Publications by authors named "Girish B Nair"

34 Publications

Performance of Automated Telemetry in Diagnosing QT Prolongation in Critically Ill Patients.

Am J Crit Care 2021 11;30(6):466-470

Girish B. Nair is an attending physician, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital and an associate professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine.

Background: QT prolongation increases the risk of ventricular arrhythmia and is common among critically ill patients. The gold standard for QT measurement is electrocardiography. Automated measurement of corrected QT (QTc) by cardiac telemetry has been developed, but this method has not been compared with electrocardiography in critically ill patients.

Objective: To compare the diagnostic performance of QTc values obtained with cardiac telemetry versus electrocardiography.

Methods: This prospective observational study included patients admitted to intensive care who had an electrocardiogram ordered simultaneously with cardiac telemetry. Demographic data and QTc determined by electrocardiography and telemetry were recorded. Bland-Altman analysis was done, and correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) coefficient were calculated.

Results: Fifty-one data points were obtained from 43 patients (65% men). Bland-Altman analysis revealed poor agreement between telemetry and electrocardiography and evidence of fixed and proportional bias. Area under the ROC curve for QTc determined by telemetry was 0.9 (P < .001) for a definition of prolonged QT as QTc ≥ 450 milliseconds in electrocardiography (sensitivity, 88.89%; specificity, 83.33%; cutoff of 464 milliseconds used). Correlation between the 2 methods was only moderate (r = 0.6, P < .001).

Conclusions: QTc determination by telemetry has poor agreement and moderate correlation with electrocardiography. However, telemetry has an acceptable area under the curve in ROC analysis with tolerable sensitivity and specificity depending on the cutoff used to define prolonged QT. Cardiac telemetry should be used with caution in critically ill patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4037/ajcc2021568DOI Listing
November 2021

Risk Factors for Pneumothorax Development Following CT-Guided Core Lung Nodule Biopsy.

J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Molecular Imaging Division of Pulmonary Critical Care, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, MI.

Background: This study aims to correlate nodule, patient, and technical risk factors less commonly investigated in the literature with pneumothorax development during computed tomography-guided core needle lung nodule biopsy.

Patients And Methods: Retrospective data on 671 computed tomography-guided percutaneous core needle lung biopsies from 671 patients at a tertiary care center between March 2014 and August 2016. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify pneumothorax risk factors.

Results: The overall incidence of pneumothorax was 26.7% (n=179). Risk factors identified on univariate analysis include anterior [odds ratio (OR)=1.98; P<0.001] and lateral (OR=2.17; P=0.002) pleural surface puncture relative to posterior puncture, traversing more than one pleural surface with the biopsy needle (OR=2.35; P=0.06), patient positioning in supine (OR=2.01; P<0.001) and decubitus nodule side up (OR=2.54; P=0.001) orientation relative to decubitus nodule side down positioning, and presence of emphysema in the path of the biopsy needle (OR=3.32; P<0.001). In the multivariable analysis, the presence of emphysematous parenchyma in the path of the biopsy needle was correlated most strongly with increased odds of pneumothorax development (OR=3.03; P=0.0004). Increased body mass index (OR=0.95; P=0.001) and larger nodule width (cm; OR=0.74; P=0.02) were protective factors most strongly correlated with decreased odds of pneumothorax development.

Conclusion: Emphysema in the needle biopsy path is most strongly associated with pneumothorax development. Increases in patient body mass index and width of the target lung nodule are most strongly associated with decreased odds of pneumothorax.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/LBR.0000000000000816DOI Listing
October 2021

Dynamic lung compliance imaging from 4DCT-derived volume change estimation.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Nov 3;66(21). Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health, OUWB School of Medicine, United States of America.

. Lung compliance (LC) is the ability of the lung to expand with changes in pressure and is one of the earliest physiological measurements to be altered in patients with parenchymal lung disease. Therefore, compliance monitoring could potentially identify patients at risk for disease progression. However, in clinical practice, compliance measurements are prohibitively invasive for use as a routine monitoring tool.. We propose a novel method for computing dynamic lung compliance imaging (LCI) from non-contrast computed tomography (CT) scans. LCI applies image processing methods to free-breathing 4DCT images, acquired under two different continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP) applied using a full-face mask, in order to compute the lung volume change induced by the pressure change. LCI provides a quantitative volumetric map of lung stiffness.. We compared mean LCI values computed for 10 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and 7 non-IPF patients who were screened for lung nodules. 4DCTs were acquired for each patient at 5 cm and 10 cm H0 CPAP, as the patients were free breathing at functional residual capacity. LCI was computed from the two 4DCTs. Mean LCI intensities, which represent relative voxel volume change induced by the change in CPAP pressure, were computed.The mean LCI values for patients with IPF ranged between [0.0309, 0.1165], whereas the values ranged between [0.0704, 0.2185] for the lung nodule cohort. Two-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test indicated that the difference in medians is statistically significant (value = 0.009) and that LCI -measured compliance is overall lower in the IPF patient cohort.. There is considerable difference in LC scores between patients with IPF compared to controls. Future longitudinal studies should look for LC alterations in areas of lung prior to radiographic detection of fibrosis to further characterize LCI's potential utility as an image marker for disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ac29ceDOI Listing
November 2021

Initial antimicrobial management of sepsis.

Crit Care 2021 08 26;25(1):307. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, MI, USA.

