Publications by authors named "Gisela M Terwindt"

148 Publications

Cerebellar Superficial Siderosis in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.

Stroke 2021 Sep 20:STROKEAHA121035019. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands. (E.A.K., S.V., I.R., G.M.T., M.J.H.W.).

Background And Purpose: Although evidence accumulates that the cerebellum is involved in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), cerebellar superficial siderosis is not considered to be a disease marker. The objective of this study is to investigate cerebellar superficial siderosis frequency and its relation to hemorrhagic magnetic resonance imaging markers in patients with sporadic and Dutch-type hereditary CAA and patients with deep perforating arteriopathy-related intracerebral hemorrhage.

Methods: We recruited patients from 3 prospective 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging studies and scored siderosis and hemorrhages. Cerebellar siderosis was identified as hypointense linear signal loss (black) on susceptibility-weighted or T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging which follows at least one folia of the cerebellar cortex (including the vermis).

Results: We included 50 subjects with Dutch-type hereditary CAA, (mean age 50 years), 45 with sporadic CAA (mean age 72 years), and 43 patients with deep perforating arteriopathy-related intracerebral hemorrhage (mean age 54 years). Cerebellar superficial siderosis was present in 5 out of 50 (10% [95% CI, 2-18]) patients with Dutch-type hereditary CAA, 4/45 (9% [95% CI, 1-17]) patients with sporadic CAA, and 0 out of 43 (0% [95% CI, 0-8]) patients with deep perforating arteriopathy-related intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients with cerebellar superficial siderosis had more supratentorial lobar (median number 9 versus 2, relative risk, 2.9 [95% CI, 2.5-3.4]) and superficial cerebellar macrobleeds (median number 2 versus 0, relative risk, 20.3 [95% CI, 8.6-47.6]) compared with patients without the marker. The frequency of cortical superficial siderosis and superficial cerebellar microbleeds was comparable.

Conclusions: We conclude that cerebellar superficial siderosis might be a novel marker for CAA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.121.035019DOI Listing
September 2021

Comparing Perimenstrual and Nonperimenstrual Migraine Attacks Using an e-Diary.

Neurology 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Endogenous and exogenous female sex hormones are considered important contributors to migraine pathophysiology. Previous studies have cautiously suggested that perimenstrual migraine attacks have a longer duration and are associated with higher disability compared to non-perimenstrual attacks, but they showed conflicting results on acute therapy efficacy, pain intensity, and associated symptoms.

Objectives: To compare perimenstrual and non-perimenstrual migraine attack characteristics and assess premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in women with migraine.

Methods: Women with migraine were invited to complete a headache E-diary. Characteristics of perimenstrual attacks and non-perimenstrual attacks were compared. The primary outcome was attack duration. Secondary outcomes were headache intensity, accompanying symptoms, acute medication intake and pain coping. Mixed effects models were used to account for multiple attacks within patients. PMS was assessed in those without hormonal contraceptives. Subgroup analyses were performed for women with menstrually related migraine (MRM) and non-menstrually related migraine (non-MRM), and women with a natural menstrual cycle and women using hormonal contraceptives.

Results: A representative group of n=500 participants completed the E-diary for at least one month. Perimenstrual migraine attacks (n=998) compared with non-perimenstrual attacks (n=4097) were associated with longer duration (20.0 vs 16.1 hours, 95%CI [0.2-0.4]), higher recurrence risk (OR 2.4 [2.0-2.9]), increased triptan intake (OR 1.2 [1.1-1.4]), higher headache intensity (OR 1.4 [1.2-1.7]), less pain coping (mean difference -0.2 [-0.3- -0.1]), more pronounced photophobia (OR 1.3 [1.2-1.4]) and phonophobia (OR 1.2 [1.1-1.4]) and less aura (OR 0.8 [0.6-1.0]). In total 396/500 women completed the diary for ≥3 consecutive menstrual cycles, of whom 56% (221/396) fulfilled MRM criteria. Differences in attack characteristics became more pronounced when focusing on women with MRM and women using hormonal contraceptives. Prevalence of PMS was not different for women with MRM compared to non-MRM (11% vs. 15%).

Discussion: The longer duration of perimenstrual migraine attacks in women (with MRM) is associated with higher recurrence risk and increased triptan use. This may increase the risk of medication overuse and emphasizes the need to develop female-specific prophylactic treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000012723DOI Listing
September 2021

Treatment with the monoclonal calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antibody erenumab: A real-life study.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background And Purpose: New prophylactics for migraine, targeting calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), have recently emerged. Real-world data are important for a comprehensive understanding of treatment response. We assessed the consistency of response to erenumab, a monoclonal CGRP receptor antibody, in a real-world setting, in order to determine which patients may be considered responders in clinical practice.

Methods: All erenumab-treated patients (n = 100) completed a time-locked daily electronic diary, and an automated algorithm was used to monitor treatment response. Monthly migraine days (MMD), non-migrainous headache days, days of acute medication use (MAMD), well-being and coping with pain were assessed for a 6-month period. The primary outcome was reduction in MMD compared to baseline.

Results: The numbers of MMD and MAMD decreased in all months, in both episodic and chronic migraine patients, compared to baseline (p < 0.001), while general well-being (p < 0.001) and coping with pain (p < 0.001) also improved. Of all patients, 36% had an MMD reduction of ≥50% in ≥3/6 months, and 6% had such a reduction in all 6 months. For a ≥30% MMD reduction, the figures were 60% and 24%, respectively. Almost 90% of patients with an average MMD reduction of ≥30% over the first 3 months had a sustained response in the last 3 months. In addition, 20% of patients without an initial response (average <30%), had a delayed response (average ≥30%) in the last 3 months.

