Publications by authors named "Giovanni Mita"

56 Publications

Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Anthocyanin-Rich Carrots: A Comparison between the Black Carrot and the Apulian Landrace "Polignano" Carrot.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Mar 17;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Institute of Sciences of Food Production, CNR, Via Prov.le Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

The carrot is one of the most cultivated vegetables in the world. Black or purple carrots contain acylated anthocyanins which are of special interest to the food industry for their stability and nutraceutical characteristics. Anthocyanin-rich fruits and vegetables have gained popularity in the last ten years, due to the health benefits they provide. In this paper, the characterizations of the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities of different anthocyanin-containing carrots (a black carrot-BC, and a local purple carrot, the "Polignano" carrot-PC), compared to the commercial orange carrot (OC) (lacking of anthocyanins), are reported. The anthocyanin profiles of the polyphenolic extracts of BC and PC were similar, but differences were observed at quantitative levels. The total anthocyanin content in BC was more than twice that in PC (13.84 ± 0.61 vs. 5.64 ± 0.48 mg K Eq. g DW). Phenolic acids (mostly chlorogenic acid) were also present at high level in anthocyanin-rich carrots compared to OC. High polyphenol content accounted also for a high reducing capacity (evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, FCR), and antioxidant capacity (evaluated by TEAC and ORAC assays) which were the highest for BC (FCR value: 16.6 ± 1.1 mg GAE. g DW; TEAC: 76.6 ± 10.6 µmol TE. g DW; ORAC: 159.9 ± 3.3 µmol TE. g DW). All carrot genotypes (mostly OC) were rich in carotenoids (BC 0.14 ± 0.024; PC 0.33 ± 0.038; OC 1.29 ± 0.09 mg. g DW), with predominance of α and β-carotene, in OC, and lutein in BC. PC showed the highest malic acid and sugar (glucose plus fructose) content. In conclusion, while BC is remarkable for nutraceutical features, the local genotype ("Polignano" carrot) is worth considering in genetic biodiversity conservation programme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10030564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002536PMC
March 2021

Genome-Wide Identification of WRKY Genes in : Characterization of a Putative Ortholog of .

Plants (Basel) 2020 Nov 28;9(12). Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Istituto di Biologia e Biotecnologia Agraria (IBBA), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Via Salaria, Km 29.300, 00015 Rome, Italy.

L. is well-known as the plant source of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone with effective antimalarial activity. Here, a putative ortholog of the WRKY40 transcription factor (TF) was isolated via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends in and named . A putative nuclear localization domain was identified in silico and experimentally confirmed by using protoplasts of transiently transformed with . A genome-wide analysis identified 122 genes in , and a manually curated database was obtained. The deduced proteins were categorized into the major WRKY groups, with group IIa containing eight WRKY members including AaWRKY40. Protein motifs, gene structure, and promoter regions of group IIa WRKY TFs of were characterized. The promoter region of group IIa genes contained several abiotic stress -acting regulatory elements, among which a highly conserved W-box motif was identified. Expression analysis of compared to in cell cultures treated with methyl jasmonate known to enhance artemisinin production, suggested a possible involvement of in terpenoid metabolism. Further investigation is necessary to study the role of AaWRKY40 and possible interactions with other TFs in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9121669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761028PMC
November 2020

Tomato Oil Encapsulation by α-, β-, and γ-Cyclodextrins: A Comparative Study on the Formation of Supramolecular Structures, Antioxidant Activity, and Carotenoid Stability.

Foods 2020 Oct 27;9(11). Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies (DiSTeBA), University of Salento, Monteroni di Lecce, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

Cyclodextrins (CDs) are oligosaccharides, comprising 6 (α), 7 (β), or 8 (γ) glucose residues, used to prepare oil-in-water emulsions and improve oil stability towards degradation. In this research, the aptitude of α-, β-, and γ-CDs to form complexes with a supercritical CO extracted lycopene-rich tomato oil (TO) was comparatively assessed. TO/CD emulsions and the resulting freeze-dried powders were characterized by microscopy, Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), as well as for their antioxidant activity. Furthermore, carotenoid stability was monitored for 90 days at 25 and 4 °C. Confocal and SEM microscopy revealed morphological differences among samples. α- and β-CDs spontaneously associated into microcrystals assembling in thin spherical shells (cyclodextrinosomes, Ø ≈ 27 µm) at the oil/water interface. Much smaller (Ø ≈ 9 µm) aggregates were occasionally observed with γ-CDs, but most TO droplets appeared "naked". FTIR and DSC spectra indicated that most CDs did not participate in TO complex formation, nevertheless structurally different interfacial complexes were formed. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) activity of emulsions and powders highlighted better performances of α- and β-CDs as hydrophobic antioxidants-dispersing agents across aqueous media. Regardless of CDs type, low temperature slowed down carotenoid degradation in all samples, except -[]-lycopene, which does not appear efficiently protected by any CD type in the long storage period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9111553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693019PMC
October 2020

Salycilic Acid Induces Exudation of Crocin and Phenolics in Saffron Suspension-Cultured Cells.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Jul 28;9(8). Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR), 73100 Lecce, Italy.