Sepsis is a common consequence of infection, associated with a mortality rate > 25%. Although community-acquired sepsis is more common, hospital-acquired infection is more lethal. The most common site of infection is the lung, followed by abdominal infection, catheter-associated blood steam infection and urinary tract infection. Gram-negative sepsis is more common than gram-positive infection, but sepsis can also be due to fungal and viral pathogens. To reduce mortality, it is necessary to give immediate, empiric, broad-spectrum therapy to those with severe sepsis and/or shock, but this approach can drive antimicrobial overuse and resistance and should be accompanied by a commitment to de-escalation and antimicrobial stewardship. Biomarkers such a procalcitonin can provide decision support for antibiotic use, and may identify patients with a low likelihood of infection, and in some settings, can guide duration of antibiotic therapy. Sepsis can involve drug-resistant pathogens, and this often necessitates consideration of newer antimicrobial agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-021-03736-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8390082PMC
August 2021

Update on Diagnosis and Treatment of Adult Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2021 10;17:701-710. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary surfactant homeostasis disorder resulting in buildup of lipo-proteinaceous material within the alveoli. PAP is classified as primary (autoimmune and hereditary), secondary, congenital and unclassifiable type based on the underlying pathogenesis. PAP has an insidious onset and can, in some cases, progress to severe respiratory failure. Diagnosis is often secured with bronchoalveolar lavage in the setting of classic imaging findings. Recent insights into genetic alterations and autoimmune mechanisms have provided newer diagnostics and treatment options. In this review, we discuss the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment options available and emerging for PAP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S193884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8364424PMC
August 2021

Therapeutic Anticoagulation with Heparin in Critically Ill Patients with Covid-19.

N Engl J Med 2021 Aug 4;385(9):777-789. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

From the University of Toronto (E.C.G., P.R.L., L.C.G., M.E.F., V.D., R.A.F., J.P.G., M.H., A.S.S.), University Health Network (E.C.G., M.H.), Peter Munk Cardiac Centre at University Health Network (P.R.L., L.C.G., M.E.F., V.D.), Ozmosis Research (L.B., V.W.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (J.P.G.), Toronto, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (M. Carrier, L.A.C., D.A.F., G.L.G., D.M.S.), Institut du Savoir Montfort (M. Carrier, G.L.G.), and the University of Ottawa (L.A.C., D.A.F., D.M.S.), Ottawa, the University of Manitoba (A. Kumar, B.L.H., R.Z., S.A.L., D.S., G.V.-G.) and CancerCare Manitoba (B.L.H., R.Z.), Winnipeg, Université Laval and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec-Université Laval Research Center, Quebec, QC (A.F.T.), McGill University, Montreal (S.R.K., E.G.M.), St. Michael's Hospital Unity Health, Toronto (J.C.M., Z.B., M.S., A.S.S.), McMaster University and the Thrombosis and Atherosclerosis Research Institute, Hamilton, ON (P.L.G.) Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (F.L.), St. Boniface Hospital, Winnipeg, MB (N.M.), the University of British Columbia, Vancouver (S. Murthy), and the University of Alberta, Edmonton (S.D.) - all in Canada; University of Bristol and University Hospitals Bristol and Weston NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol (C.A.B.), the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (B.-A.K.), Imperial College London (A.C.G., F.A.-B., M.A.L.), Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, St. Mary's Hospital (A.C.G.), University College London Hospital (R.H.), Kings Healthcare Partners (B.J.H.), and Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre (ICNARC) (P.R.M., K.R.), London, Queen's University Belfast and Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (D.F.M.), and Oxford University (A. Beane, L.J.E., S.J.S.) and NHS Blood and Transplant (L.J.E., S. Mavromichalis, S.J.S.), Oxford - all in the United Kingdom; the University of Pittsburgh (B.J.M., D.C.A., M.M.B., M.D.N., H.F.E., J.D.F., Z.F., D.T.H., A.J.K., C.M.L., K.L., M.M., S.K.M., C.W.S., Y.Z.), University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (B.J.M., D.C.A., M.D.N., K.L.), the Clinical Research, Investigation, and Systems Modeling of Acute Illness (CRISMA) Center, University of Pittsburgh (T.D.G.), and University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh (C.M. Horvat) - all in Pittsburgh; New York University (NYU) Grossman School of Medicine (J.S.B., H.R.R., J.S.H., T.C., A.C., N.M.K., S. Mavromichalis, S.P.), NYU Langone Health, NYU Langone Hospital (T.A., T.C., A.C., J.M.H., E.Y.), and Bellevue Hospital (N.M.K.), Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (R.S.R.), and Mount Sinai Heart (R.S.R.), New York, Montefiore Medical Center (M.N.G., H.H.B., S.C., J.-T.C., A.A. Hope, R.N.) and Albert Einstein College of Medicine (M.N.G., H.H.B., B.T.G., A.A. Hope), Bronx, and NYU Langone Long Island, Mineola (A.A. Hindenburg) - all in New York; Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital-University of California, San Francisco (L.Z.K., C.M. Hendrickson, M.M.K., A.E.K., B.N.-G., J.J.P.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance (R.J.L.), Global Coalition for Adaptive Research (M. Buxton) and the University of California, Los Angeles (G.L.), Los Angeles, the University of California San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego (T.W.C.), and Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto (J.G.W.) - all in California; the University of Illinois (K.S.K., J.R.J., J.G.Q.), the University of Chicago (J.D.P.), and the Chartis Group (J.S.) - all in Chicago; University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University (L.P.G.D., M. Bonten, R.E.G.S., W.B.-P.), and Utrecht University (R.E.G.S.), Utrecht, and Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (S. Middeldorp, F.L.V.) - all in the Netherlands; Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont, Burlington (M. Cushman); Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern (T.T.), and SOCAR Research, Nyon (B.-A.K., S. Brouwer) - both in Switzerland; Instituto do Coracao, Hospital das Clinicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo (L.C.G., F.G.L., J.C.N.), Avanti Pesquisa Clínica (A.S.M.), and Hospital 9 de Julho (F.O.S.), Sao Paulo, Hospital do Coração de Mato Grosso do Sul (M.P.), the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (M.P.), Hospital Universitário Maria Aparecida Pedrossia (D.G.S.), and Hospital Unimed Campo Grande (D.G.S.), Campo Grande, and Instituto Goiano de Oncologia e Hematologia, Clinical Research Center, Goiânia (M.O.S.) - all in Brazil; the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, Monash University (Z.M., C.J.M., S.A.W., A. Buzgau, C.G., A.M.H., S.P.M., A.D.N., J.C.P.), Monash University (A.C.C.), and Alfred Health (A.C.C., A.D.N.), Melbourne, VIC, St. John of God Subiaco Hospital, Subiaco, WA (S.A.W., E. Litton), Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA (S. Bihari), and Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth, WA (E. Litton) - all in Australia; Berry Consultants, Austin (R.J.L., L.R.B., E. Lorenzi, S.M.B., M.A.D., M.F., A.M., C.T.S.), and Baylor Scott and White Health, Temple (R.J.W.) - both in Texas; Auckland City Hospital (C.J.M., S.P.M., R.L.P.) and the University of Auckland (R.L.P.), Auckland, and the Medical Research Institute of New Zealand, Wellington (C.J.M., A.M.T.) - all in New Zealand; Fédération Hospitalo-Universitaire Saclay and Paris Seine Nord Endeavour to Personalize Interventions for Sepsis (FHU-SEPSIS), Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Garches (D. Annane), and Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (B.C.) - both in France; King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences and King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Y.M.A.); Nepal Mediciti Hospital, Lalitpur (D. Aryal), and the Nepal Intensive Care Research Foundation, Kathmandu (D. Aryal); Versiti Blood Research Institute, Milwaukee (L.B.K.); National Intensive Care Surveillance (NICS)-Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit (MORU), Colombo, Sri Lanka (A. Beane); Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany (F.B.); Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland (A.D.), and the University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati (K.H.) - both in Ohio; Ochsner Medical Center, University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School, New Orleans (M.B.E.); Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City (J.E., E.M.G.); Brigham and Women's Hospital (B.M.E., Y.K., S.M.H.), Massachusetts General Hospital (N.S.R., A.B.S.), and Harvard Medical School (B.M.E., Y.K., N.S.R., A.B.S.) - all in Boston; University of Alabama, Birmingham (S.G.); TriStar Centennial Medical Center, Nashville (A.L.G.); University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium (H.G.); Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey (Y.Y.G.); University of Oxford, Bangkok, Thailand (R.H.); the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (R.C.H., P.K.P.), Beaumont Health, Royal Oak (G.B.N.), and Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Auburn Hills (G.B.N.) - all in Michigan; Apollo Speciality Hospital OMR, Chennai, India (D.J.); Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (A. Khan); National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (A. Kindzelski, E.S.L.); University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (M.E.K.); IdiPaz Research Institute, Universidad Autonoma, Madrid (J.L.-S.); University College Dublin, Dublin (A.D.N.); the University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City (L.S.); and Duke University Hospital, Durham, North Carolina (L.W.).