Conclusion: Erenumab was effective in migraine patients who were highly refractory to previous prophylactics. As a practical guideline, we propose that treatment be continued for at least 6 months and that patients with a ≥30% MMD reduction in at least half of the treatment period should be considered to be responders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.15075DOI Listing
August 2021

Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinal Vasculopathy With Cerebral Leukoencephalopathy and Systemic Manifestations: A Monogenic Small Vessel Disease.

J Neuroophthalmol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Departments of Neurology (IB, NP, GMT) and Ophthalmology (SRS, MA, GD, ICN), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy and systemic manifestations (RVCL-S) is a monogenic small vessel disease caused by mutations in TREX1. Several organs, including retina and brain, are affected. Analyzing retinal anatomy is increasingly used as a biomarker for ophthalmological and neurological disorders (due to the shared embryological origin of retina and brain). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides a noninvasive cross-sectional visualization of optic disc and macula. We aimed to use OCT to investigate retinal layer thickness in RVCL-S.

Methods: Cross-sectional, 17 TREX1 mutation carriers (34 eyes) and 9 controls (18 eyes) underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic assessment followed by spectral domain OCT for measuring peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and total macular volume (TMV). Secondary outcomes included measuring thickness of individual macular retinal layers and peripapillary sectors. Findings were analyzed using generalized estimating equations to account for intereye correlation.

Results: TREX1 mutation carriers had decreased pRNFL thickness (median [interquartile range] 76 [60-99] vs 99 [87-108] µm, P < 0.001) and TMV (8.1 [7.4-8.5] vs 8.7 [8.4-8.8] mm3, P = 0.006) compared with controls. With the exception of the temporal sector, the thickness of all peripapillary sectors was decreased in TREX1 mutation carriers. Ganglion cell layer (30 [22-37] vs 39 [36-41] µm, P < 0.001) and inner plexiform layer (27 [24-34] vs 34 [31-35], P = 0.001) were thinner in TREX1 mutation carriers. Notably, in 9 of 12 eyes with normal funduscopic examination, retinal thinning was already detected.

Conclusions: RVCL-S, which may serve as a vascular retinopathy model, is associated with retinal thinning in the peripapillary and macular area. OCT findings can potentially serve as early biomarkers for RVCL-S and other vascular retinopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNO.0000000000001336DOI Listing
July 2021

Hypothalamic functional MRI activity in the initiation phase of spontaneous and glyceryl trinitrate-induced migraine attacks.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 08 14;54(3):5189-5202. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The hypothalamus has been suggested to be important in the initiation cascade of migraine attacks based on clinical and biochemical observations. Previous imaging studies could not disentangle the changes due to the attack and those due to the trigger compound. With a novel approach, we assessed hypothalamic neuronal activity in early premonitory phases of glyceryl-trinitrate (GTN)-induced and spontaneous migraine attacks. We measured the hypothalamic blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to oral glucose ingestion with 3T-functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 27 women, 16 with migraine without aura and 11 controls group matched for age and body mass index (BMI), on 1 day without prior GTN administration and on a second day after GTN administration (to coincide with the premonitory phase of an induced attack). Interestingly, subgroups of patients with and without GTN-triggered attacks could be compared. Additionally, five migraineurs were investigated in a spontaneous premonitory phase. Linear mixed models were used to study between- and within-group effects. Without prior GTN infusion, the BOLD response to glucose was similar in migraine participants and controls (P = .41). After prior GTN infusion, recovery occurred steeper and faster in migraineurs (versus Day 1; P < .0001) and in those who developed an attack versus those who did not (P < .0001). Prior GTN infusion did not alter the glucose-induced response in controls (versus baseline; P = .71). Just before spontaneous attacks, the BOLD-response recovery was also faster (P < .0001). In this study, we found new and direct evidence of altered hypothalamic neuronal function in the immediate preclinical phase of both GTN-provoked and spontaneous migraine attacks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.15369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457240PMC
August 2021

Genetic Susceptibility Loci in Genomewide Association Study of Cluster Headache.

Ann Neurol 2021 Aug 14;90(2):203-216. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Objective: Identifying common genetic variants that confer genetic risk for cluster headache.

Methods: We conducted a case-control study in the Dutch Leiden University Cluster headache neuro-Analysis program (LUCA) study population (n = 840) and unselected controls from the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study (NEO; n = 1,457). Replication was performed in a Norwegian sample of 144 cases from the Trondheim Cluster headache sample and 1,800 controls from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT). Gene set and tissue enrichment analyses, blood cell-derived RNA-sequencing of genes around the risk loci and linkage disequilibrium score regression were part of the downstream analyses.

Results: An association was found with cluster headache for 4 independent loci (r  < 0.1) with genomewide significance (p < 5 × 10 ), rs11579212 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-1.72 near RP11-815 M8.1), rs6541998 (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.37-1.74 near MERTK), rs10184573 (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.26-1.61 near AC093590.1), and rs2499799 (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.54-0.73 near UFL1/FHL5), collectively explaining 7.2% of the variance of cluster headache. SNPs rs11579212, rs10184573, and rs976357, as proxy SNP for rs2499799 (r  = 1.0), replicated in the Norwegian sample (p < 0.05). Gene-based mapping yielded ASZ1 as possible fifth locus. RNA-sequencing indicated differential expression of POLR1B and TMEM87B in cluster headache patients.

Interpretation: This genomewide association study (GWAS) identified and replicated genetic risk loci for cluster headache with effect sizes larger than those typically seen in complex genetic disorders. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:203-216.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.26146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8362054PMC
August 2021

Relevant factors for neurologists to define effectiveness of migraine preventive drugs and take decisions on treatment. My-LIFE European Delphi survey.

