub 2009 Sep 25.

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Center for Neurologic Diseases, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Idd5.1 regulates T1D susceptibility in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and has two notable candidate genes, Ctla4 and Icos. Reduced expression of one of the four CTLA-4 isoforms, ligand-independent CTLA-4 (liCTLA-4), which inhibits in vitro T cell activation and cytokine production similarly to full-length CTLA-4 (flCTLA-4), has been hypothesized to increase type 1 diabetes (T1D) susceptibility. However, further support of this hypothesis is required since the Idd5.1 haplotypes of the diabetes-susceptible NOD and the resistant B10 strains differ throughout Ctla4 and Icos. Using haplotype analysis and the generation of novel Idd5.1-congenic strains that differ at the disease-associated Ctla4 exon 2 single-nucleotide polymorphism, we demonstrate that increased expression of liCTLA-4 correlates with reduced T1D susceptibility. To directly assess the ability of liCTLA-4 to modulate T1D, we generated liCTLA-4-transgenic NOD mice and compared their diabetes susceptibility to nontransgenic littermates. NOD liCTLA-4-transgenic mice were protected from T1D to the same extent as NOD.B10 Idd5.1-congenic mice, demonstrating that increased liCTLA-4 expression alone can account for disease protection. To further investigate the in vivo function of liCTLA-4, specifically whether liCTLA-4 can functionally replace flCTLA-4 in vivo, we expressed the liCTLA-4 transgene in CTLA-4(-/-) B6 mice. CTLA-4(-/-) mice expressing liCTLA-4 accumulated fewer activated effector/memory CD4(+) T cells than CTLA-4(-/-) mice and the transgenic mice were partially rescued from the multiorgan inflammation and early lethality caused by the disruption of Ctla4. These results suggest that liCTLA-4 can partially replace some functions of flCTLA-4 in vivo and that this isoform evolved to reinforce the function of flCTLA-4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0802610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2871291PMC
October 2009

Murine mesenchymal stem cells exhibit a restricted repertoire of functional chemokine receptors: comparison with human.

PLoS One 2008 Aug 13;3(8):e2934. Epub 2008 Aug 13.

Leopold Muller Arthritis Research Centre, Medical School, Keele University, RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire, United Kingdom.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are non-haematopoeitic, stromal cells that are capable of differentiating into mesenchymal tissues such as bone and cartilage. They are rare in bone marrow, but have the ability to expand many-fold in culture, and retain their growth and multi-lineage potential. The properties of MSCs make them ideal candidates for tissue engineering. It has been shown that MSCs, when transplanted systemically, can home to sites of injury, suggesting that MSCs possess migratory capacity; however, mechanisms underlying migration of these cells remain unclear. Chemokine receptors and their ligands play an important role in tissue-specific homing of leukocytes. Here we define the cell surface chemokine receptor repertoire of murine MSCs from bone marrow, with a view to determining their migratory activity. We also define the chemokine receptor repertoire of human MSCs from bone marrow as a comparison. We isolated murine MSCs from the long bones of Balb/c mice by density gradient centrifugation and adherent cell culture. Human MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of patients undergoing hip replacement by density gradient centrifugation and adherent cell culture. The expression of chemokine receptors on the surface of MSCs was studied using flow cytometry. Primary murine MSCs expressed CCR6, CCR9, CXCR3 and CXCR6 on a large proportion of cells (73+/-11%, 44+/-25%, 55+/-18% and 96+/-2% respectively). Chemotaxis assays were used to verify functionality of these chemokine receptors. We have also demonstrated expression of these receptors on human MSCs, revealing some similarity in chemokine receptor expression between the two species. Consequently, these murine MSCs would be a useful model to further study the role of chemokine receptors in in vivo models of disease and injury, for example in recruitment of MSCs to inflamed tissues for repair or immunosuppression.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0002934PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2488395PMC
August 2008

Concise review: mesenchymal stem cells: their phenotype, differentiation capacity, immunological features, and potential for homing.

Stem Cells 2007 Nov 26;25(11):2739-49. Epub 2007 Jul 26.

Leopold Muller Arthritis Research Centre, School of Medicine, Keele University, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shrops SY10 7AG, UK.