Background: Thrombosis and inflammation may contribute to morbidity and mortality among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We hypothesized that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation would improve outcomes in critically ill patients with Covid-19.

Methods: In an open-label, adaptive, multiplatform, randomized clinical trial, critically ill patients with severe Covid-19 were randomly assigned to a pragmatically defined regimen of either therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin or pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in accordance with local usual care. The primary outcome was organ support-free days, evaluated on an ordinal scale that combined in-hospital death (assigned a value of -1) and the number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support up to day 21 among patients who survived to hospital discharge.

Results: The trial was stopped when the prespecified criterion for futility was met for therapeutic-dose anticoagulation. Data on the primary outcome were available for 1098 patients (534 assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and 564 assigned to usual-care thromboprophylaxis). The median value for organ support-free days was 1 (interquartile range, -1 to 16) among the patients assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and was 4 (interquartile range, -1 to 16) among the patients assigned to usual-care thromboprophylaxis (adjusted proportional odds ratio, 0.83; 95% credible interval, 0.67 to 1.03; posterior probability of futility [defined as an odds ratio <1.2], 99.9%). The percentage of patients who survived to hospital discharge was similar in the two groups (62.7% and 64.5%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, 0.84; 95% credible interval, 0.64 to 1.11). Major bleeding occurred in 3.8% of the patients assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and in 2.3% of those assigned to usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis.

Conclusions: In critically ill patients with Covid-19, an initial strategy of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin did not result in a greater probability of survival to hospital discharge or a greater number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support than did usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. (REMAP-CAP, ACTIV-4a, and ATTACC ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02735707, NCT04505774, NCT04359277, and NCT04372589.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2103417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8362592PMC
August 2021

Therapeutic Anticoagulation with Heparin in Noncritically Ill Patients with Covid-19.

N Engl J Med 2021 Aug 4;385(9):790-802. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