The production of crocin, an uncommon and valuable apocarotenoid with strong biological activity, was obtained in a cell suspension culture of saffron ( L.) established from style-derived calli to obtain an in-vitro system for metabolite production. Salycilic acid (SA) was used at different concentrations to elicit metabolite production, and its effect was analyzed after a 4 days of treatment. HPLC-DAD analysis was used for total crocin quantification while the Folin-Ciocâlteu method was applied for phenolic compounds (PC) content. Interestingly, despite cell growth inhibition, a considerable exudation was observed when the highest SA concentration was applied, leading to a 7-fold enhanced production of crocin and a 4-fold increase of phenolics compared to mock cells. The maximum antioxidant activity of cell extracts was evidenced after SA 0.1 mM elicitation. Water-soluble extracts of saffron cells at concentrations of 1, 0.5, and 0.1 µg mL showed significant inhibitory effects on MDA-MB-231 cancer cell viability. The heterologous vacuolar markers RFP-SYP51, GFPgl133Chi, and AleuRFP, were transiently expressed in protoplasts derived from the saffron cell suspensions, revealing that SA application caused a rapid stress effect, leading to cell death. Cell suspension elicitation with SA on the 7th day of the cell growth cycle and 24 h harvest time was optimized to exploit these cells for the highest increase of metabolite production in saffron cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9080949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463527PMC
July 2020

Effect of Co-Inoculation of , and for the Industrial Production of Negroamaro Wine in Apulia (Southern Italy).

Microorganisms 2020 May 13;8(5). Epub 2020 May 13.

Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

The employment of multi-species starter cultures has growing importance in modern winemaking for improving the complexity and wine attributes. The assessment of compatibility for selected species/strains at the industrial-scale is crucial to assure the quality and the safety associated with fermentations. An aspect particularly relevant when the species belong to non-Saccharomyces, Saccharomyces spp. and malolactic bacteria, three categories with different biological characteristics and oenological significance. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first study regarding the utilization of a combined starter culture composed of three strains of non-Saccharomyces, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum for production of wine at the industrial scale. More in-depth, this work investigated the oenological potential of the autochthonous characterized strains from the Apulian region (Southern Italy), Candida zemplinina (syn. Starmerella bacillaris) 35NC1, S. cerevisiae (NP103), and L. plantarum (LP44), in co-inoculation following a complete scale-up scheme. Microbial dynamics, fermentative profiles and production of volatile secondary compounds were assessed in lab-scale micro-vinification tests and then the performances of the mixed starter formulation were further evaluated by pilot-scale wine production. The above results were finally validated by performing an industrial-scale vinification on 100HL of Negroamaro cultivar grape must. The multi-starter formulation was able to rule the different stages of the fermentation processes effectively, and the different microbial combinations enhanced the organoleptic wine features to different extents. The findings indicated that the simultaneous inoculation of the three species affect the quality and quantity of several volatile compounds, confirming that the complexity of the wine can reflect the complexity of the starter cultures. Moreover, the results underlined that the same mixed culture could differently influence wine quality when tested at the lab-, pilot- and industrial-scale. Finally, we highlighted the significance of employment non-Saccharomyces and L. plantarum, together with S. cerevisiae, autochthonous strains in the design of custom-made starter culture formulation for typical regional wine production with pronounced unique quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285497PMC
May 2020

Re.Ger.O.P.: An Integrated Project for the Recovery of Ancient and Rare Olive Germplasm.

Front Plant Sci 2020 20;11:73. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

SINAGRI S.r.l.-Spin Off of the University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.

The olive tree is one of the most important economic, cultural, and environmental resources for Italy, in particular for the Apulian region, where it shows a wide diversity. The increasing attention to the continuous loss of plant genetic diversity due to social, economic and climatic changes, has favored a renewed interest in strategies aimed at the recovery and conservation of these genetic resources. In the frame of a project for the valorization of the olive Apulian biodiversity (Re.Ger.O.P. project), 177 minor genotypes were recovered in different territories of the region. They were submitted to morphological, molecular, technological and phytosanitary status analysis in comparison with reference cultivars, then they were propagated and transferred in an field. All the available information was stored in an internal regional database including photographic documentation and geographic position. The work allowed obtaining information about the genetic diversity of Apulian germplasm, to clarify cases of homonymy and synonymy, to check the sanitary status, and to identify candidate genotypes useful both to set up breeding programs and to enrich the panel of olive cultivars available to farmers for commercial exploitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044272PMC
February 2020

Nutraceutical Characterization of Anthocyanin-Rich Fruits Produced by "Sun Black" Tomato Line.

