Publications by authors named "Gisela M Schwab"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Nivolumab plus Cabozantinib versus Sunitinib for Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma.

N Engl J Med 2021 03;384(9):829-841

From the Department of Medical Oncology, Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston (T.K.C.); the Department of Genitourinary Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Cancer Research UK Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre, Queen Mary University of London, Royal Free National Health Service Trust, London (T.P.); the Bradford Hill Clinical Research Center, Santiago, Chile (M.B.); the Department of Medical Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France (B.E.); the Department of Hemato-Oncology, Urologic Oncology Clinic, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City (M.T.B.), the Department of Medical Oncology, Centro Universitario contra el Cáncer, Hospital Universitario "Dr. José Eleuterio González," Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Nuevo León (V.M.O.J.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital H+ Querétaro, Querétaro (J.P.F.) - all in Mexico; the Department of Outpatient Chemotherapy, Professor Franciszek Lukaszczyk Oncology Center, Bydgoszcz (B.Z.), and the Department of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Regional Specialist Hospital, Biała Podlaska (J. Żołnierek) - both in Poland; the Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (J.J.H.); Oncology Unit 1, Department of Oncology, Istituto Oncologico Veneto IRCCS, Padua (U.B.), the Department of Medical Oncology, Ospedale San Donato, Istituto Toscano i, Arezzo (A.H.), the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia (C.P.), and the University of Bari "A. Moro," Bari (C.P.) - all in Italy; the Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (A.Y.S.); the Department of Medical Oncology, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Vall d'Hebron Barcelona Hospital Campus, Barcelona (C.S.); the Department of Medical Oncology, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, QLD (J.C.G.), and Cabrini Monash University Department of Medical Oncology, Cabrini Health, Malvern, VIC (D.P.) - both in Australia; the Oncology Research Center, Hospital São Lucas, Porto Alegre, Brazil (C.B.); Fundacion Richardet Longo, Instituto Oncologico de Cordoba, Cordoba (M.R.), and Instituto Multidisciplinario de Oncología, Clínica Viedma, Viedma (R.K.) - both in Argentina; the Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora (E.R.K.); the Departments of Urology and Molecular Oncology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata (Y.T.), and the Department of Urology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (R.M.) - both in Japan; the Department of Urology, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany (J.B.); the Departments of Clinical Research (J. Zhang.), Clinical Oncology (M.A.M.), Biostatistics (B.S.), and Health Economics and Outcomes Research (F.E.), Bristol Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ; the Department of Clinical Oncology, Exelixis, Alameda, CA (G.M.S.); the Genitourinary Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (A.B.A.); and the Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (R.J.M.).

Background: The efficacy and safety of nivolumab plus cabozantinib as compared with those of sunitinib in the treatment of previously untreated advanced renal-cell carcinoma are not known.

Methods: In this phase 3, randomized, open-label trial, we randomly assigned adults with previously untreated clear-cell, advanced renal-cell carcinoma to receive either nivolumab (240 mg every 2 weeks) plus cabozantinib (40 mg once daily) or sunitinib (50 mg once daily for 4 weeks of each 6-week cycle). The primary end point was progression-free survival, as determined by blinded independent central review. Secondary end points included overall survival, objective response as determined by independent review, and safety. Health-related quality of life was an exploratory end point.

Results: Overall, 651 patients were assigned to receive nivolumab plus cabozantinib (323 patients) or sunitinib (328 patients). At a median follow-up of 18.1 months for overall survival, the median progression-free survival was 16.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.5 to 24.9) with nivolumab plus cabozantinib and 8.3 months (95% CI, 7.0 to 9.7) with sunitinib (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.64; P<0.001). The probability of overall survival at 12 months was 85.7% (95% CI, 81.3 to 89.1) with nivolumab plus cabozantinib and 75.6% (95% CI, 70.5 to 80.0) with sunitinib (hazard ratio for death, 0.60; 98.89% CI, 0.40 to 0.89; P = 0.001). An objective response occurred in 55.7% of the patients receiving nivolumab plus cabozantinib and in 27.1% of those receiving sunitinib (P<0.001). Efficacy benefits with nivolumab plus cabozantinib were consistent across subgroups. Adverse events of any cause of grade 3 or higher occurred in 75.3% of the 320 patients receiving nivolumab plus cabozantinib and in 70.6% of the 320 patients receiving sunitinib. Overall, 19.7% of the patients in the combination group discontinued at least one of the trial drugs owing to adverse events, and 5.6% discontinued both. Patients reported better health-related quality of life with nivolumab plus cabozantinib than with sunitinib.

Conclusions: Nivolumab plus cabozantinib had significant benefits over sunitinib with respect to progression-free survival, overall survival, and likelihood of response in patients with previously untreated advanced renal-cell carcinoma. (Funded by Bristol Myers Squibb and others; CheckMate 9ER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03141177.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2026982DOI Listing
March 2021

Volumetric response quantified using T1 subtraction predicts long-term survival benefit from cabozantinib monotherapy in recurrent glioblastoma.