From the Peter Munk Cardiac Centre at University Health Network (P.R.L., M.E.F., V.D., J.P.G., L.C.G., G.H.), the University of Toronto (P.R.L., E.C.G., A.S.S., M.E.F., V.D., R.A.F., L.C.G., G.H., M.H.), University Health Network (E.C.G., M.H.), St. Michael's Hospital Unity Health (A.S.S., Z.B., J.C.M., M.S.), Ozmosis Research (L.B., L.P.G.D., V.W.), and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (J.P.G.), Toronto, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (M. Carrier, L.A.C., D.A.F., G.L.G., D.M.S.), Institut du Savoir Montfort (Marc Carrier, G.L.G.), and the University of Ottawa (L.A.C., D.A.F., D.M.S.), Ottawa, Université Laval (A.F.T.) and CHU de Québec-Université Laval Research Center (A.F.T.), Quebec, QC, the University of Manitoba (B.L.H., A. Kumar, R.Z., S.A.L., D.S., G.V.-G.), CancerCare Manitoba (B.L.H., R.Z.), and St. Boniface Hospital (N.M.), Winnipeg, MB, McGill University, Montreal (S.R.K., E.G.M.), McMaster University (P.L.G.) and the Thrombosis and Atherosclerosis Research Institute (P.L.G.), Hamilton, ON, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (F.L.), the University of British Columbia, Vancouver (S. Murthy, K.R.), and the University of Alberta, Edmonton (S.D.) - all in Canada; NYU Grossman School of Medicine (J.S.B., H.R.R., J.S.H., T.C., N.M.K., S.P.), the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and Mount Sinai Heart (R.S.R.), NYU Langone Health, NYU Langone Hospital (T.C., J.M.H., E.Y.), and Bellevue Hospital (N.M.K.), New York, Montefiore Medical Center (M.N.G., H.H.B., S.C., J.T.C., R.N.) and Albert Einstein College of Medicine (M.N.G., H.H.B., B.T.G., A. Hope), Bronx, and NYU Langone Long Island, Mineola (R.D.H., A. Hindenburg) - all in New York; the University of Pittsburgh (M.D.N., B.J.M., D.T.H., M.M.B., D.C.A., A.J.K., C.M.L., K.L., S.K.M., C.W.S.), UPMC (M.D.N., B.J.M., D.C.A., K.L., S.K.M.), the Clinical Research, Investigation, and Systems Modeling of Acute Illness (CRISMA) Center, University of Pittsburgh (T.D.G.), and UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh (C. Horvat), Pittsburgh, and Emergency Medicine, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey (S.C.M.) - all in Pennsylvania; Instituto do Coracao, Hospital das Clinicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo (J.C.N., L.C.G., F.G.L.), Avanti Pesquisa Clínica (A.S.M.), Hospital de Julho (F.O.S.), and Hospital do Coracao (F.G.Z.), Sao Paulo, Hospital do Coração de Mato Grosso do Sul and the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (M.P.), Hospital Universitário Maria Aparecida Pedrossia (D.G.S.J.), and Hospital Unimed Campo Grande (D.G.S.J.), Campo Grande, and INGOH, Clinical Research Center, Goiânia (M.O.S.) - all in Brazil; Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City (J.E., Y.S.P.G.); the University of Bristol and University Hospitals Bristol and Weston NHS Foundation Trust (C.A.B.), Bristol, Imperial College London (A.C.G., F.A.-B., M.A.L.), Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, St. Mary's Hospital (A.C.G.), the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (B.-A.K.), University College London Hospital (R.H.), Kings Healthcare Partners (B.J.H.), the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre (P.R.M.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust (M.S.-H.), and King's College London (M.S.-H.), London, Oxford University (A. Beane, S.J.S.) and NHS Blood and Transplant (L.J.E., S.J.S.), Oxford, and Queen's University Belfast and Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (D.F.M.) - all in the United Kingdom; Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco (L.Z.K., C. Hendrickson, M.M.K., A.E.K., M.A.M., B.N.-G.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance (R.J.L., S. Brouwer), Global Coalition for Adaptive Research (M. Buxton) and the University of California Los Angeles (G.L.), Los Angeles, the University of California San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego (T.W.C.), and Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto (J.G.W.) - all in California; Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont, Burlington (M. Cushman); Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, Monash University (Z.M., A.M.H., C.J.M., S.A.W., A. Buzgau, C.G., S.P.M., A.D.N., J.C.P., A.C.C.), and Alfred Health (A.C.C., A.D.N.), Melbourne, VIC, St. John of God Subiaco Hospital (S.A.W., E. Litton) and Fiona Stanley Hospital (E. Litton), Perth, WA, and Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA (S. Bihari) - all in Australia; the University of Illinois (K.S.K., J.R.J., J.G.Q.), Cook County Health and Rush Medical College (S. Malhotra), and the University of Chicago (J.D.P.) - all in Chicago; SOCAR Research SA, Nyon (B.-A.K.), and Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern (T.T.), Bern - all in Switzerland; Berry Consultants, Austin (R.J.L., E. Lorenzi, S.M.B., L.R.B., M.A.D., M.F., A.M., C.T.S.), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (A.P.), and Baylor Scott and White Health, Temple (R.J.W.) - all in Texas; Auckland City Hospital (C.J.M., S.P.M., R.L.P.) and the University of Auckland (R.L.P.), Auckland, and the Medical Research Institute of New Zealand, Wellington (C.J.M., A.M.T.) - all in New Zealand; Vanderbilt University Medical Center (A.W.A.) and TriStar Centennial Medical Center (A.L.G.) - both in Nashville; Fédération Hospitalo Universitaire, Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Garches (D. Annane), and Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (B.C.) - both in France; King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences and King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (Y.M.A.); Nepal Mediciti Hospital, Lalitpur, and Nepal Intensive Care Research Foundation, Kathmandu (D. Aryal) - both in Nepal; Versiti Blood Research Institute, Milwaukee (L.B.K., L.J.E.), and the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison (J.P.S.); National Intensive Care Surveillance-Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Colombo, Sri Lanka (A. Beane); the University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht (M. Bonten, R.E.G.S., W.B.-P.), and Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (S. Middeldorp, F.L.V.) - both in the Netherlands; Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany (F.B.); Cleveland Clinic (A.D.) and Case Western Reserve University, the Metro Health Medical Centre (V.K.) - both in Cleveland; Ochsner Medical Center, University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School, New Orleans (M.B.E.); Harvard Medical School (B.M.E., Y.K., N.S.R., A.B.S), Brigham and Women's Hospital (B.M.E., Y.K., S.M.H.), Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center (N.M.H.), and Massachusetts General Hospital (A.B.S., N.S.R.) - all in Boston; University of Alabama, Birmingham (S.G.); Hospital Ramón y Cajal (S.G.-M., J.L.L.-S.M., R.M.G.) and IdiPaz Research Institute, Universidad Autonoma (J.L.-S.), Madrid, and University Hospital of Salamanca-University of Salamanca-IBSAL, Salamanca (M.M.) - all in Spain; University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium (H.G.); Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark (Y.Y.G.); University of Oxford, Bangkok, Thailand (R.H.); Ascension St. John Heart and Vascular Center, Tulsa (N.H.), and the University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Oklahoma City (N.H.); the University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati (K.H.); University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (R.C.H., P.K.P.), Beaumont Health, Royal Oak, and the OUWB School of Medicine, Auburn Hills (G.B.N.) - all in Michigan; Mayo Clinic, Rochester (V.N.I.), and the Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis (M.E.P.) - both in Minnesota; Apollo Speciality Hospital-OMR, Chennai, India (D.J.); Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (A. Khan, E.S.L.); the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD (A.L.K.); University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (M.E.K.); University College Dublin, Dublin (A.D.N.); University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City (L.S.); Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC (L.W.); and Emory University, Atlanta (B.J.W.).