Eur J Pain 2021 Nov 13;25(10):2177-2189. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Headache Science Center, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Clinical guidelines agree that preventive treatment should be considered in patients with uncontrolled migraine despite acute medications or patients with ≥4 migraine days per month. However, the criteria to define the effectiveness of treatment and the factors that inform the decision to (dis)continue it are not clearly defined in clinical practice.

Methods: Overall, 148 healthcare practitioners from five European countries completed a two-wave questionnaire. The Steering Committee defined a simulated set of 108 migraine patient profiles based on the combination of five factors (frequency of the attacks, intensity of the attacks, use of acute migraine medications, patient perception and presence/absence of tolerable side effects). These profiles were used in a Delphi survey among European neurologists to identify the criteria that should be used to decide treatment response and continuation using a conjoint analysis approach.

Results: Consensus was reached for 82/108 (76%) of profiles regarding treatment response, and for 86/108 (80%) regarding treatment continuation. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that a ≥50% reduction in the use of acute migraine medications and positive patient's perception of treatment were the most important factors that lead to the decision of continuing (combined factors, OR = 18.3, 95% CI 13.4-25.05).

Conclusions: This survey identifies two relevant outcome measures: one objective (use of acute migraine treatment medications) and one subjective (positive patient perception) that guide the clinician decision to continue preventive treatment in migraine patients.

Significance: In clinical practice, criteria to define the effectiveness of migraine preventive treatment and factors that guide treatment stop or continuation are not clearly defined. In this simulated clinical setting study, a reduction in the use of acute migraine medications was the factor associated with preventive treatment effectiveness definition. This study also revealed that factors strongly associated with the decision of treatment continuation in real life are the acute migraine medications use and a positive patient's perception of treatment effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejp.1831DOI Listing
November 2021

Diagnosis and management of migraine in ten steps.

Nat Rev Neurol 2021 Aug 18;17(8):501-514. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Danish Headache Center, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Migraine is a disabling primary headache disorder that directly affects more than one billion people worldwide. Despite its widespread prevalence, migraine remains under-diagnosed and under-treated. To support clinical decision-making, we convened a European panel of experts to develop a ten-step approach to the diagnosis and management of migraine. Each step was established by expert consensus and supported by a review of current literature, and the Consensus Statement is endorsed by the European Headache Federation and the European Academy of Neurology. In this Consensus Statement, we introduce typical clinical features, diagnostic criteria and differential diagnoses of migraine. We then emphasize the value of patient centricity and patient education to ensure treatment adherence and satisfaction with care provision. Further, we outline best practices for acute and preventive treatment of migraine in various patient populations, including adults, children and adolescents, pregnant and breastfeeding women, and older people. In addition, we provide recommendations for evaluating treatment response and managing treatment failure. Lastly, we discuss the management of complications and comorbidities as well as the importance of planning long-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41582-021-00509-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8321897PMC
August 2021

Guidelines of the International Headache Society for clinical trials with neuromodulation devices for the treatment of migraine.

Cephalalgia 2021 Oct 14;41(11-12):1135-1151. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: Although the European Medicines Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration have cleared several devices that use neuromodulation to provide clinical benefits in the acute or preventive treatment of migraine, the Clinical Trials Committee of the International Headache Society has not developed guidelines specifically for clinical trials of neuromodulation devices. In recognition of the distinct needs and challenges associated with their assessment in controlled trials, the Committee provides these recommendations for optimizing the design and conduct of controlled trials of neuromodulation devices for the acute and/or preventive treatment of migraine.

Methods: An international group of headache scientists and clinicians with expertise in neuromodulation evaluated clinical trials involving neuromodulation devices that have been published since 2000. The Clinical Trials Committee incorporated findings from this expert analysis into a new guideline for clinical trials of neuromodulation devices for the treatment of migraine.

Results: Key terms were defined and recommendations provided relative to the assessment of neuromodulation devices for acute treatment in adults, preventive treatment in adults, and acute and preventive treatment in children and adolescents. Ethical and administrative responsibilities were outlined, and a bibliography of previous research involving neuromodulation devices was created.

Conclusions: Adoption of these recommendations will improve the quality of evidence regarding this important area in migraine treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03331024211010413DOI Listing
October 2021

Migraine prevalence in visual snow with prior illicit drug use (hallucinogen persisting perception disorder) versus without.

Eur J Neurol 2021 08 15;28(8):2631-2638. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background And Purpose: This study was undertaken to investigate migraine prevalence in persons with hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) presenting as visual snow syndrome (VSS).

Methods: Persons with visual snow as a persisting symptom after illicit drug use (HPPD) were recruited via a Dutch consulting clinic for recreational drug use. A structured interview on (visual) perceptual symptomatology, details of drugs use, and medical and headache history was taken. As a control group, persons with visual snow who had never used illicit drugs prior to onset were included. The primary outcome was lifetime prevalence of migraine. Symptom severity was evaluated by the Visual Snow Handicap Inventory (VHI), a 25-item questionnaire.

Results: None of the 24 HPPD participants had migraine, whereas 20 of 37 (54.1%) controls had migraine (p < 0.001). VHI scores did not differ significantly between the two groups; in both groups, the median score was 38 of 100. In most HPPD cases (17/24, 70.9%), visual snow had started after intake of ecstasy; other psychedelic drugs reported included cannabis, psilocybin mushrooms, amphetamine, 4-fluoroamphetamine, 3-methylmethcathinone, 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxypenethylamine, and nitrous oxide.