Front Nutr 2019 28;6:133. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Tomato ( L.) is one of the most cultivated vegetable in the world and it represents a large source of bioactive compounds, including carotenoids and polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids). However, the concentration of flavonoids in tomato is considered sub-optimal, particularly because anthocyanins are not generally present. Therefore, this crop has been the object of an intense metabolic engineering in order to obtain anthocyanin-enriched tomatoes by using either breeding or transgenic strategies. Some wild tomato species, such as and , biosynthesize anthocyanins in the fruit sub-epidermal tissue, and some alleles from those genotypes have been introgressed into a new developed purple tomato line, called "Sun Black" (SB). It is a tomato line with a purple skin color, both in green and in red fruit stages, due to the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in the peel, and a normal red color pulp, with a taste just like a traditional tomato. SB is the result of a breeding programme and it is not a genetically modified (GM) product. We report the chemical characterization and structure elucidation of the attractive anthocyanins found in the peel of SB tomato, as well as other bioactive compounds (carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C) of the whole fruit. Using one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments, the two main anthocyanins were identified to be petunidin 3--[6″--(4---coumaroyl-α-rhamnopyranosyl) -β-glucopyranoside]-5--β-glucopyranoside (petanin) and malvidin 3--[6″--(4---coumaroyl-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-glucopyranoside]-5--β-glucopyranoside (negretein). The total anthocyanins in the whole ripe fruit was 1.2 mg/g dry weight (DW); 7.1 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). Chlorogenic acid (the most abundant phenolic acid) was 0.6 mg/g DW; 3.7 mg/100 g FW. The main flavonol, rutin was 0.8 mg/g DW; 5 mg/100 g FW. The total carotenoid content was 211.3 μg/g DW; 1,268 μg/100 g FW. The total phenolic content was 8.6 mg/g DW; 52.2 mg/100 g FW. The vitamin C content was 37.3 mg/100 g FW. The antioxidant activities as measured by the TEAC and ORAC assays were 31.6 and 140.3 μmol TE/g DW, respectively (193 and 855.8 μmol TE/100 g FW, respectively). The results show the unique features of this new tomato genotype with nutraceutical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6722425PMC
August 2019

Bioactive Compounds and Stability of a Typical Italian Bakery Products "" Enriched with Fermented Olive Paste.

Molecules 2019 Sep 6;24(18). Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Institute of Sciences of Food Production-CNR, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

Olive paste (OP) is a novel by-product of olive mill industry composed of water, olive pulp, and skin. Due to its richness in bioactive compounds, OP exploitation for human consumption has recently been proposed. Starter driven fermented OP is characterized by a well-balanced lipid profile, rich in mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a very good oxidative stability due to the high concentration of fat-soluble antioxidants. These characteristics make OP particularly suitable as a functional ingredient for food/feed industry, as well as for the formulation of nutraceutical products. New types of were produced by adding 20% of fermented OP from black olives (cv Cellina di Nardò and Leccino) to the dough. The levels of bioactive compounds (polyphenols, triterpenic acids, tocochromanols, and carotenoids), as well as the fatty acid profile, were monitored during 180 days of storage and compared with control produced with the same flour without OP supplementation. enriched with fermented OP showed significantly higher levels of bioactive compounds than conventional ones. Furthermore, enriched maintained a low amount of saturated fatty acids and high levels of polyphenols, triterpenic acids, tocochromanols, and carotenoids, compared to the initial value, up to about 90 days in the usual conditions of retailer shelves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6766877PMC
September 2019

Exploitation of Prunus mahaleb fruit by fermentation with selected strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Food Microbiol 2019 Dec 8;84:103262. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

CNR, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), via Prov.le Lecce-Monteroni, 73100, Lecce, Italy. Electronic address:

The organoleptic attributes of Prunus mahaleb, a fruit representing a new source of bioactive compounds, are so pronounced that it can be consider non-edible. This study was designed to evaluate the acceptance of P. mahaleb fruits after fermentation with different Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum protechnological strains. Four different bacterial and one yeast strains, as single or mixed starter formulation, were used to inoculate an aqueous suspension of P. mahaleb fruits. The fermented fruits and fermentation broths were subjected to physico-chemical characterization and the organoleptic properties of both samples were also assessed by a hedonic panel. The obtained results indicated that all the employed strains were able to grow and to ferment the matrix. However, the mixed starter FG69 + Li180-7 (L. plantarum/S. cerevisiae) had the best impact on sensory characteristics of P. mahaleb fruit and fermented medium. The adopted protocol allowed us to attain edible fruits and a new fermented non-dairy drink with valuable probiotic health-promoting properties. In our knowledge, this is the first study concerning the exploitation of P. mahaleb fruits. This investigation confirmed the potential of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria co-inoculation in the design of starter tailored for this kind of food applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2019.103262DOI Listing
December 2019

Prunus Mahaleb Fruit Extract Prevents Chemically Induced Colitis and Enhances Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism via the Activation of the Nrf2 Pathway.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2019 11 22;63(22):e1900350. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Institute of Food Sciences, CNR, 83100, Avellino, Italy.

Scope: Polyphenols exhibit their antioxidant activity downstream the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway (Nrf2), but the connection between lipid metabolism and the Nrf2 pathway is still unknown. Flavonoid-rich concentrated extract from Prunus mahaleb (mahaleb concentrated fruit extract; MCFE) may act on oxido-reductive homeostasis and hepatic lipid metabolism via Nrf2.

