Publications by authors named "Giovanni Sarnelli"

92 Publications

Nutraceuticals and Diet Supplements in Crohn's Disease: A General Overview of the Most Promising Approaches in the Clinic.

Foods 2022 Apr 4;11(7). Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples "Federico II", 80131 Naples, Italy.

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal disorder requiring lifelong medications. The currently approved drugs for CD are associated with relevant side effects and several studies suggest an increased use of nutraceuticals among CD patients, seeking for what is perceived as a more "natural" approach in controlling this highly morbid condition. Nutraceuticals are foods or foods' components with beneficial health properties that could aid in CD treatment for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and immunoregulatory activities that come along with safety, high tolerability, easy availability and affordability. Depending on their biological effect, nutraceuticals' support could be employed in different subsets of CD patients, both those with active disease, as adjunctive immunomodulatory therapies, and/or in quiescent disease to provide symptomatic relief in patients with residual functional symptoms. Despite the increasing interest of the general public, both limited research and lack of education from healthcare professionals regarding their real clinical effectiveness account for the increasing number of patients turning to unconventional sources. Professionals should recognize their widespread use and the evidence base for or against their efficacy to properly counsel IBD patients. Overall, nutraceuticals appear to be safe complements to conventional therapies; nonetheless, little quality evidence supports a positive impact on underlying inflammatory activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11071044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8998137PMC
April 2022

Impact of psychological distress and psychophysical wellbeing on posttraumatic symptoms in parents of preterm infants after NICU discharge.

Ital J Pediatr 2022 Jan 24;48(1):13. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Division of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Sergio Pansini 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.

Backgorund: Parents after Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) hospitalization of preterm infant may develop psychopathological symptoms. The aim of the study was to determine how parental stress and psychophysical wellbeing affect posttraumatic symptoms (PTTS) in parents during the first year after NICU discharge. Moreover, this study aimed to explore any gender-specific difference in psychological distress among mothers and fathers.

Methods: Prospective study design from September 2018 to September 2019. 20 pairs of parents of preterm infants admitted to a tertiary-level NICU were enrolled. Primary outcome was evaluation of PTTS in parents of preterm infants at one year after NICU discharge through Impact of Event Scale- Revised. Secondary outcomes were: impact of parental stress, psychophysical wellbeing, anxiety and depression respectively through Parental Stressor Scale: NICU, Short Form Health Survey-36(SF-36), Self-rating Anxiety Scale and Self-rating Depression Scale.

Results: Mothers experienced higher rates of PTTS than fathers across the first year after NICU discharge (55% vs 20%). Maternal avoidance symptoms were associated with perception of their own infant look. Emotional aspects linked to maternal role predicted 36,8% of their hyperarousal symptoms. Maternal PTTS severity was predicted by their social functioning. Paternal mental health was associated both with maternal and paternal intrusive symptoms.. Maternal stress was associated with paternal avoidance symptoms. Paternal mental health predicted their hyperarousal symptoms (40%) and PTSD severity (52%).

Conclusions: Parents who experienced NICU hospitalization of their own infant are at heightened risk to develop psychopathological symptoms. According to our initial hypothesis, investigating parental psychophysical wellbeing, through SF-36, originally provides a valuable support to detect parents at higher risk to develop posttraumatic outcomes across the first year after NICU discharge. In addition, paternal depression deserves to be taken into account since hospitalization as it could impact paternal PTSD development. Finally, these findings provide an initial evidence of gender-related patterns in PTSD development and psychological distress among mothers and fathers across the first year of their infant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13052-022-01202-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8785440PMC
January 2022

Cannabidiol inhibits SARS-Cov-2 spike (S) protein-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation through a PPARγ-dependent TLR4/NLRP3/Caspase-1 signaling suppression in Caco-2 cell line.

Phytother Res 2021 Dec 12;35(12):6893-6903. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Given the abundancy of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptors density, beyond the lung, the intestine is considered as an alternative site of infection and replication for severe acute respiratory syndrome by coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Cannabidiol (CBD) has recently been proposed in the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory symptoms because of its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity exerted in the lung. In this study, we demonstrated the in vitro PPAR-γ-dependent efficacy of CBD (10 -10  M) in preventing epithelial damage and hyperinflammatory response triggered by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SP) in a Caco-2 cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that CBD was able to reduce all the analyzed proinflammatory markers triggered by SP incubation, such as tool-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), ACE-2, family members of Ras homologues A-GTPase (RhoA-GTPase), inflammasome complex (NLRP3), and Caspase-1. CBD caused a parallel inhibition of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-18 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay. By immunofluorescence analysis, we observed increased expression of tight-junction proteins and restoration of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) following CBD treatment, as well as the rescue of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran permeability induced by SP. Our data indicate, in conclusion, that CBD is a powerful inhibitor of SP protein enterotoxicity in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8662250PMC
December 2021

United European Gastroenterology (UEG) and European Society for Neurogastroenterology and Motility (ESNM) consensus on functional dyspepsia.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 09;33(9):e14238

Gastroenterology Unit, Departmento of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Background: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common conditions in clinical practice. In spite of its prevalence, FD is associated with major uncertainties in terms of its definition, underlying pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

Methods: A Delphi consensus was initiated with 41 experts from 22 European countries who conducted a literature summary and voting process on 87 statements. Quality of evidence was evaluated using the grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Consensus (defined as >80% agreement) was reached for 36 statements.