Conclusions: Whereas none of the HPPD participants had migraine, more than half of the visual snow controls without prior use of illicit drugs had migraine. This suggests that at least partly different pathophysiological factors play a role in these disorders. Users of ecstasy and other hallucinogens should be warned of the risk of visual snow. Further studies are needed to enhance understanding of the underlying neurobiology of HPPD and VSS to enable better management of these conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8361969PMC
August 2021

E-diary use in clinical headache practice: A prospective observational study.

Cephalalgia 2021 Oct 2;41(11-12):1161-1171. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Aim: To determine whether our E-diary can be used to diagnose migraine and provide more reliable migraine-related frequency numbers compared to patients' self-reported estimates.

Methods: We introduced a self-developed E-diary including automated algorithms differentiating headache and migraine days, indicating whether a patient has migraine. Reliability of the E-diary diagnosis in combination with two previously validated E-questionnaires was compared to a physician's diagnosis as gold standard in headache patients referred to the Leiden Headache Clinic (n = 596). In a subset of patients with migraine (n = 484), self-estimated migraine-related frequencies were compared to diary-based results.

Results: The first migraine screening approach including an E-headache questionnaire, and the E-diary revealed a sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 17%. In the second approach, an E-migraine questionnaire was added, resulting in a sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 69%. Mean self-estimated monthly migraine days, non-migrainous headache days and days with acute medication use were different from E-diary-based results (absolute mean difference ± standard deviation respectively 4.7 ± 5.0, 6.2 ± 6.6 and 4.3 ± 4.8).

Conclusion: The E-diary including algorithms differentiating headache and migraine days showed usefulness in diagnosing migraine. The use emphasised the need for E-diaries to obtain reliable information, as patients do not reliably recall numbers of migraine days and acute medication intake. Adding E-diaries will be helpful in future headache telemedicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03331024211010306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8504420PMC
October 2021

Occipital Cortical Calcifications in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.

Stroke 2021 May 5;52(5):1851-1855. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Departments of Neurology (I.R., S.V., E.A.K., P.C.d.K., E.S.v.E., G.M.T., M.J.H.W.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033286DOI Listing
May 2021

Fatigue in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and neuropsychiatric symptoms is associated with anxiety and depression rather than inflammatory disease activity.

Lupus 2021 Jun 28;30(7):1124-1132. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Introduction: We aimed to investigate risk factors for fatigue in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neuropsychiatric symptoms in order to identify potential interventional strategies.

Methods: Patients visiting the neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) clinic of the Leiden University Medical Center between 2007-2019 were included. In a multidisciplinary consensus meeting, SLE patients were classified as having neuropsychiatric symptoms of inflammatory origin (inflammatory phenotype) or other origin (non-inflammatory phenotype). Fatigue was assessed with the SF-36 vitality domain (VT) since 2007 and the multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) since 2011. Patients with a score on the SF-36 VT ≥1 standard deviation (SD) away from the mean of age-related controls of the general population were classified as fatigued; patients ≥2 SD away were classified as extremely fatigued. Disease activity was measured using the SLE disease activity index-2000. The influence of the presence of an inflammatory phenotype, disease activity and symptoms of depression and anxiety as measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) was analyzed using multiple regression analyses corrected for age, sex and education.

Results: 348 out of 371 eligible patients filled in questionnaires and were included in this study . The majority was female (87%) and the mean age was 43 ± 14 years. 72 patients (21%) had neuropsychiatric symptoms of an inflammatory origin. Fatigue was present in 78% of all patients and extreme fatigue was present in 50% of patients with an inflammatory phenotype vs 46% in the non-inflammatory phenotype. Fatigue was similar in patients with an inflammatory phenotype compared to patients with a non-inflammatory phenotype on the SF-36 VT (β: 0.8 (95% CI -4.8; 6.1) and there was less fatigue in patients with an inflammatory phenotype on the MFI and VAS (β: -3.7 (95% CI: -6.9; -0.5) and β: -1.0 (95% CI -1.6; -0.3)). There was no association between disease activity and fatigue, but symptoms of anxiety and depression (HADS) associated strongly with all fatigue measurements.

Conclusion: This study suggests that intervention strategies to target fatigue in (NP)SLE patients may need to focus on symptoms of anxiety and depression rather than immunosuppressive treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09612033211005014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120630PMC
June 2021

Migraine: integrated approaches to clinical management and emerging treatments.

Lancet 2021 04 25;397(10283):1505-1518. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, USA.

Migraine is a highly disabling neurological disorder that directly affects more than 1 billion individuals worldwide. Available treatment options differ between countries and include acute, preventive, and non-pharmacological therapies. Because of major progress in the understanding of migraine pathogenesis, novel mechanism-based medications have emerged and expanded the armamentarium of treatments. We provide a comprehensive overview of the current standard of care that will enable informed clinical management. First, we discuss the efficacy, tolerability, and safety profile of various pharmacological therapies for acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Second, we review the current knowledge on non-pharmacological therapies, such as neuromodulation and biobehavioural approaches, which can be used for a multidisciplinary approach to clinical management. Third, we emphasise that any effective treatment strategy starts with building a therapeutic plan tailored to individual clinical characteristics, preferences, and needs. Finally, we explore the outlook of emerging mechanism-based treatments that could address unmet challenges in clinical management of migraine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32342-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Migraine: disease characterisation, biomarkers, and precision medicine.

Lancet 2021 04 25;397(10283):1496-1504. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, UK.