Methods & Results: MCFE ability to enhance the activity of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes is investigated in liver and colon of BALB/c mice. After a 4-week supplementation, macroscopic, histological, and biochemical signs of colitis are examined in mouse colon pulsed with 5% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Untreated or DSS-supplemented mice are used as negative or positive control. MCFE effect on liver lipid metabolism and its possible link with the Nrf2 pathway is investigated. MCFE intake increases antioxidant defenses in mice colon and its pretreatment blunts pathological signs of colitis, as compared to positive control. In the liver, the increase in antioxidant defenses is associated with enhanced oxidative metabolism and with higher levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), in comparison with negative controls.

Conclusion: Cytoprotective and hypolipidemic effect produced by MCFE intake results, at least in part, by the activation of the Nrf2 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201900350DOI Listing
November 2019

Morphological and Chemical Profile of Three Tomato ( L.) Landraces of A Semi-Arid Mediterranean Environment.

Plants (Basel) 2019 Aug 8;8(8). Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Department, Institute of Sciences of Food Production, CNR-National Research Council of Italy, Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy.

Puglia (Southern Italy), particularly rich in tomato agro-biodiversity, can be considered a typical region of the semi-arid Mediterranean environments. In this study, three local varieties of tomato (Manduria, Giallo di Crispiano and Regina) were characterized by using morphological descriptors according to international standards. Chemical (isoprenoids, ascorbic acid, total phenols, sugars and mineral content) and agronomic assessment were carried out to highlight the specific traits of these local varieties well adapted to a semi-arid environment. Data of morphological traits according to the "International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants" (UPOV) guideline evidenced a clear distinctness among all three landraces, especially as regards fruits. Results also highlighted that a great part of variation in chemical traits was almost exclusively due to genotypes, while in a few cases observed differences resulted from the interaction between genotype and harvest time. The results of the present study may represent the first step toward the recognition of "conservation variety" status for Regina, Giallo di Crispiano and Manduria tomato landraces. At the same time, both quality traits and agronomic performance of these tomato genotypes suggest the possibility of their cultivation in other semi-arid environments also considering their quality traits, in view of a sustainable production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants8080273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6724110PMC
August 2019

Bioactive composition and sensory evaluation of innovative spaghetti supplemented with free or α-cyclodextrin chlatrated pumpkin oil extracted by supercritical CO.

Food Chem 2019 Oct 8;294:112-122. Epub 2019 May 8.

Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari (ISPA), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Lecce, Italy. Electronic address:

The feasibility of producing durum wheat pasta enriched with a lipophilic phytocomplex, extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO), from ripe pumpkin, as free oil or as ready-to-mix oil/α-cyclodextrins (α-CDs) powder, was explored. Four types of pasta were prepared: (i) control spaghetti (S-CTRL); (ii) spaghetti supplemented with α-CDs (S-α-CD); (iii) spaghetti supplemented with pumpkin oil (S-Oil) and (iv) spaghetti supplemented with the pumpkin oil/α-CD powder (S-Oil/α-CD). The chemical, antioxidant, textural and sensory attributes of the different pasta were evaluated and compared. S-Oil and S-Oil/α-CD spaghetti were significantly enriched with phytosterols, squalene, carotenoids, tocochromanols and unsaturated fatty acids. Spaghetti containing α-CDs were slightly improved in terms of fiber content. Oil chlatration increased the stability of some bioactives during pasta production and ameliorated poor textural and sensory characteristics of the cooked spaghetti compared with S-Oil sample. S-Oil/α-CD spaghetti might be accepted by customers, if the potential health benefits were also explained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.05.032DOI Listing
October 2019

Patè Olive Cake: Possible Exploitation of a By-Product for Food Applications.

Front Nutr 2019 5;6. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Lecce, Italy.

Patè Olive Cake (POC) is a new by-product derived from recently introduced new decanters in the olive oil production process. POC, is essentially composed of water, olive pulp and olive skin, and is rich in several valuable bioactive compounds. Moreover, it still contains about 8-12% residual olive oil. We characterized the main bioactive compounds in POC from black olives (cv. and ) and also verified the biotechnological aptitude of selected yeast and lactic acid bacteria from different sources, in transforming POC into a new fermented product. The strategy of sequential inoculum of and was successful in driving the fermentation process. In fermented POC total levels of phenols were slightly reduced when compared with a non-fermented sample nevertheless the content of the antioxidant hydroxytyrosol showed increased results. The total levels of triterpenic acids, carotenoids, and tocochromanols results were almost unchanged among the samples. Sensory notes were significantly improved after fermentation due to the increase of superior alcohols, esters, and acids. The results reported indicate a possible valorisation of this by-product for the preparation of food products enriched in valuable healthy compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6371699PMC
February 2019

Efficacy of yeast starters to drive and improve Picual, Manzanilla and Kalamàta table olive fermentation.

J Sci Food Agric 2019 Mar 12;99(5):2504-2512. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Unità Operativa di Lecce, Lecce, Italy.

Background: Table olive fermentation is an unpredictable process and frequently performed using traditional practices often inadequate to obtain products with acceptable quality and safety standards. In the present study, the efficacy of selected yeast strains as starters to drive fermentations of green and black table olives by the Greek method was investigated. Pilot-scale production by spontaneous fermentation as a control, olives started with previously selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and fermentation driven by commercial S. cerevisiae baker's yeast strain were carried out for each of Manzanilla, Picual and Kalamàta table olive cultivars.