Results: The panel agreed with the definition in terms of its cardinal symptoms (early satiation, postprandial fullness, epigastric pain, and epigastric burning), its subdivision into epigastric pain syndrome and postprandial distress syndrome, and the presence of accessory symptoms (upper abdominal bloating, nausea, belching), and overlapping conditions. Also, well accepted are the female predominance of FD, its impact on quality of life and health costs, and acute gastrointestinal infections, and anxiety as risk factors. In terms of pathophysiological mechanisms, the consensus supports a role for impaired gastric accommodation, delayed gastric emptying, hypersensitivity to gastric distention, Helicobacter pylori infection, and altered central processing of signals from the gastroduodenal region. There is consensus that endoscopy is mandatory for establishing a firm diagnosis of FD, but that in primary care, patients without alarm symptoms or risk factors can be managed without endoscopy. There is consensus that H. pylori status should be determined in every patient with dyspeptic symptoms and H. pylori positive patients should receive eradication therapy. Also, proton pump inhibitor therapy is considered an effective therapy for FD, but no other treatment approach reached a consensus. The long-term prognosis and life expectancy are favorable.

Conclusions And Inferences: A multinational group of European experts summarized the current state of consensus on the definition, diagnosis and management of FD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.14238DOI Listing
September 2021

Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Expression and Pro-Inflammatory Response Activated by SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein in Cultured Murine Alveolar Macrophages.

Metabolites 2021 Sep 2;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology "V. Erspamer", Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy.

Despite its possible therapeutic potential against COVID-19, the exact mechanism(s) by which palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) exerts its beneficial activity is still unclear. PEA has demonstrated analgesic, anti-allergic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Most of the anti-inflammatory properties of PEA arise from its ability to antagonize nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling pathway via the selective activation of the PPARα receptors. Acting at this site, PEA can downstream several genes involved in the inflammatory response, including cytokines (TNF-α, Il-1β) and other signal mediators, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX2. To shed light on this, we tested the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity of ultramicronized(um)-PEA, both alone and in the presence of specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) antagonist MK886, in primary cultures of murine alveolar macrophages exposed to SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (SP). SP challenge caused a significant concentration-dependent increase in proinflammatory markers (TLR4, p-p38 MAPK, NF-κB) paralleled to a marked upregulation of inflammasome-dependent inflammatory pathways (NLRP3, Caspase-1) with IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α over-release, compared to vehicle group. We also observed a significant concentration-dependent increase in angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) following SP challenge. um-PEA concentration-dependently reduced all the analyzed proinflammatory markers fostering a parallel downregulation of ACE-2. Our data show for the first time that um-PEA, via PPAR-α, markedly inhibits the SP induced NLRP3 signalling pathway outlining a novel mechanism of action of this lipid against COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11090592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8472716PMC
September 2021

Pharmacological interventions for pediatric irritable bowel syndrome.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2022 Jan 13;23(1):91-103. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Division of Neurogastroenterology & Motility, Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for children, London, UK.

Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder in children, characterized by recurrent abdominal pain associated with altered bowel habits in terms of both frequency and consistency. According to change in stool consistency it is categorized into 4 subtypes. From the etiological perspective, it is a combination of factors takes part in symptoms' generation, the overall treatment response rate is often unsatisfactory if a multidisciplinary is not pursued.

Areas Covered: The aim of this manuscript is to summarize the current pharmacotherapy in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome in order to aid clinicians in treating this challenging disorder.

Expert Opinion: Most evidence involving pediatric populations rely on open label or retrospective studies and/or are not specifically designed for irritable bowel syndrome but tend to generalize their results to mixed populations of children with functional gastrointestinal disorders. A high placebo response rate combined with poor patients' selection could account for the overall weak evidence supporting the use of pharmacological agents in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome. Given the multifaceted nature of the disorder, multidisciplinary approaches combining pharmacotherapy with alternative treatments is highly recommendable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14656566.2021.1976753DOI Listing
January 2022

High-fat diet impairs duodenal barrier function and elicits glia-dependent changes along the gut-brain axis that are required for anxiogenic and depressive-like behaviors.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 May 16;18(1):115. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology "V. Erspamer", Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy.

Background: Mood and metabolic disorders are interrelated and may share common pathological processes. Autonomic neurons link the brain with the gastrointestinal tract and constitute a likely pathway for peripheral metabolic challenges to affect behaviors controlled by the brain. The activities of neurons along these pathways are regulated by glia, which exhibit phenotypic shifts in response to changes in their microenvironment. How glial changes might contribute to the behavioral effects of consuming a high-fat diet (HFD) is uncertain. Here, we tested the hypothesis that anxiogenic and depressive-like behaviors driven by consuming a HFD involve compromised duodenal barrier integrity and subsequent phenotypic changes to glia and neurons along the gut-brain axis.

Methods: C57Bl/6 male mice were exposed to a standard diet or HFD for 20 weeks. Bodyweight was monitored weekly and correlated with mucosa histological damage and duodenal expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin at 0, 6, and 20 weeks. The expression of GFAP, TLR-4, BDNF, and DCX were investigated in duodenal myenteric plexus, nodose ganglia, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus at the same time points. Dendritic spine number was measured in cultured neurons isolated from duodenal myenteric plexuses and hippocampi at weeks 0, 6, and 20. Depressive and anxiety behaviors were also assessed by tail suspension, forced swimming, and open field tests.