Background: Thrombosis and inflammation may contribute to the risk of death and complications among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We hypothesized that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation may improve outcomes in noncritically ill patients who are hospitalized with Covid-19.

Methods: In this open-label, adaptive, multiplatform, controlled trial, we randomly assigned patients who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and who were not critically ill (which was defined as an absence of critical care-level organ support at enrollment) to receive pragmatically defined regimens of either therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin or usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. The primary outcome was organ support-free days, evaluated on an ordinal scale that combined in-hospital death (assigned a value of -1) and the number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support up to day 21 among patients who survived to hospital discharge. This outcome was evaluated with the use of a Bayesian statistical model for all patients and according to the baseline d-dimer level.

Results: The trial was stopped when prespecified criteria for the superiority of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation were met. Among 2219 patients in the final analysis, the probability that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation increased organ support-free days as compared with usual-care thromboprophylaxis was 98.6% (adjusted odds ratio, 1.27; 95% credible interval, 1.03 to 1.58). The adjusted absolute between-group difference in survival until hospital discharge without organ support favoring therapeutic-dose anticoagulation was 4.0 percentage points (95% credible interval, 0.5 to 7.2). The final probability of the superiority of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation over usual-care thromboprophylaxis was 97.3% in the high d-dimer cohort, 92.9% in the low d-dimer cohort, and 97.3% in the unknown d-dimer cohort. Major bleeding occurred in 1.9% of the patients receiving therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and in 0.9% of those receiving thromboprophylaxis.

Conclusions: In noncritically ill patients with Covid-19, an initial strategy of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin increased the probability of survival to hospital discharge with reduced use of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support as compared with usual-care thromboprophylaxis. (ATTACC, ACTIV-4a, and REMAP-CAP ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT04372589, NCT04505774, NCT04359277, and NCT02735707.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2105911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8362594PMC
August 2021

Extubation Failure in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients: Risk Factors and Impact on In-Hospital Mortality.

J Intensive Care Med 2021 Sep 2;36(9):1018-1024. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, 21818Beaumont Health System, OUWB School of Medicine, Royal Oak, MI, USA.

Purpose: We sought to identify clinical factors that predict extubation failure (reintubation) and its prognostic implications in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective, multi-center cohort study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Multivariate competing risk models were employed to explore the rate of reintubation and its determining factors.

Results: Two hundred eighty-one extubated patients were included (mean age, 61.0 years [±13.9]; 54.8% male). Reintubation occurred in 93 (33.1%). In multivariate analysis accounting for death, reintubation risk increased with age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.04 per 1-year increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 -1.06), vasopressors (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.04-3.60), renal replacement (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.22-3.29), maximum PEEP (HR 1.07 per 1-unit increase, 95% CI 1.02 -1.12), paralytics (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.08-2.25) and requiring more than nasal cannula immediately post-extubation (HR 2.19, 95% CI 1.37-3.50). Reintubation was associated with higher mortality (36.6% vs 2.1%; < 0.0001) and risk of inpatient death after adjusting for multiple factors (HR 23.2, 95% CI 6.45-83.33). Prone ventilation, corticosteroids, anticoagulation, remdesivir and tocilizumab did not impact the risk of reintubation or death.

Conclusions: Up to 1 in 3 critically ill COVID-19 patients required reintubation. Older age, paralytics, high PEEP, need for greater respiratory support following extubation and non-pulmonary organ failure predicted reintubation. Extubation failure strongly predicted adverse outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/08850666211020281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173445PMC
September 2021

A prospective study to validate pulmonary blood mass changes on non-contrast 4DCT in pulmonary embolism patients.

Clin Imaging 2021 Oct 5;78:179-183. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, OUWB School of Medicine, United States of America; Department of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University, United States of America. Electronic address:

Purpose: Limited diagnostic options exist for patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) who cannot undergo CT-angiogram (CTA). CT-ventilation methods recover respiratory motion-induced lung volume changes as a surrogate for ventilation. We recently demonstrated that pulmonary blood mass change, induced by tidal respiratory motion, is a potential surrogate for pulmonary perfusion. In this study, we examine blood mass and volume change in patients with PE and parenchymal lung abnormalities (PLA).

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a prospective, cohort-study with 129 consecutive PE suspected patients. Patients received 4DCT within 48 h of CTA and were classified as having PLA and/or PE. Global volume change (VC) and percent global pulmonary blood mass change (PBM) were calculated for each patient. Associations with disease type were evaluated using quantile regression.

Results: 68 of 129 patients were PE positive on CTA. Median change in PBM for PE-positive patients (0.056; 95% CI: 0.045, 0.068; IQR: 0.051) was smaller than that of PE-negative patients (0.077; 95% CI: 0.064, 0.089; IQR: 0.056), with an estimated difference of 0.021 (95% CI: 0.003, 0.038; p = 0.0190). PLA was detected in 57 (44.2%) patients. Median VC for PLA-positive patients (1.26; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.30; IQR: 0.15) showed no significant difference from PLA-negative VC (1.25; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.28; IQR: 0.15).

Conclusions: We demonstrate that pulmonary blood mass change is significantly lower in PE-positive patients compared to PE-negative patients, indicating that PBM derived from dynamic non-contrast CT is a potentially useful surrogate for pulmonary perfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2021.02.023DOI Listing
October 2021

Machine learning methods to predict mechanical ventilation and mortality in patients with COVID-19.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(4):e0249285. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, MI, United States of America.

Background: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected millions of people across the globe. It is associated with a high mortality rate and has created a global crisis by straining medical resources worldwide.

Objectives: To develop and validate machine-learning models for prediction of mechanical ventilation (MV) for patients presenting to emergency room and for prediction of in-hospital mortality once a patient is admitted.