Neuro Oncol 2018 09;20(10):1411-1418

UCLA Neuro-Oncology Program, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Background: To overcome challenges with traditional response assessment in anti-angiogenic agents, the current study uses T1 subtraction maps to quantify volumetric radiographic response in monotherapy with cabozantinib, an orally bioavailable tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), and AXL, in an open-label, phase II trial in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) (NCT00704288).

Methods: A total of 108 patients with adequate imaging data and confirmed recurrent GBM were included in this retrospective study from a phase II multicenter trial of cabozantinib monotherapy (XL184-201) at either 100 mg (N = 87) or 140 mg (N = 21) per day. Contrast enhanced T1-weighted digital subtraction maps were used to define volume of contrast-enhancing tumor at baseline and subsequent follow-up time points. Volumetric radiographic response (>65% reduction in contrast-enhancing tumor volume from pretreatment baseline tumor volume sustained for more than 4 wk) was tested as an independent predictor of overall survival (OS).

Results: Volumetric response rate for all therapeutic doses was 38.9% (41.4% and 28.6% for 100 mg and 140 mg doses, respectively). A log-linear association between baseline tumor volume and OS (P = 0.0006) and a linear correlation between initial change in tumor volume and OS (P = 0.0256) were observed. A significant difference in OS was observed between responders (median OS = 20.6 mo) and nonresponders (median OS = 8.0 mo) (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.3050, P < 0.0001). Multivariable analyses showed that continuous measures of baseline tumor volume (HR = 1.0233, P < 0.0001) and volumetric response (HR = 0.2240, P < 0.0001) were independent predictors of OS.

Conclusions: T1 subtraction maps provide value in determining response in recurrent GBM treated with cabozantinib and correlated with survival benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noy054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6120362PMC
September 2018

Diffusion MRI Phenotypes Predict Overall Survival Benefit from Anti-VEGF Monotherapy in Recurrent Glioblastoma: Converging Evidence from Phase II Trials.

Clin Cancer Res 2017 Oct 27;23(19):5745-5756. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

UCLA Neuro Oncology Program, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Anti-VEGF therapies remain controversial in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). In the current study, we demonstrate that recurrent GBM patients with a specific diffusion MR imaging signature have an overall survival (OS) advantage when treated with cediranib, bevacizumab, cabozantinib, or aflibercept monotherapy at first or second recurrence. These findings were validated using a separate trial comparing bevacizumab with lomustine. Patients with recurrent GBM and diffusion MRI from the monotherapy arms of 5 separate phase II clinical trials were included: (i) cediranib (NCT00035656); (ii) bevacizumab (BRAIN Trial, AVF3708g; NCT00345163); (iii) cabozantinib (XL184-201; NCT00704288); (iv) aflibercept (VEGF Trap; NCT00369590); and (v) bevacizumab or lomustine (BELOB; NTR1929). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis was performed prior to therapy to estimate "ADC," the mean of the lower ADC distribution. Pretreatment ADC, enhancing volume, and clinical variables were tested as independent prognostic factors for OS. The coefficient of variance (COV) in double baseline ADC measurements was 2.5% and did not significantly differ ( = 0.4537). An ADC threshold of 1.24 μm/ms produced the largest OS differences between patients (HR ∼ 0.5), and patients with an ADC > 1.24 μm/ms had close to double the OS in all anti-VEGF therapeutic scenarios tested. Training and validation data confirmed that baseline ADC was an independent predictive biomarker for OS in anti-VEGF therapies, but not in lomustine, after accounting for age and baseline enhancing tumor volume. Pretreatment diffusion MRI is a predictive imaging biomarker for OS in patients with recurrent GBM treated with anti-VEGF monotherapy at first or second relapse. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-2844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5626594PMC
October 2017

Baseline pretreatment contrast enhancing tumor volume including central necrosis is a prognostic factor in recurrent glioblastoma: evidence from single and multicenter trials.

Neuro Oncol 2017 01 31;19(1):89-98. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

UCLA Brain Tumor Imaging Laboratory, Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarkers, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (B.M.E., R.J.H., D.C.W., K.L., O.Z.); Dept. of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (B.M.E., R.J.H., D.C.W., K.L., O.Z., W.B.P.); Dept. of Physics and Biology in Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (B.M.E.); Dept. of Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (W.P.M.);H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (S.S.); F. Hoffman-La Roche, Ltd., Basel, Switzerland (L.E.A.); Exelixis, South San Francisco, California (D.T.A., G.M.S., C.H.); Dept. of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (A.L., P.L.N., T.F.C.); Center for Neuro-Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (P.Y.W.).

Background: The prognostic significance of baseline contrast enhancing tumor prior to second- or third-line therapy in recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) for overall survival (OS) remains controversial, particularly in the context of repeated surgical resection and/or use of anti-angiogenic therapy. In the current study, we examined recurrent GBM patients from both single and multicenter clinical trials to test whether baseline enhancing tumor volume, including central necrosis, is a significant prognostic factor for OS in recurrent GBM.