Results: HFD mice exhibited duodenal mucosa damage with marked infiltration of immune cells and decreased expression of ZO-1 and occludin that coincided with increasing body weight. Glial expression of GFAP and TLR4 increased in parallel in the duodenal myenteric plexuses, nodose ganglia, and hippocampus in a time-dependent manner. Glial changes were associated with a progressive decrease in BDNF, and DCX expression, fewer neuronal dendritic spines, and anxiogenic/depressive symptoms in HFD-treated mice. Fluorocitrate (FC), a glial metabolic poison, abolished these effects both in the enteric and central nervous systems and prevented behavioral alterations at week 20.

Conclusions: HFD impairs duodenal barrier integrity and produces behavioral changes consistent with depressive and anxiety phenotypes. HFD-driven changes in both peripheral and central nervous systems are glial-dependent, suggesting a potential glial role in the alteration of the gut-brain signaling that occurs during metabolic disorders and psychiatric co-morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-021-02164-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126158PMC
May 2021

A Palmitoylethanolamide Producing Improves Toxin A-Induced Colitis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 27;12:639728. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Section of Gastroenterology, University Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Genetically engineered probiotics, able to deliver therapeutically active compounds while restoring gut , could represent an attractive therapeutic alternative in infection (CDI). Palmitoylethanolamide is an endogenous lipid able to exert immunomodulatory activities and restore epithelial barrier integrity in human models of colitis, by binding the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα). The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy of a newly designed PEA-producing probiotic (pNAPE-LP) in a mice model of toxin A (TcdA)-induced colitis. The human N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of PEA, was cloned and expressed in a that was intragastrically administered to mice 7 days prior the induction of the colitis. Bacteria carrying the empty vector served as negative controls (pLP).In the presence of palmitate, pNAPE-LP was able to significantly increase PEA production by 27,900%, in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. Mice treated with pNAPE-LP showed a significant improvement of colitis in terms of histological damage score, macrophage count, and myeloperoxidase levels (-53, -82, and -70.4%, respectively). This was paralleled by a significant decrease both in the expression of toll-like receptor-4 (-71%), phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (-72%), hypoxia-inducible factor-1-alpha (-53%), p50 (-74%), and p65 (-60%) and in the plasmatic levels of interleukin-6 (-86%), nitric oxide (-59%), and vascular endothelial growth factor (-71%). Finally, tight junction protein expression was significantly improved by pNAPE-LP treatment as witnessed by the rescue of zonula occludens-1 (+304%), Ras homolog family member A-GTP (+649%), and occludin expression (+160%). These protective effects were mediated by the specific release of PEA by the engineered probiotic as they were abolished in PPARα knockout mice and in wild-type mice treated with pLP. Herein, we demonstrated that pNAPE-LP has therapeutic potential in CDI by inhibiting colonic inflammation and restoring tight junction protein expression in mice, paving the way to next generation probiotics as a promising strategy in CDI prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.639728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111445PMC
April 2021

Diagnostic issues faced by a rare disease healthcare network during Covid-19 outbreak: data from the Campania Rare Disease Registry.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2021 05 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Centro di Coordinamento Malattie Rare, Regione Campania Naples 80131, Italy.

Background: The aims of this study were: to investigate the capacity of the rare disease healthcare network in Campania to diagnose patients with rare diseases during the outbreak of Covid-19; and to shed light on problematic diagnoses during this period.

Methods: To describe the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the diagnosis of patients with rare diseases, a retrospective analysis of the Campania Region Rare Disease Registry was performed. A tailored questionnaire was sent to rare disease experts to investigate major issues during the emergency period.

Results: Prevalence of new diagnoses of rare disease in March and April 2020 was significantly lower than in 2019 (117 versus 317, P < 0.001 and 37 versus 349, P < 0.001, respectively) and 2018 (117 versus 389, P < 0.001 and 37 versus 282, P < 0.001, respectively). Eighty-two among 98 rare disease experts completed the questionnaire. Diagnostic success (95%), access to diagnosis (80%) and follow-up (72%), lack of Personal Protective Equipment (60%), lack of Covid-19 guidelines (50%) and the need for home therapy (78%) were the most important issues raised during Covid-19 outbreak.

Conclusions: This study describes the effects of the Covid-19 outbreak on the diagnosis of rare disease in a single Italian region and investigates potential issues of diagnosis and management during this period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdab137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194710PMC
May 2021

United European Gastroenterology (UEG) and European Society for Neurogastroenterology and Motility (ESNM) consensus on functional dyspepsia.

United European Gastroenterol J 2021 04;9(3):307-331

Gastroenterology Unit, Departmento of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Background: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common conditions in clinical practice. In spite of its prevalence, FD is associated with major uncertainties in terms of its definition, underlying pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

Methods: A Delphi consensus was initiated with 41 experts from 22 European countries who conducted a literature summary and voting process on 87 statements. Quality of evidence was evaluated using the grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Consensus (defined as >80% agreement) was reached for 36 statements.