Results: Time of fermentation was significantly shortened to 40 days to complete the transformation process for all three tested cultivars. Inoculated table olives were enhanced in their organoleptic and nutritional properties in comparison with corresponding samples obtained by spontaneous fermentation. The use of starters was also able to improve safety traits of table olives in terms of biogenic amine reduction as well as absence of undesired microorganisms at the end of the process.

Conclusions: Autochthonous, but also non-autochthonous, yeasts can be used to start and control table olive fermentations and can significantly improve quality and safety aspects of table olives produced by many smallholder farmers. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9460DOI Listing
March 2019

Characterization of two Pantoea strains isolated from extra-virgin olive oil.

AMB Express 2018 Jul 10;8(1):113. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Laboratory of Analytical and Isotopic Mass Spectrometry, Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy.

The olive oil is an unfavorable substrate for microbial survival and growth. Only few microorganisms use olive oil fatty acids as carbon and energy sources, and survive in the presence of olive oil anti-microbial components. In this study, we have evaluated the occurrence of microorganisms in 1-year-stored extra-virgin olive oil samples. We detected the presence of bacterial and yeast species with a recurrence of the bacterium Stenotrophomonas rhizophila and yeast Sporobolomyces roseus. We then assayed the ability of all isolates to grow in a mineral medium supplemented with a commercial extra-virgin olive oil as a sole carbon and energy source, and analyzed the utilization of olive oil fatty acids during their growth. We finally focused on two bacterial isolates belonging to the species Pantoea septica. Both these isolates produce carotenoids, and one of them synthesizes bioemulsifiers enabling the bacteria to better survive/growth in this unfavorable substrate. Analyses point to a mixture of glycolipids with glucose, galactose and xylose as carbohydrate moieties whereas the lipid domain was constituted by C6-C10 β-hydroxy carboxylic acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-018-0642-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6039349PMC
July 2018

Use of Olive Oil Industrial By-Product for Pasta Enrichment.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2018 Apr 16;7(4). Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Services Center of Applied Research, University of Foggia, Via Napoli 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy.

Background: During recent years food industries generally produce a large volume of wastes both solid and liquid, representing a disposal and potential environmental pollution problem.

Objective: The goal of the study was to optimize, from both sensory and nutritional points of view, the formulation of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with an olive oil industrial by-product, indicated as olive paste.

Methods: Three consecutive steps were carried out. In the first one, the olive paste was air-dried at low temperature, milled to record olive paste flour and properly analyzed for its biochemical composition. In the second step, the olive paste flour was added to the pasta dough at 10% and 15% (/). In the last step, different concentrations of transglutaminase were added to enriched pasta (10% olive paste) to further improve the quality. Sensory properties and nutritional content of enriched and control pasta were properly measured.

Results: Spaghetti with 10% olive paste flour and 0.6% transglutaminase were considered acceptable to the sensory panel test. Nutritional analyses showed that addition of 10% olive paste flour to pasta considerably increased content of flavonoids and total polyphenols.

Conclusions: The proper addition of olive paste flour and transglutaminase for pasta enrichment could represent a starting point to valorize olive oil industrial by-products and produce new healthy food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5946125PMC
April 2018

Signal transduction in artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek] callus and cell suspension cultures under nutritional stress.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2018 Jun 16;127:97-103. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council, Via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce Italy.

Stimulated production of secondary phenolic metabolites and proline was studied by using cell cultures of artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek] submitted to nutritional stress. Artichoke cell cultures accumulated phenolic secondary metabolites in a pattern similar to that seen in artichoke leaves and heads (capitula). This paper shows that both callus and cell suspension cultures under nutritional stress accumulated phenolic compounds and proline, at the same time their biomass production was negatively affected by nutrient deficiency. The results obtained strongly suggest that plant tissues respond to nutrient deprivation by a defensive costly mechanism, which determines the establishment of a mechanism of trade-off between growth and adaptive response. Furthermore, the results of this research suggest that perception of abiotic stress and increased phenolic metabolites are linked by a sequence of biochemical processes that also involves the intracellular free proline and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. The main conclusion of this paper is that, once calli and cell suspension cultures respond to nutrient deficiency, in acclimated cells the establishment of a negative correlation between primary metabolism (growth) and secondary metabolism (defence compounds) is observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.017DOI Listing
June 2018

A Carotenoid Extract from a Southern Italian Cultivar of Pumpkin Triggers Nonprotective Autophagy in Malignant Cells.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017 21;2017:7468538. Epub 2017 Dec 21.

Istituto di Scienze dell'Alimentazione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 83100 Avellino, Italy.