Migraine is a disabling neurological disorder, diagnosis of which is based on clinical criteria. A shortcoming of these criteria is that they do not fully capture the heterogeneity of migraine, including the underlying genetic and neurobiological factors. This complexity has generated momentum for biomarker research to improve disease characterisation and identify novel drug targets. In this Series paper, we present the progress that has been made in the search for biomarkers of migraine within genetics, provocation modelling, biochemistry, and neuroimaging research. Additionally, we outline challenges and future directions for each biomarker modality. We also discuss the advances made in combining and integrating data from multiple biomarker modalities. These efforts contribute to developing precision medicine that can be applied to future patients with migraine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32162-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Cerebrovascular reactivity in retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy and systemic manifestations.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 04 17;41(4):831-840. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Retinal Vasculopathy with Cerebral Leukoencephalopathy and Systemic manifestations (RVCL-S) is a small vessel disease caused by mutations. RVCL-S is characterized by retinal vasculopathy and brain white matter lesions with and without contrast enhancement. We aimed to investigate cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in RVCL-S. In this cross-sectional observational study, 21 RVCL-S patients, 23 mutation-negative family members, and 31 healthy unrelated controls were included. CVR to a hypercapnic challenge was measured using dual-echo arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging. Stratified analyses based on age were performed. We found that CVR was decreased in gray and white matter of RVCL-S patients compared with family members and healthy controls (ANCOVA;  < 0.05 for all comparisons). This was most noticeable in RVCL-S patients aged ≥40 years (ANCOVA,  < 0.05 for all comparisons). In RVCL-S patients aged < 40 years, only CVR in white matter was lower when compared to healthy controls ( < 0.05). Gray matter CVR was associated with white matter lesion volume in RVCL-S patients ( = -0.527,  = 0.01). In conclusion, impaired cerebrovascular reactivity may play an important role in the pathophysiology of RVCL-S and may be an useful early biomarker of cerebrovascular disease severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X20929430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983338PMC
April 2021

Investigating the relationships between unfavourable habitual sleep and metabolomic traits: evidence from multi-cohort multivariable regression and Mendelian randomization analyses.

BMC Med 2021 03 18;19(1):69. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Sleep traits are associated with cardiometabolic disease risk, with evidence from Mendelian randomization (MR) suggesting that insomnia symptoms and shorter sleep duration increase coronary artery disease risk. We combined adjusted multivariable regression (AMV) and MR analyses of phenotypes of unfavourable sleep on 113 metabolomic traits to investigate possible biochemical mechanisms linking sleep to cardiovascular disease.

Methods: We used AMV (N = 17,368) combined with two-sample MR (N = 38,618) to examine effects of self-reported insomnia symptoms, total habitual sleep duration, and chronotype on 113 metabolomic traits. The AMV analyses were conducted on data from 10 cohorts of mostly Europeans, adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. For the MR analyses, we used summary results from published European-ancestry genome-wide association studies of self-reported sleep traits and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) serum metabolites. We used the inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method and complemented this with sensitivity analyses to assess MR assumptions.

Results: We found consistent evidence from AMV and MR analyses for associations of usual vs. sometimes/rare/never insomnia symptoms with lower citrate (- 0.08 standard deviation (SD)[95% confidence interval (CI) - 0.12, - 0.03] in AMV and - 0.03SD [- 0.07, - 0.003] in MR), higher glycoprotein acetyls (0.08SD [95% CI 0.03, 0.12] in AMV and 0.06SD [0.03, 0.10) in MR]), lower total very large HDL particles (- 0.04SD [- 0.08, 0.00] in AMV and - 0.05SD [- 0.09, - 0.02] in MR), and lower phospholipids in very large HDL particles (- 0.04SD [- 0.08, 0.002] in AMV and - 0.05SD [- 0.08, - 0.02] in MR). Longer total sleep duration associated with higher creatinine concentrations using both methods (0.02SD per 1 h [0.01, 0.03] in AMV and 0.15SD [0.02, 0.29] in MR) and with isoleucine in MR analyses (0.22SD [0.08, 0.35]). No consistent evidence was observed for effects of chronotype on metabolomic measures.

Conclusions: Whilst our results suggested that unfavourable sleep traits may not cause widespread metabolic disruption, some notable effects were observed. The evidence for possible effects of insomnia symptoms on glycoprotein acetyls and citrate and longer total sleep duration on creatinine and isoleucine might explain some of the effects, found in MR analyses of these sleep traits on coronary heart disease, which warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-021-01939-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971964PMC
March 2021

The effect of needle size on cerebrospinal fluid collection time and post-dural puncture headache: A retrospective cohort study.

Headache 2021 02 16;61(2):329-334. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Objective: The main objective of this study was to compare cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection time and patient's discomfort between 20G (a)traumatic and 22G atraumatic needles.

Background: Risk of post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is decreased using atraumatic needles. Smaller needles may give lower risk but possibly at the cost of increased CSF collection time (due to lower flow), leading to additional patient's discomfort.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study of lumbar puncture data from a research program on CSF metabolomics and compared traumatic 20G (n = 210) with atraumatic 20G (n = 39) and 22G (n = 105) needles. In this cohort, incidence of PDPH was prospectively registered with other procedure details. Primary outcome was CSF collection time (time to fill the tube). Secondary outcomes were pain and stress scores during procedure, and incidence of PDPH.

Results: The time to collect 10 mL of CSF was longer for 22G needles (6.1 minutes; 95% CI 5.8-6.5) than for 20G traumatic (2.2 minutes; 95% CI 2.1-2.2) and 20G atraumatic needles (2.9 minutes; 95% CI 2.8-3.1). There were no differences in pain and stress scores. PDPH was lower for 22G atraumatic needles: odds ratio 0.41 (95% CI 0.25-0.66) versus 20G traumatic needles and 0.53 (95% CI 0.40-0.69) versus 20G atraumatic needles. Absolute PDPH rates were 69/210 (32.9%) for 20G traumatic, 13/39 (33.3%) for 20G atraumatic, and 19/105 (18.1%) for 22G atraumatic needles.