Results: The panel agreed with the definition in terms of its cardinal symptoms (early satiation, postprandial fullness, epigastric pain, and epigastric burning), its subdivision into epigastric pain syndrome and postprandial distress syndrome, and the presence of accessory symptoms (upper abdominal bloating, nausea, belching), and overlapping conditions. Also, well accepted are the female predominance of FD, its impact on quality of life and health costs, and acute gastrointestinal infections, and anxiety as risk factors. In terms of pathophysiological mechanisms, the consensus supports a role for impaired gastric accommodation, delayed gastric emptying, hypersensitivity to gastric distention, Helicobacter pylori infection, and altered central processing of signals from the gastroduodenal region. There is consensus that endoscopy is mandatory for establishing a firm diagnosis of FD, but that in primary care, patients without alarm symptoms or risk factors can be managed without endoscopy. There is consensus that H. pylori status should be determined in every patient with dyspeptic symptoms and H. pylori positive patients should receive eradication therapy. Also, proton pump inhibitor therapy is considered an effective therapy for FD, but no other treatment approach reached a consensus. The long-term prognosis and life expectancy are favorable.

Conclusions And Inferences: A multinational group of European experts summarized the current state of consensus on the definition, diagnosis and management of FD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ueg2.12061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259261PMC
April 2021

Engineered Producing Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) Prevents Colitis in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 14;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology "V. Erspamer", Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy.

Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an -acylethanolamide produced on-demand by the enzyme -acylphosphatidylethanolamine-preferring phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD). Being a key member of the larger family of bioactive autacoid local injury antagonist amides (ALIAmides), PEA significantly improves the clinical and histopathological stigmata in models of ulcerative colitis (UC). Despite its safety profile, high PEA doses are required in vivo to exert its therapeutic activity; therefore, PEA has been tested only in animals or human biopsy samples, to date. To overcome these limitations, we developed an NAPE-PLD-expressing (pNAPE-LP), able to produce PEA under the boost of ultra-low palmitate supply, and investigated its therapeutic potential in a murine model of UC. The coadministration of pNAPE-LP and palmitate led to a time-dependent release of PEA, resulting in a significant amelioration of the clinical and histological damage score, with a significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration, lower expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers, and a markedly improved epithelial barrier integrity. We concluded that pNAPE-LP with ultra-low palmitate supply stands as a new method to increase the in situ intestinal delivery of PEA and as a new therapeutic able of controlling intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999950PMC
March 2021

Long-Term Functional Results of a Modified Caudal-to-Cranial Approach in Laparoscopic Segmental Left Colectomy for Diverticular Disease.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2021 11;2021:8940682. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, "Federico II" University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy.

A modified caudal-to-cranial approach to perform laparoscopic left colectomy for benign diseases has been recently designed to facilitate the low-tie mesenteric dissection. A chart review has been performed including all consecutive patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis who have been treated by segmental left colectomy with a caudal-to-cranial approach. A total of 34 patients were included in the study. 21 patients were male, mean age was 54.1 ± 11.3, and mean BMI was 26 ± 5.5. Patients with ASA Score I were 7, with ASA II were 9, and with ASA Score III were 5. Incontinence Score (IS) resulted in an average of 5 ± 2, 2 grade of incontinence and the CS score showed an average of 10 ± 3, 2 grade of constipation. Health status, evaluated by Short Form-36 questionnaire, was demonstrated in these patients' great physical function, role, general health, and social function. The anorectal manometry performed 6 months after surgery showed a normal value in terms of the anal resting pressure (47 ± 13 mmHg) and an increased volume to stimulate desire to defecate (197 ± 25 ml). The length of the anal sphincter was normal compared to the reference value (37 ± 5.4 mm). Although further studies are required to obtain definitive conclusions, our results are encouraging to propose low-tie segmental colectomy as the standard procedure for the treatment of uncomplicated diverticulitis, and our modified surgical approach could be considered useful to facilitate the surgical approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8940682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814944PMC
January 2021

Phytotherapics in COVID19: Why palmitoylethanolamide?

Phytother Res 2020 Dec 9. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

At present, googling the search terms "COVID-19" and "Functional foods" yields nearly 500,000,000 hits, witnessing the growing interest of the scientific community and the general public in the role of nutrition and nutraceuticals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many compounds have been proposed as phytotherapics in the prevention and/or treatment of COVID-19. The extensive interest of the general public and the enormous social media coverage on this topic urges the scientific community to address the question of whether which nutraceuticals can actually be employed in preventing and treating this newly described coronavirus-related disease. Recently, the Canadian biotech pharma company "FSD Pharma" received the green light from the Food and Drug Administration to design a proof-of-concept study evaluating the effects of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in COVID-19 patients. The story of PEA as a nutraceutical to prevent and treat infectious diseases dates back to the 1970s where the molecule was branded under the name Impulsin and was used for its immunomodulatory properties in influenza virus infection. The present paper aims at analyzing the potential of PEA as a nutraceutical and the previous evidence suggesting its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties in infectious and respiratory diseases and how these could translate to COVID-19 care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6978DOI Listing
December 2020

Evaluation of reflux following sleeve gastrectomy and one anastomosis gastric bypass: 1-year results from a randomized open-label controlled trial.

Surg Endosc 2021 12 2;35(12):6777-6785. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Clinical Medicine and Surgery Department, Naples "Federico II" University, AOU "Federico II" - Via S. Pansini 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.

Background: Recent reports have demonstrated that de novo reflux and worsening of pre-existing symptoms occur after SG; concerns are still expressed about the risk of symptomatic biliary reflux gastritis and oesophagitis. The aim of our study was to investigate and compare the rate of postoperative acid and non-acid reflux following Mini-/One anastomosis gastric bypass (MGB/OAGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG).