Methods: Two cohorts were used for the two different aims. 1980 COVID-19 patients were enrolled for the aim of prediction ofMV. 1036 patients' data, including demographics, past smoking and drinking history, past medical history and vital signs at emergency room (ER), laboratory values, and treatments were collected for training and 674 patients were enrolled for validation using XGBoost algorithm. For the second aim to predict in-hospital mortality, 3491 hospitalized patients via ER were enrolled. CatBoost, a new gradient-boosting algorithm was applied for training and validation of the cohort.

Results: Older age, higher temperature, increased respiratory rate (RR) and a lower oxygen saturation (SpO2) from the first set of vital signs were associated with an increased risk of MV amongst the 1980 patients in the ER. The model had a high accuracy of 86.2% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 87.8%. While, patients who required MV, had a higher RR, Body mass index (BMI) and longer length of stay in the hospital were the major features associated with in-hospital mortality. The second model had a high accuracy of 80% with NPV of 81.6%.

Conclusion: Machine learning models using XGBoost and catBoost algorithms can predict need for mechanical ventilation and mortality with a very high accuracy in COVID-19 patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249285PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8016242PMC
April 2021

Pulmonary Blood Mass and Quantitative Lung Function Imaging in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging 2020 Jun 25;2(3):e200003. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care (G.B.N.), Department of Radiology and Molecular Imaging (S.A.K.), and Department of Radiation Oncology (E.C.), Beaumont Health System, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, 3535 W 13 Mile Rd, Suite 502, Royal Oak, MI 48073.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/ryct.2020200003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7977694PMC
June 2020

An assessment of the correlation between robust CT-derived ventilation and pulmonary function test in a cohort with no respiratory symptoms.

Br J Radiol 2021 Feb 15;94(1118):20201218. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health, OUWB School of Medicine, Auburn Hills, MI, USA.

Objective: To evaluate CT-ventilation imaging (CTVI) within a well-characterized, healthy cohort with no respiratory symptoms and examine the correlation between CTVI and concurrent pulmonary function test (PFT).

Methods: CT scans and PFTs from 77 Caucasian participants in the NORM dataset (clinicaltrials.gov NCT00848406) were analyzed. CTVI was generated using the robust Integrated Jacobian Formulation (IJF) method. IJF estimated total lung capacity (TLC) was computed from CTVI. Bias-adjusted Pearson's correlation between PFT and IJF-based TLC was computed.

Results: IJF- and PFT-measured TLC showed a good correlation for both males and females [males: 0.657, 95% CI (0.438-0.797); females: 0.667, 95% CI (0.416-0.817)]. When adjusting for age, height, smoking, and abnormal CT scan, correlation moderated [males: 0.432, 95% CI (0.129-0.655); females: 0.540, 95% CI (0.207-0.753)]. Visual inspection of CTVI revealed participants who had functional defects, despite the fact that all participant had normal high-resolution CT scan.

Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrate that IJF computed CTVI has good correlation with concurrent PFT in a well-validated patient cohort with no respiratory symptoms.

Advances In Knowledge: IJF-computed CTVI's overall numerical robustness and consistency with PFT support its potential as a method for providing spatiotemporal assessment of high and low function areas on volumetric non-contrast CT scan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20201218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934322PMC
February 2021

Association of anticoagulation dose and survival in hospitalized COVID-19 patients: A retrospective propensity score-weighted analysis.

Eur J Haematol 2021 Feb 4;106(2):165-174. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Beaumont Health System, OUWB School of Medicine, Royal Oak, MI, USA.

Background: Hypercoagulability may contribute to COVID-19 pathogenicity. The role of anticoagulation (AC) at therapeutic (tAC) or prophylactic doses (pAC) is unclear.

Objectives: We evaluated the impact on survival of different AC doses in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: Retrospective, multi-center cohort study of consecutive COVID-19 patients hospitalized between March 13 and May 5, 2020.

Results: A total of 3480 patients were included (mean age, 64.5 years [17.0]; 51.5% female; 52.1% black and 40.6% white). 18.5% (n = 642) required intensive care unit (ICU) stay. 60.9% received pAC (n = 2121), 28.7% received ≥3 days of tAC (n = 998), and 10.4% (n = 361) received no AC. Propensity score (PS) weighted Kaplan-Meier plot demonstrated different 25-day survival probability in the tAC and pAC groups (57.5% vs 50.7%). In a PS-weighted multivariate proportional hazards model, AC was associated with reduced risk of death at prophylactic (hazard ratio [HR] 0.35 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.22-0.54]) and therapeutic doses (HR 0.14 [95% CI 0.05-0.23]) compared to no AC. Major bleeding occurred more frequently in tAC patients (81 [8.1%]) compared to no AC (20 [5.5%]) or pAC (46 [2.2%]) subjects.

Conclusions: Higher doses of AC were associated with lower mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Prospective evaluation of efficacy and risk of AC in COVID-19 is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675265PMC
February 2021

Therapeutic Anticoagulation Delays Death in COVID-19 Patients: Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Prospective Cohort.

TH Open 2020 Jul 26;4(3):e263-e270. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Michigan, United States.

A hypercoagulable state has been described in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Others have reported a survival advantage with prophylactic anticoagulation (pAC) and therapeutic anticoagulation (tAC), but these retrospective analyses have important limitations such as confounding by indication. We studied the impact of tAC and pAC compared with no anticoagulation (AC) on time to death in COVID-19. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 127 deceased COVID-19 patients and compared time to death in those who received tAC (  = 67), pAC (  = 47), and no AC (  = 13). Median time to death was longer with higher doses of AC (11 days for tAC, 8 days for pAC, and 4 days for no AC,  < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, AC was associated with longer time to death, both at prophylactic (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15 to 0.58;  < 0.001) and therapeutic doses (HR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.32;  < 0.001) compared with no AC. Bleeding rates were similar among tAC and remaining patients (19 vs. 18%;  = 0.877). In deceased COVID-19 patients, AC was associated with a delay in death in a dose-dependent manner. Randomized trials are required to prospectively investigate the benefit and safety of higher doses of AC in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1716721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7519875PMC
July 2020

Updates on community acquired pneumonia management in the ICU.