MSCs are nonhematopoietic stromal cells that are capable of differentiating into, and contribute to the regeneration of, mesenchymal tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle, ligament, tendon, and adipose. MSCs are rare in bone marrow, representing approximately 1 in 10,000 nucleated cells. Although not immortal, they have the ability to expand manyfold in culture while retaining their growth and multilineage potential. MSCs are identified by the expression of many molecules including CD105 (SH2) and CD73 (SH3/4) and are negative for the hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45, and CD14. The properties of MSCs make these cells potentially ideal candidates for tissue engineering. It has been shown that MSCs, when transplanted systemically, are able to migrate to sites of injury in animals, suggesting that MSCs possess migratory capacity. However, the mechanisms underlying the migration of these cells remain unclear. Chemokine receptors and their ligands and adhesion molecules play an important role in tissue-specific homing of leukocytes and have also been implicated in trafficking of hematopoietic precursors into and through tissue. Several studies have reported the functional expression of various chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules on human MSCs. Harnessing the migratory potential of MSCs by modulating their chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions may be a powerful way to increase their ability to correct inherited disorders of mesenchymal tissues or facilitate tissue repair in vivo. The current review describes what is known about MSCs and their capacity to home to tissues together with the associated molecular mechanisms involving chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2007-0197DOI Listing
November 2007

Recent advances into the understanding of mesenchymal stem cell trafficking.

Br J Haematol 2007 Jun;137(6):491-502

Arthritis Research Centre, Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University at Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire, UK.

The use of adult stem cells to regenerate damaged tissue circumvents the moral and technical issues associated with the use of those from an embryonic source. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be isolated from a variety of tissues, most commonly from the bone marrow, and, although they represent a very small percentage of these cells, are easily expandable. Recently, the use of MSC has provided clinical benefit to patients with osteogenesis imperfecta, graft-versus-host disease and myocardial infarction. The cellular cues that enabled the MSC to be directed to the sites of tissue damage and the mechanisms by which MSC then exert their therapeutic effect are becoming clearer. This review discusses the relative therapeutic importance of the ability of MSC to differentiate into multiple cell lineages or stimulate resident or attracted cells via a paracrine mode of action. It also reviews recent findings that MSC home to damaged tissues in a similar, but somewhat distinct, manner to that of leucocytes via the utilisation of adhesion molecules, such as selectins and integrins, and chemokines and their receptors in a manner reminiscent of leucocytes trafficking from the blood stream to inflammatory sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2007.06610.xDOI Listing
June 2007

Bone marrow stromal cells stimulate neurite outgrowth over neural proteoglycans (CSPG), myelin associated glycoprotein and Nogo-A.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007 Mar 10;354(2):559-66. Epub 2007 Jan 10.

Centre for Spinal Studies, Robert Jones & Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7AG, UK.

In animal models, transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (MSC) into the spinal cord following injury enhances axonal regeneration and promotes functional recovery. How these improvements come about is currently unclear. We have examined the interaction of MSC with neurons, using an established in vitro model of nerve growth, in the presence of substrate-bound extracellular molecules that are thought to inhibit axonal regeneration, i.e., neural proteoglycans (CSPG), myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) and Nogo-A. Each of these molecules repelled neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in a concentration-dependent manner. However, these nerve-inhibitory effects were much reduced in MSC/DRG co-cultures. Video microscopy demonstrated that MSC acted as "cellular bridges" and also "towed" neurites over the nerve-inhibitory substrates. Whereas conditioned medium from MSC cultures stimulated DRG neurite outgrowth over type I collagen, it did not promote outgrowth over CSPG, MAG or Nogo-A. These findings suggest that MSC transplantation may promote axonal regeneration both by stimulating nerve growth via secreted factors and also by reducing the nerve-inhibitory effects of the extracellular molecules present.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.01.013DOI Listing
March 2007

A 20-Mb region of chromosome 4 controls TNF-alpha-mediated CD8+ T cell aggression toward beta cells in type 1 diabetes.

J Immunol 2006 Oct;177(8):5105-14

Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Identification of candidate genes and their immunological mechanisms that control autoaggressive T cells in inflamed environments, may lead to novel therapies for autoimmune diseases, like type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this study, we used transgenic NOD mice that constitutively express TNF-alpha in their islets from neonatal life (TNF-alpha-NOD) to identify protective alleles that control T1D in the presence of a proinflammatory environment. We show that TNF-alpha-mediated breakdown in T cell tolerance requires recessive NOD alleles. To identify some of these recessive alleles, we crossed TNF-alpha-NOD mice to diabetes-resistant congenic NOD mice having protective alleles at insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) loci that control spontaneous T1D at either the preinsulitis (Idd3.Idd5) or postinsulitis (Idd9) phases. No protection from TNF-alpha-accelerated T1D was afforded by resistance alleles at Idd3.Idd5. Lack of protection was not at the level of T cell priming, the efficacy of islet-infiltrating APCs to present islet peptides, nor the ability of high levels of CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells to accumulate in the islets. In contrast, protective alleles at Idd9 significantly increased the age at which TNF-alpha-NOD mice developed T1D. Disease delay was associated with a decreased ability of CD8+ T cells to respond to islet Ags presented by islet-infiltrating APCs. Finally, we demonstrate that the protective region on chromosome 4 that controls T1D in TNF-alpha-Idd9 mice is restricted to the Idd9.1 region. These data provide new evidence of the mechanisms by which selective genetic loci control autoimmune diseases in the presence of a strong inflammatory assault.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.177.8.5105DOI Listing
October 2006

Natural genetic variants influencing type 1 diabetes in humans and in the NOD mouse.