Study Design: A prospective randomized open-label, controlled trial registered on clinicaltrial.gov (NCT number: NCT02987673) has been carried out to evaluate esophagogastric junction exposure to reflux in the first year after MGB/OAGB and LSG using high impedance manometry, endoscopy, and a validated questionnaire.

Results: A total of 58 individuals were eventually enrolled in this trial and represented the per-protocol population (n = 28 MGB/OAGB, n = 30 LSG). No difference was found between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics, PAGI-SYM score, acid exposure time percent of the esophagus (AET%), esophagitis, and other HRiM and MII-pH data at baseline. Comparing MII-pH outcomes of the two groups, AET% resulted significantly higher after LSG at 12 months. Endoscopic findings showed a significant increase of esophagitis ≥ B in the LSG group after 1 year; postoperative esophagitis ≥ B resulted also significantly worsened after LSG when compared to MGB/OAGB.

Conclusion: Since AET% and rate of esophagitis are significantly higher after LSG when compared to MGB/OAGB, this procedure should be preferred in case of preoperative subclinical reflux or low grade (A) esophagitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-08182-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8599401PMC
December 2021

Impaired Duodenal Palmitoylethanolamide Release Underlies Acid-Induced Mast Cell Activation in Functional Dyspepsia.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 14;11(3):841-855. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background & Aims: Acid hypersensitivity is claimed to be a symptomatic trigger in functional dyspepsia (FD); however, the neuroimmune pathway(s) and the mediators involved in this process have not been investigated systematically. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous compound, able to modulate nociception and inflammation, but its role in FD has not been assessed.

Methods: Duodenal biopsy specimens from FD and control subjects, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) null mice were cultured at a pH of 3.0 and 7.4. Mast cell (MC) number, the release of their mediators, and the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor (TRPV)1 and TRPV4, were evaluated. All measurements also were performed in the presence of a selective blocker of neuronal action potential (tetradotoxin). FD and control biopsy specimens in acidified medium also were incubated in the presence of different PEA concentrations, alone or combined with a selective PPARα or PPAR-γ antagonist.

Results: An acid-induced increase in MC density and the release of their mediators were observed in both dyspeptic patients and controls; however, this response was amplified significantly in FD. This effect was mediated by submucosal nerve fibers and up-regulation of TRPV1 and TRPV4 receptors because pretreatment with tetradotoxin significantly reduced MC infiltration. The acid-induced endogenous release of PEA was impaired in FD and its exogenous administration counteracts MC activation and TRPV up-regulation.

Conclusions: Duodenal acid exposure initiates a cascade of neuronal-mediated events culminating in MC activation and TRPV overexpression. These phenomena are consequences of an impaired release of endogenous PEA. PEA might be regarded as an attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of FD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2020.10.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7858681PMC
December 2021

Lathyrus sativus diamine oxidase reduces Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced toxicity in Caco-2 cells by rescuing RhoA-GTPase and inhibiting pp38-MAPK/NF-κB/HIF-1α activation.

Phytother Res 2021 Jan 10;35(1):415-423. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Biochemical Sciences "A. Rossi Fanelli", Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) impairs the intestinal epithelial barrier, increasing the mucosa permeability and triggering a robust inflammatory response. Lathyrus sativus diamino oxidase (LSAO) is a nutraceutical compound successfully used in various gastrointestinal dysfunctions. Here, we evaluated the LSAO (0.004-0.4 μM) ability to counter TcdA-induced (30 ng/mL) toxicity and damage in Caco-2 cells, investigating its possible mechanism of action. LSAO has improved the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) score and increased cell viability in TcdA-treated cells, significantly rescuing the protein expression of Ras homolog family members, A-GTPase (RhoA-GTPase), occludin, and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). LSAO has also exhibited an anti-apoptotic effect by inhibiting the TcdA-induced expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), p50 nuclear factor-kappa-B (p50), p65nuclear factor-kappa-B (p65), and hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), and the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the cell milieu. Our data showed that LSAO exerts a protective effect on TcdA-induced toxicity in Caco-2 cells, placing itself as an interesting nutraceutical to supplement the current treatment of the Clostridium difficile infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6814DOI Listing
January 2021

Clinical correlation and disease phenotype in patients with esophageal achalasia and comorbid autoimmune diseases.

Dis Esophagus 2021 Jan;34(1)

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, 'Federico II' University of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Background: There is evidence that idiopathic achalasia has an autoimmune component and a significant association with several autoimmune comorbidities has been described. However, data regarding the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in achalasia are not well established, and few studies have explored this association.

Objective: Our primary aim was to prospectively investigate the type and frequency of autoimmune comorbidities in a large cohort of consecutive achalasia patients. Our secondary aim was to investigate the effects of autoimmune comorbidities on achalasia phenotype (clinical features and manometric pattern).

Methods: The study population consisted of 375 consecutive patients (215 females-median age 55 ± 17 years), referred at our tertiary referral center from January 2008 to January 2018, with clinical and instrumental (EGDS, barium esophagogram, and manometry) diagnosis of idiopathic achalasia. Gender- and age-matched subjects undergoing manometry and pH-impedance monitoring for typical gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) complaints served as controls. In all patients a detailed history taking was carried out, recording the presence and type of autoimmune comorbidities.