Pharmacol Ther 2021 01 15;217:107663. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Weill Cornell Medical College, Pulmonary and Critical Care, New York Presbyterian/ Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

While the world is grappling with the consequences of a global pandemic related to SARS-CoV-2 causing severe pneumonia, available evidence points to bacterial infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae as the most common cause of severe community acquired pneumonia (SCAP). Rapid diagnostics and molecular testing have improved the identification of co-existent pathogens. However, mortality in patients admitted to ICU remains staggeringly high. The American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America have updated CAP guidelines to help streamline disease management. The common theme is use of timely, appropriate and adequate antibiotic coverage to decrease mortality and avoid drug resistance. Novel antibiotics have been studied for CAP and extend the choice of therapy, particularly for those who are intolerant of, or not responding to standard treatment, including those who harbor drug resistant pathogens. In this review, we focus on the risk factors, microbiology, site of care decisions and treatment of patients with SCAP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2020.107663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428725PMC
January 2021

Pneumothorax Rate and Diagnostic Adequacy of Computed Tomography-guided Lung Nodule Biopsies Performed With 18 G Versus 20 G Needles: A Cross-Sectional Study.

J Thorac Imaging 2020 Jul;35(4):265-269

Diagnostic Radiology and Molecular Imaging.

Purpose: Conflicting data exist with regard to the effect of needle gauge on outcomes of computed tomography (CT)-guided lung nodule biopsies. The purpose of this study was to compare the complication and diagnostic adequacy rates between 2 needle sizes: 18 G and 20 G in CT-guided lung nodule biopsies.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective cohort study examined CT-guided lung biopsies performed between March 2014 and August 2016 with a total of 550 patients between the ages of 30 and 94. Biopsies were performed using an 18-G or a 20-G needle. Procedure-associated pneumothorax and other complication rates were compared between the 2 groups. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.

Results: There was no significant difference in pneumothorax rate between 18 G (n=125) versus 20 G (n=425) (rates: 25.6% vs. 28.7%; P=0.50; odds ratio [OR]=0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.54-1.35), chest tube insertion rate (4.8% vs. 5.6%; P=0.71; OR=0.84; 95% CI=0.34-2.11), or diagnostic adequacy (95% vs. 93%; P=0.36; OR=1.51; 95% CI=0.61-3.72). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated emphysema along the biopsy path (OR=3.12; 95% CI=1.63-5.98) and nodule distance from the pleural surface ≥4 cm (OR=1.85; 95% CI=1.05-3.28) to be independent risk factors for pneumothorax.

Conclusion: No statistically significant difference in pneumothorax rate or diagnostic adequacy was found between 18-G versus 20-G core biopsy needles. Independent risk factors for pneumothorax include emphysema along the biopsy path and nodule distance from the pleural surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000481DOI Listing
July 2020

Differential Ventilation Pattern on Novel Functional Imaging in a Patient with Unilateral Bronchial Obstruction Caused by Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 02;201(3):e6-e7

Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan; and.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201904-0909IMDOI Listing
February 2020

Longitudinal Lung Compliance Imaging in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Radiology 2019 11 17;293(2):272. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

From the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (G.B.N.) and Department of Radiation Oncology (E.C.), Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, 3535 W Thirteen Mile Rd, Suite 502, Royal Oak, MI 48073; and Department of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University, Houston, Tex (E.C.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2019191115DOI Listing
November 2019

High frequency percussive ventilation for respiratory immobilization in radiotherapy.

Tech Innov Patient Support Radiat Oncol 2019 Mar 14;9:8-12. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Oak, MI, United States.

High frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) employs high frequency low tidal volumes (100-400 bursts/min) to provide respiration in awake patients while simultaneously reducing respiratory motion. The purpose of this study is to evaluate HFPV as a technique for respiratory motion immobilization in radiotherapy. In this study fifteen healthy volunteers (age 30-75 y) underwent HFPV using three different oral interfaces. We evaluated each HFPV oral interface device for compliance, ease of use, comfort, geometric interference, minimal chest wall motion, duty cycle and prolonged percussive time. Their chest wall motion was monitored using an external respiratory motion laser system. The percussive ventilations were delivered via an air driven pneumatic system. All volunteers were monitored for PO and tc-CO with a pulse oximeter and CO Monitoring System. A total of N = 62 percussive sessions were analyzed from the external respiratory motion laser system. Chest-wall motion was well tolerated and drastically reduced using HFPV in each volunteer evaluated. As a result, we believe HFPV may provide thoracic immobilization during radiotherapy, particularly for SBRT and pencil beam scanning proton therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tipsro.2018.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7033809PMC
March 2019

Using Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Rates as a Health Care Quality Indicator: A Contentious Concept.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2017 06 4;38(3):237-244. Epub 2017 Jun 4.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York.

Pneumonia is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections, although reported rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) have been declining in recent years. A multifaceted infection prevention approach, using a “ventilator bundle,” has been shown to reduce the frequency of VAP, while improving other patient outcomes. Because of difficulties in defining VAP, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Service introduced a new streamlined ventilator-associated event (VAE) definition in 2013 for the surveillance of complications in mechanically ventilated patients. VAE measures are increasingly being measured by institutions in the United States in place of VAP rates and as a potential measure of the quality of intensive care unit (ICU) care. However, there is increased recognition that the streamlined definitions identify a different subset of patients than those identified by traditional VAP surveillance and that VAP prevention strategies may not impact all the causes of VAE. Also, VAP and VAE rates may not always reflect the quality of care in a given ICU, especially since patient factors, beyond the control of the hospital, may impact the rates of VAP and VAE. In this review, we discuss the issues related to VAP as a quality measure and the areas of uncertainty related to the new VAE definitions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1602580DOI Listing
June 2017

Newer developments in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in the era of anti-fibrotic medications.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2016 06 26;10(6):699-711. Epub 2016 Apr 26.

c Department of Medicine & Lab Medicine (Adjunct), Division of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine , University of Washington , Seattle , WA , USA.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common interstitial lung disease with a fatal prognosis. Over the last decade, the concepts in pathobiology of pulmonary fibrosis have shifted from a model of chronic inflammation to dysregulated fibroproliferative repair in genetically predisposed patients. Although new breakthrough treatments are now available that slow the progression of the disease, several newer anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drugs are under investigation. Patients with IPF often have coexistent conditions; prompt detection and interventions of which may improve the overall outcome of patients with IPF. Here, we summarize the present understanding of pathogenesis of IPF and treatment options for IPF in the current landscape of new anti-fibrotic treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2016.1177461DOI Listing
June 2016

Bronchial injury post-cryoablation for atrial fibrillation.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2015 Jul;12(7):1103-4

1 Winthrop University Hospital Mineola, New York and.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201503-135LEDOI Listing
July 2015

Ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention: response to Silvestri et al.