Conclusions: CSF collection time is slightly longer for smaller 22G needles, but this does not lead to more discomfort for the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/head.14046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985863PMC
February 2021

Effect of lockdown during COVID-19 on migraine: A longitudinal cohort study.

Cephalalgia 2021 06 11;41(7):865-870. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: The objective of this study was to assess whether migraine-related outcomes changed during intelligent lockdown when compared with the prior period.

Methods: This was a cohort study evaluating the first month of intelligent lockdown in the Netherlands (12 March to 8 April 2020) compared with one baseline month (13 February to 11 March 2020). We identified 870 migraine patients treated at the Leiden Headache Center with headache e-diaries during the period of interest. Adherence to the e-diary had to be ≥80%, yielding 592 enrolled patients.

Results: Intelligent lockdown led to a decrease in monthly migraine days (-0.48; 95% CI: -0.78 to -0.18,  = 0.002) and acute medication days (-0.48; 95% CI: -0.76 to -0.20,  < 0.001), and an increase in general well-being (0.11; 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.17,  < 0.001). No differences in non-migrainous headache days and pain coping were observed. Consistent results were found in a subset that was followed for 4 months.

Conclusions: Our findings imply that intelligent lockdown measures can improve migraine disability despite of the potential negative effects of COVID-19 and lockdown. We hypothesise that this effect is a combined result of working from home, scaling down demanding social lives, and freedom to choose how to organise one's time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0333102420981739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166402PMC
June 2021

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is associated with decreased functional brain connectivity.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 24;29:102546. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a major cause of intracerebral hemorrhage and neurological decline in the elderly. CAA results in focal brain lesions, but the influence on global brain functioning needs further investigation. Here we study functional brain connectivity in patients with Dutch type hereditary CAA using resting state functional MRI. Twenty-four DNA-proven Dutch CAA mutation carriers (11 presymptomatic, 13 symptomatic) and 29 age-matched control subjects were included. Using a set of standardized networks covering the entire cortex, we assessed both within- and between-network functional connectivity. We investigated group differences using general linear models corrected for age, sex and gray matter volume. First, all mutation carriers were contrasted against control subjects and subsequently presymptomatic- and symptomatic mutation carriers against control subjects separately, to assess in which stage of the disease differences could be found. All mutation carriers grouped together showed decreased connectivity in the medial and lateral visual networks, default mode network, executive control and bilateral frontoparietal networks. Symptomatic carriers showed diminished connectivity in all but one network, and between the left and right frontoparietal networks. Presymptomatic carriers also showed diminished connectivity, but only in the frontoparietal left network. In conclusion, global brain functioning is diminished in patients with CAA, predominantly in symptomatic CAA and can therefore be considered to be a late consequence of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806879PMC
June 2021

Suspected Transverse Myelitis with Normal MRI and CSF Findings in a Patient with Lupus: What to Do? A Case Series and Systematic Review.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2020 22;16:3173-3186. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), Leiden, the Netherlands.

Purpose: To evaluate the use of immunosuppressive treatment, clinical outcome and diagnostic strategy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presenting with clinical features of transverse myelitis (TM), but normal MRI of the spinal cord (sMRI) and normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assessment, and to suggest a clinical guideline.

Patients And Methods: All patients with SLE and clinical features compatible with (sub)acute TM visiting the NPSLE clinic of the LUMC between 2007 and 2020 were included. Information on baseline characteristics, investigations, treatment and outcomes was collected from electronic medical records. In addition, a systematic review of individual participant data was performed up to April 2020 in PubMed, Embase and Web of Science, identifying all patients with TM, SLE and sMRI assessment. Data regarding sMRI, CSF analysis, treatment and outcome were extracted, and outcome was compared between patients with normal sMRI and CSF (sMRI-/CSF-) and patients with abnormalities.

Results: Twelve SLE patients with a clinical diagnosis of TM were identified: four sMRI-/CSF- and one sMRI- with CSF not available. All patients received immunosuppressive treatment, but outcome in sMRI-/CSF- patients was worse: no recovery (n=1) or partial recovery (n=3) compared to partial recovery (n=4) and (nearly) complete recovery (n=3) in MRI+ patients. The systematic literature review yielded 146 articles eligible for inclusion, 90% case reports. A total of 427 SLE patients with TM were identified, of which only four cases were sMRI-/CSF- (1%), showing no improvement (n=1), partial improvement (n=2) and complete recovery (n=1) after immunosuppressive treatment.

Conclusion: Outcome in SLE patients presenting with clinically suspected TM with normal sMRI and CSF is less favorable, despite treatment with immunosuppressive therapy. Taking a functional neurological disorder into consideration may be helpful in order to start other therapeutic strategies. We suggest prescribing immunosuppressive treatment for a restricted period of time to evaluate its effect in cases where a functional disorder initially is considered unlikely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S267000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764958PMC
December 2020

Sex Differences in Response to Triptans: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Neurology 2021 01 18;96(4):162-170. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

From the Department of Internal Medicine (D.S.v.C.), Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam and Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Institute of Public Health (T.K.), Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Department of Internal Medicine (A.H.J.D., A.M.V.D.B.), Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology (G.M.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Objective: To examine the effect of sex on clinical response to triptans in migraine and to determine whether these differences are related to pharmacokinetics of triptans in men and women, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: We searched clinical trials distinguishing clinical response to or pharmacokinetic parameters of triptans between sexes in PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science up to Dec 12, 2019. Analysis was based on data extracted from published reports. Male-to-female pooled risk ratios (RR) were calculated for clinical outcomes and pooled ratio of means (RoM) for pharmacokinetic outcomes using random-effects models.