Carotenoids, including -carotene, lycopene, and derivatives, such as retinoic acid, have been studied for their significant antiproliferative and differentiating activity on cancer cells in experimental models and in clinics. We are presenting here data on the mechanism of action of a carotenoid-enriched extract obtained from the pumpkin , variety "long of Naples," on two malignant human cell lines, Caco-2 and SAOs, derived from a colon adenocarcinoma and an osteosarcoma, respectively. The carotenoid extract has been obtained from pumpkin pulp and seeds by supercritical CO extraction and employed to prepare oil-in-water nanoemulsions. The nanoemulsions, applied at a final carotenoid concentration of 200-400 g/ml, were not cytotoxic, but induced a delay in cell growth of about 40% in both SAOs and Caco-2 cell lines. This effect was associated with the activation of a "nonprotective" form of autophagy and, in SAOs cells, to the induction of cell differentiation via a mechanism that involved AMPK activation. Our data suggest the presence of a pool of bioactive compounds in the carotenoid-enriched extract, acting additively, or synergistically, to delay cell growth in cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/7468538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5752993PMC
August 2018

In vitro activity of antimicrobial compounds against Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of the olive quick decline syndrome in Apulia (Italy).

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2018 03;365(5)

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

Olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS) causes severe damages to the olive trees in Salento (Apulia, Italy) and poses a severe threat for the agriculture of Mediterranean countries. DNA-based typing methods have pointed out that OQDS is caused by a single outbreak strain of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca referred to as CoDiRO or ST53. Since no effective control measures are currently available, the objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial activities of different classes of compounds against Salento-1 isolated by an OQDS affected plant and classified as ST53. A bioassay based on agar disk diffusion method revealed that 17 out of the 32 tested antibiotics did not affect bacterial growth at a dose of 5 μg disk-1. When we assayed micro-, ultra- and nano-filtered fractions of olive mill wastewaters, we found that the micro-filtered fraction resulted to be the most effective against the bacterium. Moreover, some phenolics (4-methylcathecol, cathecol, veratric acid, caffeic acid, oleuropein) were active in their pure form. Noteworthy, also some fungal extracts and fungal toxins showed inhibitory effects on bacterial growth. Some of these compounds can be further explored as potential candidate in future applications for curative/preventive treating OQDS-affected or at-risk olive plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnx281DOI Listing
March 2018

Fermented Apulian table olives: Effect of selected microbial starters on polyphenols composition, antioxidant activities and bioaccessibility.

Food Chem 2018 May 11;248:137-145. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), National Council of Research (CNR), Via G. Amendola, 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy. Electronic address:

The effects of fermentation by autochthonous microbial starters on phenolics composition of Apulian table olives, Bella di Cerignola (BDC), Termite di Bitetto (TDB) and Cellina di Nardò (CEL) were studied, highlighting also the cultivars influence. In BDC with starter, polyphenols amount doubled compared with commercial sample, while in TDB and CEL, phenolics remain almost unchanged. The main phenolics were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, verbascoside and luteolin, followed by hydroxytyrosol-acetate detected in BDC and cyanidine-3-glucoside and quercetin in CEL. Scavenger capacity in both DPPH and CAA assays, assessed the highest antioxidant effect for CEL with starters (21.7 mg Trolox eq/g FW; 8.5 μmol hydroxytyrosol eq/100 g FW). The polyphenols were highly in vitro bioaccessible (>60%), although modifications in their profile, probably for combined effect of environment and microorganisms, were noted. Finally, fermented table olives are excellent source of health promoting compounds, since hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol are almost 8 times more than in olive oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.12.032DOI Listing
May 2018

Isolation, Characterization, and Selection of Molds Associated to Fermented Black Table Olives.

Front Microbiol 2017 18;8:1356. Epub 2017 Jul 18.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni AlimentariLecce, Italy.

Table olives are one of the most important fermented food in the Mediterranean countries. Apart from lactic acid bacteria and yeasts that mainly conduct the olive fermentation, molds can develop on the brine surface, and can have either deleterious or useful effects on this process. From the food safety point of view, occurring molds could also produce mycotoxins, so, it is important to monitor and control them. In this respect, identification of molds associated to two Italian and two Greek fermented black table olives cultivars, was carried out. Sixty strains were isolated and molecularly identified as (21), (29), (1), (6), (2), (1). A group of 20 selected isolates was subjected to technological (beta-glucosidase, cellulolytic, ligninolytic, pectolytic, and xylanolytic activities; proteolytic enzymes) and safety (biogenic amines and secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins) characterization. Combining both technological (presence of desired and absence of undesired enzymatic activities) and safety aspects (no or low production of biogenic amines and regulated mycotoxins), it was possible to select six strains with biotechnological interest. These are putative candidates for future studies as autochthonous co-starters with yeasts and lactic acid bacteria for black table olive production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513898PMC
July 2017

Evaluation of bioactive compounds in black table olives fermented with selected microbial starters.

J Sci Food Agric 2018 Jan 5;98(1):96-103. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari (ISPA)-CNR, Lecce, Italy.

Background: Table olives have been a component of the Mediterranean diet for centuries, with the trend for their consumption currently increasing worldwide. They are rich in bioactive molecules with nutritional, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or hormone-like properties. In the present study, the concentrations of phenolics, triterpenic acids, carotenoids and vitamins, as well as fatty acid profiles and antioxidant activity, were analyzed in the edible portion of black table olives (Olea europea L.) from Italian (Cellina di Nardò and Leccino) and Greek (Kalamàta and Conservolea) cultivars fermented with selected autochthonous starters and in the corresponding monovarietal olive oils.