Novartis Found Symp 2005 ;267:57-65; discussion 65-75

Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation/Wellcome Trust Diabetes & Inflammation Laboratory, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK.

The understanding of the genetic basis of type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune diseases and the application of that knowledge to their treatment, cure and eventual prevention has been a difficult goal to reach. Cumulative progress in both mouse and human are finally giving way to some successes and significant insights have been made in the last few years. Investigators have identified key immune tolerance-associated phenotypes in convincingly reliable ways that are regulated by specific diabetes-associated chromosomal intervals. The combination of positional genetics and functional studies is a powerful approach to the identification of downstream molecular events that are causal in disease aetiology. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the availability of several animal models, especially the NOD mouse, has complemented the efforts to localize human genes causing diabetes and has shown that some of the same genes and pathways are associated with autoimmunity in both species. There is also growing evidence that the initiation or progression of many autoimmune diseases is likely to be influenced by some of the same genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/047002139x.ch6DOI Listing
November 2005

Genetic and functional association of the immune signaling molecule 4-1BB (CD137/TNFRSF9) with type 1 diabetes.

J Autoimmun 2005 Aug;25(1):13-20

Department of Immunology, 1 King's College Circle, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada.

Idd9.3, a locus that determines susceptibility to the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, has been mapped to the distal region of chromosome 4. In the current report we reduce the size of the Idd9.3 interval to 1.2Mb containing 15 genes, including one encoding the immune signaling molecule, 4-1BB, which shows amino acid variation between diabetes sensitive and resistant strains. 4-1BB, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily expressed by a variety of immune cells, mediates growth and survival signals for T cells. Functional analyses demonstrate that purified T cells from NOD congenic mice with the C57BL/10 (B10) allele at Idd9.3 produce more IL-2 and proliferate more vigorously in response to anti-CD3 plus immobilized 4-1BB ligand than T cells from NOD mice with the NOD allele at Idd9.3. In contrast, the response to anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 costimulation was indistinguishable between the congenic strains, pinpointing the differences in NOD versus NOD.B10 Idd9.3 T cell responses to the 4-1BB costimulatory pathway. These data provide evidence in support of Idd9.3 as the locus encoding 4-1BB and suggest that the 4-1BB signaling pathway could have a primary function in the etiology of autoimmune disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2005.04.007DOI Listing
August 2005

Construction and analysis of tag single nucleotide polymorphism maps for six human-mouse orthologous candidate genes in type 1 diabetes.

BMC Genet 2005 Feb 18;6. Epub 2005 Feb 18.

Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Hills Road, Cambridge, UK.

Background: One strategy to help identify susceptibility genes for complex, multifactorial diseases is to map disease loci in a representative animal model of the disorder. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a model for human type 1 diabetes. Linkage and congenic strain analyses have identified several NOD mouse Idd (insulin dependent diabetes) loci, which have been mapped to small chromosome intervals, for which the orthologous regions in the human genome can be identified. Here, we have conducted re-sequencing and association analysis of six orthologous genes identified in NOD Idd loci: NRAMP1/SLC11A1 (orthologous to Nramp1/Slc11a1 in Idd5.2), FRAP1 (orthologous to Frap1 in Idd9.2), 4-1BB/CD137/TNFRSF9 (orthologous to 4-1bb/Cd137/Tnrfrsf9 in Idd9.3), CD101/IGSF2 (orthologous to Cd101/Igsf2 in Idd10), B2M (orthologous to B2m in Idd13) and VAV3 (orthologous to Vav3 in Idd18).

Results: Re-sequencing of a total of 110 kb of DNA from 32 or 96 type 1 diabetes cases yielded 220 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Sixty-five SNPs, including 54 informative tag SNPs, and a microsatellite were selected and genotyped in up to 1,632 type 1 diabetes families and 1,709 cases and 1,829 controls.