Results: Of 1,188 publications on clinical trials with triptans, 244 were identified with sex-related search terms. Only 19 publications presented sex-specific results, comprising n = 2,280 men and n = 13,899 women. No sex differences were revealed for 2-hour headache and pain-free responses, but men had a lower risk for headache recurrence (male-to-female RR 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.76, Q = 0.81) and adverse events (RR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.93, Q = 4.93). Men had lower drug exposure with lower area under the curve (RoM 0.69, 95% CI: 0.60-0.81, Q = 18.06) and peak drug concentration (RoM 0.72, 95% CI: 0.64-0.82, Q = 8.24) than women.

Conclusions: Remarkably few publications about sex differences in triptan response are available. The limited number of eligible studies show sex differences in adverse event frequency, which may be partly because of drug exposure differences. This higher drug exposure in women is not reflected in different response rates. Despite higher exposure, women have higher headache recurrence rates possibly because of longer attack duration related to sex hormonal changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011216DOI Listing
January 2021

Sex differences in prevalence of migraine trigger factors: A cross-sectional study.

Cephalalgia 2021 05 17;41(6):643-648. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Aim: To examine the effect of sex on migraine trigger factors.

Methods: Prevalence of 11 frequently reported trigger factors was determined in a cross-sectional study among migraine patients from a validated migraine database (n = 5725 females and n = 1061 males). Female-to-male odds ratios were calculated for each trigger, using a logistic regression model with attack frequency and migraine subtype (with or without aura) as covariates. Additionally, the effect of sex on total number of triggers per individual was determined.

Results: The top three most reported triggers in women were menstruation (78%), stress (77%), and bright light (69%). Men reported stress (69%), bright light (63%), and sleep deprivation (60%) most frequently as provoking factors. The following triggers were more often reported by women than men: Bright light (odds ratio 1.29 [95% CI 1.12-1.48];  = 0.003), stress (1.47 [1.27-1.69];  < 0.001), skipping a meal (1.24 [1.09-1.42];  = 0.015), sleep deprivation (1.37 [1.20-1.57];  < 0.001), high altitudes (1.70 [1.40-2.09];  < 0.001), and weather changes (1.35 [1.18-1.55];  < 0.001). Women reported more triggers than men, even when menstruation was disregarded (mean ± SD: 4.6 ± 2.3 and 4.3 ± 2.3;  < 0.001). Women report migraine trigger factors to be provocative of their attacks more frequently than men, which may be related to a lower migraine threshold due to sex hormonal changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0333102420974362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111230PMC
May 2021

Responsivity to light in familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 mutant mice reveals frequency-dependent enhancement of visual network excitability.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 03 26;53(5):1672-1686. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Migraine patients often report (inter)ictal hypersensitivity to light, but the underlying mechanisms remain an enigma. Both hypo- and hyperresponsivity of the visual network have been reported, which may reflect either intra-individual dynamics of the network or large inter-individual variation in the measurement of human visual evoked potential data. Therefore, we studied visual system responsivity in freely behaving mice using combined epidural electroencephalography and intracortical multi-unit activity to reduce variation in recordings and gain insight into visual cortex dynamics. For better clinical translation, we investigated transgenic mice that carry the human pathogenic R192Q missense mutation in the α subunit of voltage-gated Ca 2.1 Ca channels leading to enhanced neurotransmission and familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 in patients. Visual evoked potentials were studied in response to visual stimulation paradigms with flashes of light. Following intensity-dependent visual stimulation, FHM1 mutant mice displayed faster visual evoked potential responses, with lower initial amplitude, followed by less pronounced neuronal suppression compared to wild-type mice. Similar to what was reported for migraine patients, frequency-dependent stimulation in mutant mice revealed enhanced photic drive in the EEG beta-gamma band. The frequency-dependent increases in visual network responses in mutant mice may reflect the context-dependent enhancement of visual cortex excitability, which could contribute to our understanding of sensory hypersensitivity in migraine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.15041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8048865PMC
March 2021

Sensitivity of the Edinburgh Criteria for Lobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Hereditary Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.

Stroke 2020 12 5;51(12):3608-3612. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Neurology (E.S.v.E., K.K., S.V., G.M.T., M.J.H.W.), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background And Purpose: The Edinburgh computed tomography and genetic criteria enable diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) associated lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) but have not been validated in living patients. We assessed the sensitivity of the Edinburgh criteria in patients with acute lobar ICH due to Dutch-type hereditary CAA; a genetic and pure form of CAA.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed computed tomography-scans from a cohort of consecutive Dutch-type hereditary CAA patients who presented with ≥1 episode(s) of acute lobar ICH at the Leiden University Medical Center. Presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and finger-like projections (FLP) were determined. Association of SAH and FLP with ICH volume was analyzed using multivariate linear regression.

Results: We included 55 Dutch-type hereditary CAA patients (mean age 56 years, 55% men) with a total of 107 episodes of acute lobar ICH. SAH was present in 82/107 (76%) and FLP in 62/107 (58%), resulting in a sensitivity of 76% for SAH and 58% for FLP. In 56 (52%), both markers were present. Nineteen (18%) lobar ICH showed no SAH extension or FLP. ICH volume was significantly associated with presence of SAH (median volume 4 versus 28 mL; =0.001) and presence of FLP (median volume 7 versus 39 mL; <0.001). With an ICH volume of ≥40 mL, the sensitivity of the presence of both SAH and FLP was >81% (95% CI, 70%-92%), whereas in ICH volumes <15 mL the sensitivity was <50%.