Results: On a fresh weight basis, Cellina di Nardò and Leccino table olives showed the highest total phenolic content. No significant differences were found with respect to the levels of total triterpenic (maslinic and oleanolic) acids and vitamin E among cultivars. All table olives were characterized by high amounts of oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. Oils were richer in lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids and tocochromanols) than table olives, which, instead, showed a higher content of polyphenols and triterpenic acids than oils.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that fermented table olives are an excellent natural source of unsaturated fatty acids, as well as being nutritionally important health-promoting bioactive compounds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8443DOI Listing
January 2018

Simultaneous Alcoholic and Malolactic Fermentations by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus oeni Cells Co-immobilized in Alginate Beads.

Front Microbiol 2016 14;7:943. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

Unità Operativa di Lecce, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari Lecce, Italy.

Malolactic fermentation (MLF) usually takes place after the end of alcoholic fermentation (AF). However, the inoculation of lactic acid bacteria together with yeast starter cultures is a promising system to enhance the quality and safety of wine. In recent years, the use of immobilized cell systems has been investigated, with interesting results, for the production of different fermented foods and beverages. In this study we have carried out the simultaneous immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus oeni in alginate beads and used them in microvinifications tests to produce Negroamaro wine. The process was monitored by chemical and sensorial analyses and dominance of starters and cell leaking from beads were also checked. Co-immobilization of S. cerevisiae and O. oeni allowed to perform an efficient fermentation process, producing low volatile acidity levels and ethanol and glycerol concentrations comparable with those obtained by cell sequential inoculum and co-inoculum of yeast and bacteria cells in free form. More importantly, co-immobilization strategy produced a significant decrease of the time requested to complete AF and MLF. The immobilized cells could be efficiently reused for the wine fermentation at least three times without any apparent loss of cell metabolic activities. This integrated biocatalytic system is able to perform simultaneously AF and MLF, producing wines similar in organoleptic traits in comparison with wines fermented following traditional sequential AF and MLF with free cell starters. The immobilized-cell system, that we here describe for the first time in our knowledge, offers many advantages over conventional free cell fermentations, including: (i) elimination of non-productive cell growth phases; (ii) feasibility of continuous processing; (iii) re-use of the biocatalyst.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4906054PMC
July 2016

The Oenological Potential of Hanseniaspora uvarum in Simultaneous and Sequential Co-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Industrial Wine Production.

Front Microbiol 2016 9;7:670. Epub 2016 May 9.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Institute of Sciences of Food Production Lecce, Italy.

In oenology, the utilization of mixed starter cultures composed by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts is an approach of growing importance for winemakers in order to enhance sensory quality and complexity of the final product without compromising the general quality and safety of the oenological products. In fact, several non-Saccharomyces yeasts are already commercialized as oenological starter cultures to be used in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while several others are the subject of various studies to evaluate their application. Our aim, in this study was to assess, for the first time, the oenological potential of H. uvarum in mixed cultures (co-inoculation) and sequential inoculation with S. cerevisiae for industrial wine production. Three previously characterized H. uvarum strains were separately used as multi-starter together with an autochthonous S. cerevisiae starter culture in lab-scale micro-vinification trials. On the basis of microbial development, fermentation kinetics and secondary compounds formation, the strain H. uvarum ITEM8795 was further selected and it was co- and sequentially inoculated, jointly with the S. cerevisiae starter, in a pilot scale wine production. The fermentation course and the quality of final product indicated that the co-inoculation was the better performing modality of inoculum. The above results were finally validated by performing an industrial scale vinification The mixed starter was able to successfully dominate the different stages of the fermentation process and the H. uvarum strain ITEM8795 contributed to increasing the wine organoleptic quality and to simultaneously reduce the volatile acidity. At the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first study regarding the utilization of a selected H. uvarum strain in multi-starter inoculation with S. cerevisiae for the industrial production of a wine. In addition, we demonstrated, at an industrial scale, the importance of non-Saccharomyces in the design of tailored starter cultures for typical wines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860541PMC
May 2016

Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2015 Apr 1;4(2):269-80. Epub 2015 Apr 1.

Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), CNR, Lecce Unit, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox4020269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4665470PMC
April 2015

Α-Cyclodextrin encapsulation of supercritical CO₂ extracted oleoresins from different plant matrices: A stability study.

Food Chem 2016 May 18;199:684-93. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Via Prov.le Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

Here we describe the encapsulation in α-cyclodextrins (α-CDs) of wheat bran, pumpkin and tomato oleoresins, extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide, to obtain freeze-dried powders useful as ready-to-mix ingredients for novel functional food formulation. The stability of tocochromanols, carotenoids and fatty acids in the oleoresin/α-CD complexes, compared to the corresponding free oleoresins, was also monitored over time in different combinations of storage conditions. Regardless of light, storage at 25°C of free oleoresins determined a rapid decrease in carotenoids, tocochromanols and PUFAs. α-CD encapsulation improved the stability of most bioactive compounds. Storage at 4°C synergized with encapsulation in preventing degradation of bioactives. Unlike all other antioxidants, lycopene in tomato oleoresin/α-CD complex resulted to be more susceptible to oxidation than in free oleoresin, likely due to its selective sequestration from the interaction with other lipophilic molecules of the oleoresin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.12.073DOI Listing
May 2016

Carbon Fluxes between Primary Metabolism and Phenolic Pathway in Plant Tissues under Stress.