Methods: Included were 497 patients with recurrent GBM from 4 data sources: 2 single-center sites (University of Toronto, University of California Los Angeles) and 2 phase II multicenter trials (AVF3708G, Bevacizumab ± Irinotecan, NCT00345163; XL184-201, Cabozantinib, NCT00704288). T1 subtraction maps were used to define volume of contrast enhancing tumor, including central necrosis. Cox multivariable and univariate analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between tumor volume prior to second- or third-line therapy and OS.

Results: Both continuous measures of baseline tumor volume and tumors dichotomized into large (≥15cc) and small (<15cc) tumors were significant predictors of OS (P<.0001), independently of age and treatment. Univariate analysis demonstrated significant OS differences (P<.05) between large (≥15cc) and small (<15cc) tumors in patients under all therapeutic scenarios. Only patients treated with cabozantinib who previously failed anti-angiogenic therapy did not show an OS dependence on baseline tumor volume.

Conclusions: Baseline tumor volume is a significant prognostic factor in recurrent GBM. Clinical trial treatment arms must have a balanced distribution of tumor size, and tumor size should be considered when interpreting therapeutic efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/now187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5193027PMC
January 2017

Cabozantinib versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma.

N Engl J Med 2015 Nov 25;373(19):1814-23. Epub 2015 Sep 25.

From the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (T.K.C., P.W.K.); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France (B.E.); Barts Cancer Institute, Cancer Research UK Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre, Queen Mary University of London, Royal Free NHS Trust, London (T.P.); Icon Cancer Care, South Brisbane, QLD, Australia (P.N.M.); Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland (B.I.R.); Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark (F.D.); Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore (H.H.); Texas Oncology-Charles A. Sammons Cancer Center, Baylor University, Dallas (T.E.H.); University of Ulsan College of Medicine (J.-L.L.) and Seoul National University Hospital (B.K.) - both in Seoul, South Korea; Helsinki University Central Hospital Cancer Center, Helsinki (K.P.); Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis (B.J.R.); Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto (G.A.B.), and Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (D.Y.C.H.) - both in Canada; National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary (L.G.); Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (P.M.); Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (M.S.); Exelixis, South San Francisco, CA (A.B-H., C.H., C.S., G.M.S.); University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (N.M.T.); and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (R.J.M.).

Background: Cabozantinib is an oral, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) as well as MET and AXL, each of which has been implicated in the pathobiology of metastatic renal-cell carcinoma or in the development of resistance to antiangiogenic drugs. This randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial evaluated the efficacy of cabozantinib, as compared with everolimus, in patients with renal-cell carcinoma that had progressed after VEGFR-targeted therapy.

Methods: We randomly assigned 658 patients to receive cabozantinib at a dose of 60 mg daily or everolimus at a dose of 10 mg daily. The primary end point was progression-free survival. Secondary efficacy end points were overall survival and objective response rate.

Results: Median progression-free survival was 7.4 months with cabozantinib and 3.8 months with everolimus. The rate of progression or death was 42% lower with cabozantinib than with everolimus (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45 to 0.75; P<0.001). The objective response rate was 21% with cabozantinib and 5% with everolimus (P<0.001). A planned interim analysis showed that overall survival was longer with cabozantinib than with everolimus (hazard ratio for death, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.89; P=0.005) but did not cross the significance boundary for the interim analysis. Adverse events were managed with dose reductions; doses were reduced in 60% of the patients who received cabozantinib and in 25% of those who received everolimus. Discontinuation of study treatment owing to adverse events occurred in 9% of the patients who received cabozantinib and in 10% of those who received everolimus.

Conclusions: Progression-free survival was longer with cabozantinib than with everolimus among patients with renal-cell carcinoma that had progressed after VEGFR-targeted therapy. (Funded by Exelixis; METEOR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01865747.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1510016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5024539PMC
November 2015

Preclinical and clinical evaluations of ABX-EGF, a fully human anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004 Mar;58(3):984-90

Abgenix, Inc., Fremont, CA, USA.

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, with an extracellular ligand-binding domain and intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Ligand binding induces EGFR dimerization and autophosphorylation on several tyrosine residues in the intracellular domain, leading to mitogenic signal transduction. EGFR overexpression correlates with a poor prognosis and is often associated with malignant transformation in a variety of epithelial cancers. ABX-EGF is a high-affinity (dissociation constant K(D) = 5 x 10(-11) M) fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody against human EGFR. ABX-EGF binds EGFR and blocks receptor binding of EGF and transforming growth factor-alpha, inhibiting EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation and tumor cell activation. ABX-EGF prevents tumor formation and eradicates large, established A431 tumors in xenograft models. Tumor growth inhibition occurs at relatively low doses, without concomitant chemotherapy or radiotherapy. When combined with chemotherapeutic agents, ABX-EGF has resulted in additive antitumor activity. A Phase I clinical trial has demonstrated activity in several tumor types, and the results from a Phase II trial for renal cell cancer also showed modest activity. Therapy was generally well tolerated without statistically significant adverse events. Monoclonal antibody blockade of EGFR represents a new and exciting direction in cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2003.09.098DOI Listing
March 2004