Conclusions: The computed tomography-based Edinburgh criteria seem to be a sensitive diagnostic test for CAA-associated lobar ICH, although they should be used with caution in small-sized lobar ICH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.031264DOI Listing
December 2020

Pain perception in women with menstrually-related migraine.

Cephalalgia 2021 03 21;41(3):417-421. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Division of Pharmacology and Vascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Cyclic hormonal fluctuations influence migraine incidence and severity. Previously, we described reduced menstrual cyclicity in estradiol levels and dermal blood flow reaction to capsaicin in female migraineurs. It is unclear whether pain perception in women with migraine is influenced by the menstrual cycle.

Methods: Women with menstrually-related migraine (n = 14), healthy age-matched controls (n = 10) and postmenopausal women (n = 15) were asked to grade trigeminal and non-trigeminal painful stimuli on a numeric pain rating scale on menstrual cycle day 19-21 (mid-luteal) and day 1-2 (early follicular).

Results: In women with menstrually-related migraine, trigeminal pain remained low throughout the cycle. Controls showed increased trigeminal pain during the mid-luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase. Changes throughout the cycle were significantly different between women with MRM and controls.

Conclusion: The compromised menstrual cyclicity of pain perception in women with menstrually-related migraine parallels our earlier findings on estradiol levels and dermal blood flow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0333102420966977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961656PMC
March 2021

Mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and neuropsychiatric involvement: A retrospective analysis from a tertiary referral center in the Netherlands.

Lupus 2020 Dec 20;29(14):1892-1901. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate all-cause and cause-specific mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neuropsychiatric (NP) symptoms in the Netherlands between 2007-2018.

Methods: Patients visiting the tertiary referral NPSLE clinic of the Leiden University Medical Center were included. NP symptoms were attributed to SLE requiring treatment (major NPSLE) or to other and mild causes (minor/non-NPSLE). Municipal registries were checked for current status (alive/deceased). Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using data from the Dutch population. Rate ratio (RR) and 95% CI were calculated using direct standardization to compare mortality between major NPSLE and minor/non-NPSLE.

Results: 351 patients were included and 149 patients were classified as major NPSLE (42.5%). Compared with the general population, mortality was increased in major NPSLE (SMR 5.0 (95% CI: 2.6-8.5)) and minor/non-NPSLE patients (SMR 3.7 (95% CI: 2.2-6.0)). Compared with minor/non-NPSLE, mortality was similar in major NPSLE patients (RR: 1.0 (95% CI: 0.5-2.0)). Cause-specific mortality rates demonstrated an increased risk of death due to infections in both groups, whereas death due to cardiovascular disease was only increased in minor/non-NPSLE patients.

Conclusion: Mortality was increased in both major NPSLE and minor/non-NPSLE patients in comparison with the general population. There was no difference in mortality between major NPSLE and minor/non-NPSLE patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961203320963815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7684795PMC
December 2020

Metabolic Age Based on the BBMRI-NL H-NMR Metabolomics Repository as Biomarker of Age-related Disease.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 10 14;13(5):541-547. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, the Netherlands (C.D.A.S., C.J.H.v.d.K., M.M.J.v.G.).

Background: The blood metabolome incorporates cues from the environment and the host's genetic background, potentially offering a holistic view of an individual's health status.

Methods: We have compiled a vast resource of proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and phenotypic data encompassing over 25 000 samples derived from 26 community and hospital-based cohorts.

Results: Using this resource, we constructed a metabolomics-based age predictor (metaboAge) to calculate an individual's biological age. Exploration in independent cohorts demonstrates that being judged older by one's metabolome, as compared with one's chronological age, confers an increased risk on future cardiovascular disease, mortality, and functionality in older individuals. A web-based tool for calculating metaboAge (metaboage.researchlumc.nl) allows easy incorporation in other epidemiological studies. Access to data can be requested at bbmri.nl/samples-images-data.

Conclusions: In summary, we present a vast resource of metabolomics data and illustrate its merit by constructing a metabolomics-based score for biological age that captures aspects of current and future cardiometabolic health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002610DOI Listing
October 2020

Migraine and other headache disorders in pregnancy.

Handb Clin Neurol 2020 ;172:187-199

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Migraine prevalence is three times higher in women than in men during fertile years, which is mainly due to sex hormone differences. The majority of women suffering from migraine without aura report improvement of their migraine attacks during pregnancy. Migraine attacks with aura can also improve during pregnancy, but more often remain the same or worsen. Anovulation caused by lactation is generally associated with a decrease in migraine attacks in breastfeeding women. This chapter describes the current knowledge on acute and prophylactic treatment options of migraine and other primary headache disorders during pregnancy and lactation. Further, clinical profiles of secondary headaches during pregnancy and the postpartum period are summarized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-64240-0.00011-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Guidelines of the International Headache Society for controlled trials of preventive treatment of migraine attacks in episodic migraine in adults.

Cephalalgia 2020 09 28;40(10):1026-1044. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Clinical trials are a key component of the evidence base for the treatment of headache disorders. In 1991, the International Headache Society Clinical Trials Standing Committee developed and published the first edition of the . Advances in drugs, devices, and biologicals, as well as novel trial designs, have prompted several updates over the nearly 30 years since, including most recently the (2018), the (2019), and (2019). The present update incorporates findings from new research and is intended to optimize the design of controlled trials of preventive pharmacological treatment of episodic migraine in adults. A guideline for clinical trials with devices will be published separately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0333102420941839DOI Listing
September 2020
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