Conclusion: None of the candidate regions showed evidence of association with type 1 diabetes (P values > 0.2), indicating that common variation in these key candidate genes does not play a major role in type 1 diabetes susceptibility in the European ancestry populations studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2156-6-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC551616PMC
February 2005

Fine mapping, gene content, comparative sequencing, and expression analyses support Ctla4 and Nramp1 as candidates for Idd5.1 and Idd5.2 in the nonobese diabetic mouse.

J Immunol 2004 Jul;173(1):164-73

Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK.

At least two loci that determine susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse have been mapped to chromosome 1, Idd5.1 (insulin-dependent diabetes 5.1) and Idd5.2. In this study, using a series of novel NOD.B10 congenic strains, Idd5.1 has been defined to a 2.1-Mb region containing only four genes, Ctla4, Icos, Als2cr19, and Nrp2 (neuropilin-2), thereby excluding a major candidate gene, Cd28. Genomic sequence comparison of the two functional candidate genes, Ctla4 and Icos, from the B6 (resistant at Idd5.1) and the NOD (susceptible at Idd5.1) strains revealed 62 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only two of which were in coding regions. One of these coding SNPs, base 77 of Ctla4 exon 2, is a synonymous SNP and has been correlated previously with type 1 diabetes susceptibility and differential expression of a CTLA-4 isoform. Additional expression studies in this work support the hypothesis that this SNP in exon 2 is the genetic variation causing the biological effects of Idd5.1. Analysis of additional congenic strains has also localized Idd5.2 to a small region (1.52 Mb) of chromosome 1, but in contrast to the Idd5.1 interval, Idd5.2 contains at least 45 genes. Notably, the Idd5.2 region still includes the functionally polymorphic Nramp1 gene. Future experiments to test the identity of Idd5.1 and Idd5.2 as Ctla4 and Nramp1, respectively, can now be justified using approaches to specifically alter or mimic the candidate causative SNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.173.1.164DOI Listing
July 2004

Association of the T-cell regulatory gene CTLA4 with susceptibility to autoimmune disease.

Nature 2003 May 30;423(6939):506-11. Epub 2003 Apr 30.

Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Cambridge, CB2 2XY, UK.

Genes and mechanisms involved in common complex diseases, such as the autoimmune disorders that affect approximately 5% of the population, remain obscure. Here we identify polymorphisms of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 gene (CTLA4)--which encodes a vital negative regulatory molecule of the immune system--as candidates for primary determinants of risk of the common autoimmune disorders Graves' disease, autoimmune hypothyroidism and type 1 diabetes. In humans, disease susceptibility was mapped to a non-coding 6.1 kb 3' region of CTLA4, the common allelic variation of which was correlated with lower messenger RNA levels of the soluble alternative splice form of CTLA4. In the mouse model of type 1 diabetes, susceptibility was also associated with variation in CTLA-4 gene splicing with reduced production of a splice form encoding a molecule lacking the CD80/CD86 ligand-binding domain. Genetic mapping of variants conferring a small disease risk can identify pathways in complex disorders, as exemplified by our discovery of inherited, quantitative alterations of CTLA4 contributing to autoimmune tissue destruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature01621DOI Listing
May 2003

Expression of the duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC) by the inflamed synovial endothelium.

J Pathol 2002 May;197(1):108-16

Centre for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University at Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, UK.

The expression of chemokine binding sites on the endothelial cells of venules in inflamed synovia was examined and whether the Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC) was involved. In situ binding assays were performed to determine the expression of chemokine binding sites from rheumatoid (n = 10) and non-rheumatoid (n = 10) synovia. The expression of DARC protein and mRNA was examined by immunohistochemistry and northern blotting. The involvement of DARC in chemokine binding was studied by incubating sections with blocking antibodies to DARC (Fy3 and 6), to find out if these reduced 125I-IL-8 binding. Binding of radiolabelled chemokines IL-8, RANTES, MCP-1, but not MIP-1alpha, was found on venular endothelial cells in inflamed synovia from both rheumatoid and non-rheumatoid patients. Excess homologous unlabelled chemokine displaced binding and excess unlabelled RANTES could displace radiolabelled IL-8 binding. DARC protein expression was demonstrated on venular endothelial cells in all samples and DARC mRNA could be detected in extracts from synovia. There was downregulation of DARC protein and mRNA in rheumatoid samples. Binding of IL-8 to both rheumatoid and non-rheumatoid synovia was significantly reduced in the presence of anti-DARC Fy3 and Fy6 monoclonal antibodies. These findings show the expression of a multispecific chemokine binding site on the inflamed synovial endothelium, with evidence for involvement of DARC. This suggests a potential role for DARC in the inflammatory processes involved in synovitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.1100DOI Listing
May 2002