Int J Mol Sci 2015 Nov 4;16(11):26378-94. Epub 2015 Nov 4.

Department of Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, Via Napoli 25, 71100 Foggia, Italy.

Higher plants synthesize an amazing diversity of phenolic secondary metabolites. Phenolics are defined secondary metabolites or natural products because, originally, they were considered not essential for plant growth and development. Plant phenolics, like other natural compounds, provide the plant with specific adaptations to changing environmental conditions and, therefore, they are essential for plant defense mechanisms. Plant defensive traits are costly for plants due to the energy drain from growth toward defensive metabolite production. Being limited with environmental resources, plants have to decide how allocate these resources to various competing functions. This decision brings about trade-offs, i.e., promoting some functions by neglecting others as an inverse relationship. Many studies have been carried out in order to link an evaluation of plant performance (in terms of growth rate) with levels of defense-related metabolites. Available results suggest that environmental stresses and stress-induced phenolics could be linked by a transduction pathway that involves: (i) the proline redox cycle; (ii) the stimulated oxidative pentose phosphate pathway; and, in turn, (iii) the reduced growth of plant tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms161125967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4661826PMC
November 2015

New process for production of fermented black table olives using selected autochthonous microbial resources.

Front Microbiol 2015 24;6:1007. Epub 2015 Sep 24.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Unità Operativa di Lecce Lecce, Italy.

Table olives represent one important fermented product in Europe and, in the world, their demand is constantly increasing. At the present time, no systems are available to control black table olives spontaneous fermentation by the Greek method. During this study, a new protocol for the production of black table olives belonging to two Italian (Cellina di Nardò and Leccino) and two Greek (Kalamàta and Conservolea) cultivars has been developed: for each table olive cultivar, starter-driven fermentations were performed inoculating, firstly, one selected autochthonous yeast starter and, subsequently, one selected autochthonous LAB starter. All starters formulation were able to dominate fermentation process. The olive fermentation was monitored using specific chemical descriptors able to identify a first stage (30 days) mainly characterized by aldehydes; a second period (60 days) mainly characterized by higher alcohols, styrene and terpenes; a third fermentation stage represented by acetate esters, esters and acids. A significant decrease of fermentation time (from 8 to 12 months to a maximum of 3 months) and an significant improvement in organoleptic characteristics of the final product were obtained. This study, for the first time, describes the employment of selected autochthonous microbial resources optimized to mimic the microbial evolution already recorded during spontaneous fermentations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4585182PMC
October 2015

Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods.

Molecules 2015 Aug 28;20(9):15666-85. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, CNR, Via Prov.le Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the beneficial effects of phenolic acids as well as of other wheat bran components is encouraging the use of wheat bran as an ingredient of functional foods. After an overview of the chemistry, function, and bioavailability of wheat phenolic acids, the discussion will focus on how technologies can allow the formulation of new, functional whole wheat products with enhanced health-promoting value and safety without renouncing the good-tasting standards that are required by consumers. Finally, this review summarizes the latest studies about the stability of phenolic acids in wheat foods fortified by the addition of wheat bran, pearled fractions, or wheat bran extracts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules200915666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332213PMC
August 2015

Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of the under-utilised Prunus mahaleb L. fruit.

J Sci Food Agric 2016 Jun 1;96(8):2641-9. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

Food, Nutrition and Health Department, University of British Columbia, 2205 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Background: The identification of novel plant-based functional foods or nutraceutical ingredients that possess bioactive properties with antioxidant function has recently become important to the food, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. This study evaluates the polyphenolic composition, identifies bioactive compounds and assays the total antioxidant capacity of Prunus mahaleb L. fruits collected from different populations and sampling years in the countryside around Bari (Apulia Region, Italy).

Results: We identified nine polyphenolic compounds including major anthocyanins, coumaric acid derivatives and flavonols from P. mahaleb fruits. The anthocyanin content (in some populations > 5 g kg(-1) fresh weight; FW) in the fruit was comparable to that reported for so-called superfruits such as bilberries, chokeberries and blackcurrants. Coumaric acid derivatives comprised a large portion of the total polyphenolic content in the P. mahaleb fruits. Antioxidant activities, assessed using ORAC and TEAC assays, measured up to 150 and 45 mmol Trolox equivalents kg(-1) FW, respectively. Therefore antioxidant capacity of P. mahaleb fruits is relatively high and comparable to that of superfruit varieties that are often used in commercial nutraceutical products.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that mahaleb fruit (currently not consumed fresh or used in other ways) could serve as a source of bioactive compounds and therefore find interest from the functional food and nutraceutical industries, as a natural food colorant and antioxidant ingredient in the formulation of functional foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7381DOI Listing
June 2016
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