Results: The overall prevalence of autoimmune comorbidities was two times higher in achalasia than in control patients (12.3 vs. 5%, respectively). The presence of comorbidities did not significantly affect disease's phenotype, as the age of disease onset was similar in achalasia patients with and without comorbidities (50.13 ± 14.47 and 48.3 ± 18.71, respectively, P = NS).

Conclusions: Although larger epidemiologic studies are needed to confirm our data, our findings likely suggest that achalasia has a complex multifactorial pathophysiology with an autoimmune component.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/dote/doaa072DOI Listing
January 2021

The potential of cannabidiol in the COVID-19 pandemic.

Br J Pharmacol 2020 11 16;177(21):4967-4970. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy.

Identifying drugs effective in the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is crucial, pending a vaccine against SARS-CoV2. We suggest the hypothesis that cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid, has the potential to limit the severity and progression of the disease for several reasons:- (a) High-cannabidiol Cannabis sativa extracts are able to down-regulate the expression of the two key receptors for SARS-CoV2 in several models of human epithelia, (b) cannabidiol exerts a wide range of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and it can mitigate the uncontrolled cytokine production responsible for acute lung injury, (c) being a PPARγ agonist, it can display a direct antiviral activity and (d) PPARγ agonists are regulators of fibroblast/myofibroblast activation and can inhibit the development of pulmonary fibrosis, thus ameliorating lung function in recovered patients. We hope our hypothesis, corroborated by preclinical evidence, will inspire further targeted studies to test cannabidiol as a support drug against the COVID-19 pandemic. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed issue on The Pharmacology of COVID-19. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v177.21/issuetoc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.15157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300643PMC
November 2020

Can the enteric nervous system be an alternative entrance door in SARS-CoV2 neuroinvasion?

Brain Behav Immun 2020 07 23;87:93-94. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179488PMC
July 2020

Diet and functional dyspepsia: Clinical correlates and therapeutic perspectives.

World J Gastroenterol 2020 Feb;26(5):456-465

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, "Federico II" University of Naples, Naples 80131, Italy.

Hypervigilance and symptoms anticipation, visceral hypersensitivity and gastroduodenal sensorimotor abnormalities account for the varied clinical presentation of functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Many patients recognize meals as the main triggering factor; thus, dietary manipulations often represent the first-line management strategy in this cohort of patients. Nonetheless, scarce quality evidence has been produced regarding the relationship between specific foods and/or macronutrients and the onset of FD symptoms, resulting in non-standardized nutritional approaches. Most dietary advises are indeed empirical and often lead to exclusion diets, reinforcing in patients the perception of "being intolerant" to food and self-perpetuating some of the very mechanisms underlying dyspepsia physiopathology (., hypervigilance and symptom anticipation). Clinicians are often uncertain regarding the contribution of specific foods to dyspepsia physiopathology and dedicated professionals (., dietitians) are only available in tertiary referral settings. This in turn, can result in nutritionally unbalanced diets and could even encourage restrictive eating behaviors in severe dyspepsia. In this review, we aim at evaluating the relationship between dietary habits, macronutrients and specific foods in determining FD symptoms. We will provide an overview of the evidence-based nutritional approach that should be pursued in these patients, providing clinicians with a valuable tool in standardizing nutritional advises and discouraging patients from engaging into indiscriminate food exclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v26.i5.456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7015717PMC
February 2020

Pentamidine niosomes thwart S100B effects in human colon carcinoma biopsies favouring wtp53 rescue.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 03 5;24(5):3053-3063. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy.

S100B protein bridges chronic mucosal inflammation and colorectal cancer given its ability to activate NF-kappaB transcription via RAGE signalling and sequestrate pro-apoptotic wtp53. Being an S100B inhibitor, pentamidine antagonizes S100B-wtp53 interaction, restoring wtp53-mediated pro-apoptotic control in cancer cells in several types of tumours. The expression of S100B, pro-inflammatory molecules and wtp53 protein was evaluated in human biopsies deriving from controls, ulcerative colitis and colon cancer patients at baseline (a) and (b) following S100B targeting with niosomal PENtamidine VEhiculation (PENVE), to maximize drug permeabilization in the tissue. Cultured biopsies underwent immunoblot, EMSA, ELISA and biochemical assays for S100B and related pro-inflammatory/pro-apoptotic proteins. Exogenous S100B (0.005-5 μmol/L) alone, or in the presence of PENVE (0.005-5 μmol/L), was tested in control biopsies while PENVE (5 μmol/L) was evaluated on control, peritumoral, ulcerative colitis and colon cancer biopsies. Our data show that S100B level progressively increases in control, peritumoral, ulcerative colitis and colon cancer enabling a pro-inflammatory/angiogenic and antiapoptotic environment, featured by iNOS, VEGF and IL-6 up-regulation and wtp53 and Bax inhibition. PENVE inhibited S100B activity, reducing its capability to activate RAGE/phosphor-p38 MAPK/NF-kappaB and favouring its disengagement with wtp53. PENVE blocks S100B activity and rescues wtp53 expression determining pro-apoptotic control in colon cancer, suggesting pentamidine as a potential anticancer drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.14943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7077541PMC
March 2020

Leaky gut, dysbiosis, and enteric glia activation: the trilogy behind the intestinal origin of Parkinson's disease.

Neural Regen Res 2020 Jun;15(6):1037-1038

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology "V. Erspamer"- Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.270308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034261PMC
June 2020

Incidence and risk factors of portomesenteric venous thrombosis after colorectal surgery for cancer in the elderly population.