Intensive Care Med 2015 May 31;41(5):957. Epub 2015 Mar 31.

Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, NY, 11501, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-015-3756-7DOI Listing
May 2015

Year in review 2013: Critical Care--respiratory infections.

Crit Care 2014 Oct 29;18(5):572. Epub 2014 Oct 29.

Infectious complications, particularly in the respiratory tract of critically ill patients, are related to increased mortality. Severe infection is part of a multiple system illness and female patients with severe sepsis have a worse prognosis compared to males. Kallistatin is a protective hormokine released during monocyte activation and low levels in the setting of septic shock can predict adverse outcomes. Presepsin is another biomarker that was recently evaluated and is elevated in patients with severe sepsis patients at risk of dying. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has introduced new definitions for identifying patients at risk of ventilator-associated complications (VACs), but several other conditions, such as pulmonary edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome, may cause VACs, and not all patients with VACs may have ventilator-associated pneumonia. New studies have suggested strategies to identify patients at risk for resistant pathogen infection and therapies that optimize efficacy, without the overuse of broad-spectrum therapy in patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia. Innovative strategies using optimized dosing of antimicrobials, maximizing the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs in critically ill patients, and newer routes of drug delivery are being explored to combat drug-resistant pathogens. We summarize the major clinical studies on respiratory infections in critically ill patients published in 2013.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-014-0572-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4330923PMC
October 2014

Managing ventilator complications in a "VACuum" of data.

Chest 2015 Jan;147(1):5-6

Department of Medicine, Winthrop-University Hospital, SUNY at Stony Brook, Mineola, NY.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.14-1496DOI Listing
January 2015

Ventilator-associated pneumonia: present understanding and ongoing debates.

Intensive Care Med 2015 Jan 27;41(1):34-48. Epub 2014 Nov 27.

Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, NY, USA,

Introduction: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common cause of nosocomial infection, and is related to significant utilization of health-care resources. In the past decade, new data have emerged about VAP epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

Results: Classifying VAP strictly based on time since hospitalization (early- and late-onset VAP) can potentially result in undertreatment of drug-resistant organisms in ICUs with a high rate of drug resistance, and overtreatment for patients not infected with resistant pathogens. A combined strategy incorporating diagnostic scoring systems, such as the Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS), and either a quantitative or qualitative microbiological specimen, plus serial measurement of biomarkers, leads to responsible antimicrobial stewardship. The newly proposed ventilator-associated events (VAE) surveillance definition, endorsed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has low sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing VAP and the ability to prevent VAE is uncertain, making it a questionable surrogate for the quality of ICU care. The use of adjunctive aerosolized antibiotic treatment can provide high pulmonary concentrations of the drug and may facilitate shorter durations of therapy for multi-drug-resistant pathogens. A group of preventive strategies grouped as a 'ventilator bundle' can decrease VAP rates, but not to zero, and several recent studies show that there are potential barriers to implementation of these prevention strategies.

Conclusion: The morbidity and mortality related to VAP remain high and, in the absence of a gold standard test for diagnosis, suspected VAP patients should be started on antibiotics based on recommendations per the 2005 ATS guidelines and knowledge of local antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Using a combination of clinical severity scores, biomarkers, and cultures might help with reducing the duration of therapy and achieving antibiotic de-escalation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-014-3564-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7095124PMC
January 2015

Year in review 2012: Critical Care--respiratory infections.

Crit Care 2013 Nov 22;17(6):251. Epub 2013 Nov 22.

Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of disease mechanisms and infection control strategies related to infections, particularly pneumonia, in critically ill patients. Patient-centered and preventative strategies assume paramount importance in this era of limited health-care resources, in which effective targeted therapy is required to achieve the best outcomes. Risk stratification using severity scores and inflammatory biomarkers is a promising strategy for identifying sick patients early during their hospital stay. The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens is becoming a major hurdle in intensive care units. Cooperation, education, and interaction between multiple disciplines in the intensive care unit are required to limit the spread of resistant pathogens and to improve care. In this review, we summarize findings from major publications over the last year in the field of respiratory infections in critically ill patients, putting an emphasis on a newer understanding of pathogenesis, use of biomarkers, and antibiotic stewardship and examining new treatment options and preventive strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/cc12773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4057239PMC
November 2013

Nosocomial pneumonia: lessons learned.

Crit Care Clin 2013 Jul 30;29(3):521-46. Epub 2013 Apr 30.

Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, NY 11501, USA.

Nosocomial pneumonia remains a significant cause of hospital-acquired infection, imposing substantial economic burden on the health care system worldwide. Various preventive strategies have been increasingly used to prevent the development of pneumonia. It is now recognized that patients with health care-associated pneumonia are a heterogeneous population and that not all are at risk for infection with nosocomial pneumonia pathogens, with some being infected with the same organisms as in community-acquired pneumonia. This review discusses the risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia, controversies in its diagnosis, and approaches to the treatment and prevention of nosocomial and health care-associated pneumonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccc.2013.03.007DOI Listing
July 2013

Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

Clin Chest Med 2012 Jun 6;33(2):363-70. Epub 2012 Apr 6.

Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY, USA.

There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccm.2012.02.008DOI Listing
June 2012

New treatments for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, empyema, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012 Mar;185(6):680-1

Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY 11501, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201110-1871RRDOI Listing
March 2012
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