World J Surg Oncol 2019 Nov 19;17(1):195. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University "Federico II" of Naples, Naples, Italy.

Background: Although it is known that portomesenteric venous thrombosis (PMVT) is associated with total colectomy and proctocolectomy in young patients with inflammatory bowel disease, little is known about incidence and risk factors of PMVT among the elderly population undergoing colorectal surgery for cancer.

Methods: Data of elderly patients (> 70 years) undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer were retrospectively registered. The occurrence of PMVT was correlated with the patients' characteristics and operative variables. Data collected included age, sex, obesity, ASA score, tumor degree, type of surgical resection, surgical approach (laparoscopic or open), and duration of surgery (from skin incision to the application of dressings).

Results: A total of 137 patients > 70 years who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer and developed an acute intraabdominal process with suggestive symptoms, needing a CT scan, were included. Three of these patients (2.1%) had portomesenteric venous thrombosis during the study period, which was proved with CT scan. There were no significant patients' characteristics or operative variables between patients with or without the occurrence of PMVT after surgery. Of interest, only operative time was significantly higher in patients with PMVT after surgery (256 ± 40 vs 140 ± 41, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: PMVT as a cause of abdominal pain after colorectal surgery for cancer in the elderly population is uncommon. An index of suspicion for PMVT in an elderly postoperative colorectal cancer patient with sudden onset of abdominal pain must be maintained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12957-019-1739-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6865040PMC
November 2019

Taste and the Gastrointestinal tract: from physiology to potential therapeutic target for obesity.

Int J Obes Suppl 2019 Apr 12;9(1):1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

5Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Unit of Endocrinology, Federico II University Medical School of Naples, Napoli, Italy.

Flavor is the combination of gustatory, olfactory and trigeminal sensations, representing the three main sensory pathways that allow detecting environmental chemical substances. Taste, in particular, is a complex chemosensory path that allows identification of substances present in ingested foods and beverages. In this manuscript, we propose a conceptual roadmap from aspects related to the evolution and the physiological role of taste, up to the current knowledge about its implication in the modulation of a healthy state, or obesity. More specifically, we focused on the role of stimulation of taste receptors in releasing gut hormones (also known as enterohormones), and their effects on the regulation of food intake, by inducing satiety, either by locally acting (in the gastrointestinal tract), or centrally (in the brain). Recent evidence demonstrated that some enterohormones are able to modulate gastrointestinal motility, thus affecting an orexigenic responses in the central nervous system. In keeping with this, we discuss the ability of the gustatory system to be a final checkpoint control for food intake regulation, and we speculate about taste perception manipulation in the management of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41367-019-0012-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6683113PMC
April 2019

S100B Protein Stimulates Proliferation and Angiogenic Mediators Release through RAGE/pAkt/mTOR Pathway in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Caco-2 Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Jul 1;20(13). Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Chronic inflammation and angiogenesis are associated with colonic carcinogenesis. Enteric glia-derived S100B protein has been proposed as an "ideal bridge", linking colonic inflammation and cancer, given its dual ability to up-regulate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) transcription via receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) signaling and to sequestrate wild type pro-apoptotic wild type ()p53. However, its pro-angiogenic effects on cancer cells are still uninvestigated. To this aim, we evaluated the effect of exogenous S100B (0.05-5 µM) protein alone or in the presence of S100B blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) (1:10-1:10 / diluted) on (1) cultured Caco-2 cells proliferation, migration and invasiveness in vitro, respectively by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-formazan, wound healing and matrigel invasion assays and (2) its effect on the release of pro-angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by ELISA and immunofluorescence analyses. The effect of S100B alone or in the presence of S100BmAb was then investigated on RAGE/pAkt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway by immunoblot analysis. Our results showed that S100B markedly increases proliferation and invasiveness of Caco-2 cells, through the release of pro-angiogenic VEGF and NO paralleled to a significant decrease of p53 expression mediated by RAGE-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/pAkt-mTOR and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1α) pathways. Such effects were counteracted by S100BmAb, indicating that S100B targeting is a potential approach to inhibit colon carcinoma proliferation and angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6651655PMC
July 2019

Lathyrus sativus diamine oxidase counteracts histamine-induced cell proliferation, migration and pro-angiogenic mediators release in human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2.

Phytother Res 2019 Jul 29;33(7):1878-1887. Epub 2019 May 29.

Department of Biochemical Sciences, "A. Rossi Fanelli"- Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Because histamine is a modulator of cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness, this study aimed at investigating the effect of Lathyrus sativus-derived diamine oxidase (LSAO) and its mechanism of action on Caco-2 cell line, considering that LSAO catalizes the oxidative deamination of histamine to the corresponding aldehyde, NH and H O . Histamine (0.01-1 μM) caused a proliferative effect on Caco-2 cells promoting cell migration, invasion and nitric oxide and vascular endothelial growth factor release. Histamine (1 μM) stimulus also down regulated occludin expression, favouring up regulation of pro-proliferative nuclear protein Ki67. Incubation with LSAO (0.004-0.4 μM) resulted in a significant inhibition of histamine-induced effects. LSAO rescued occludin expression and down regulated Ki67, and it inhibited histamine-induced increase of both MMP-2 and 9 expression. Histamine effects were mediated by RhoA-GTP down regulation and inversely related to phospho-p38MAPK/p50/65 up regulation. These effects were counteracted by LSAO incubation. Histamine catabolism by LSAO accounts for a significant down regulation of proliferation and invasiveness of Caco-2 cells. This study highlights the importance to control histamine levels in contrasting pro-angiogenic and metastatization capability of colon cancer cells and expands the knowledge about the diamine oxidase from L. sativus seeding as a phytotherapeutic approach for colon cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6378DOI Listing
July 2019

Completeness of total mesorectum excision of laparoscopic versus robotic surgery: a review with a meta-analysis.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2019 Jun 6;34(6):983-991. Epub 2019 May 6.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples, Via Sergio Pansini, 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.

Background: TME has revolutionized the surgical management of rectal cancer, and since the introduction of robotic TME (RTME), many reports have shown the feasibility and the safety of this approach. However, concerns persist regarding the advantages of robotic in surgery for the completeness of TME. The aim of this review is to compare robotic versus laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) in rectal cancer, focusing on the completeness of TME.

Methods: A systematic search was performed in the electronic databases for all available studies comparing RTME versus conventional laparoscopic LTME with declared grade of mesorectum excision. Data regarding sample size, clinical and demographic characteristics, number of complete, nearly complete, and incomplete TME were extracted. Primary outcome was the number of complete TME in robotic and laparoscopic procedures. Secondary outcomes were the numbers of nearly complete and incomplete TME in robotic and laparoscopic rectal resections.

Results: Twelve articles were included in the final analysis. Complete TME was reported by all authors, involving 1510 procedures, showing a significant difference in favor of robotic surgery (OR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.08-3.10, p = 0.03). Nearly complete and incomplete TME showed no significant difference between the procedures. Meta-regression analysis showed that none of patients' and tumors' characteristics significantly impacted on complete TME.

Conclusions: Our results underline that the robotic approach to rectal resection is the better way to obtain a complete TME. However, it is mandatory that randomized clinical trials should be performed to assess definitively if robotic minimally invasive surgery is better than a laparoscopic resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-019-03307-0DOI Listing
June 2019

Play in advance against neurodegeneration: exploring enteric glial cells in gut-brain axis during neurodegenerative diseases.

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2019 Jun 6;12(6):555-564. Epub 2019 May 6.

a Department of Physiology and Pharmacology "V. Erspamer" , Sapienza University of Rome , Rome , Italy.

: New investigations have shown that 'activated' enteric glial cells (EGCs), astrocyte-like cells of the enteric nervous system (ENS), represent a possible extra-CNS trigger point of the neurodegenerative processes in impaired intestinal permeability conditions. The early modulation of enteric glia-mediated neuroinflammation might optimize neuroprotective treatments outcomes currently used in neurodegenerative diseases. : We discussed recent clinical and preclinical data existing on the Pubmed database, concerning the glial role in neurodegeneration. We focused on the gut as possible "entrance door" for endoluminal neurotoxic agents that induce neurological impairments during leaky gut conditions. Moreover, we reviewed the paradigmatic studies linking the leaky gut-induced priming of EGCs to the induction of late neurodegenerative processes in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. : The previous appearance of neuropathological markers in the ENS emphasizes the extra-CNS origin of neurodegenerative disorders, by directing their therapies toward peripheral management of neurodegeneration. In light of the EGCs changes resulting from a switch-on of activated phenotype in leaky gut syndrome, EGCs sampling could be predictive for neuropathological conditions detection, anticipating their symptomatic manifestation in the CNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17512433.2019.1612744DOI Listing
June 2019

Mild dehydration in dyspeptic athletes is able to increase gastrointestinal symptoms: Protective effects of an appropriate hydration.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019 01;31(1):e13520

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy.

Background: Water balance influences gastrointestinal (GI) activity. Our aim was to evaluate how dehydration and rehydration with different types of water are able to affect GI activity in healthy and dyspeptic athletes.

Methods: Twenty non-competitive athletes, respectively 10 healthy and 10 dyspeptic subjects, were enrolled. All subjects underwent three test sessions (0, A, B) of 6 hours. Dehydration was achieved with a walking/jogging exercise test on a treadmill. After exercising, 500 mL of calcium-bicarbonate (Test A) or soft water (Test B) were administered, while no rehydration was provided during Test 0; thereafter, all subjects consumed a light lunch. GI symptoms were evaluated during each test and an electrocardiogram (ECG) Holter recording was performed at the end of the exercise.

Key Results: Dyspeptic subjects exhibited higher overall symptoms during Test 0 (VAS: 30.8 ± 0.8 mm) compared to Test A (18.4 ± 1.1, P < 0.001) and Test B (24.4 ± 1.3, P < 0.001). However, analyzing GI symptoms, only subjects receiving calcium-bicarbonate water (Test A) showed significantly lower symptomatic scores compared to Test 0 or Test B. Moreover, heart rate variability analyses revealed that only in Test A dyspeptic patients exhibit a trend to a decrease in the post-prandial low/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio, similarly to healthy subjects, while in Test 0 and Test B, post-prandial LF/HF ratio was increased compared to the pre-prandial phase.

Conclusions And Inferences: Our results show that mild dehydration in dyspeptic athletes is able to increase GI symptoms but an adequate rehydration, with calcium-bicarbonate water, is able to improve post-exercise disturbances restoring sympathovagal imbalance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13520DOI Listing
January 2019
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