Publications by authors named "Giovanni Forte"

56 Publications

Hydrochemical, isotopic and microbiota characterization of telese mineral waters (Southern Italy).

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Jan 12. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Chemical Sciences, Univ. Federico II, Via Cupa Nuova Cintia, 21, Napoli, Italy.

The study deals with the analyses of springs and wells at the base of Montepugliano Hill that represents the SE edge of the wide carbonate Matese massif (Campania, southern Italy). At the base of the hill, from west to east and for almost one kilometre, cold springs HCO-Ca type (Grassano springs, ~ 4.5 m/s; TDS: about 0.45 g/L) pass to hypothermal, HCO-Ca type, sulphurous and CO-rich springs (~ 1 m/s with TDS > 1 g/L). Some of the latter are widely used in Telese Spa and Centro Relax Spa. Chemical and isotopic analyses carried out for this study support the hypothesis that all these waters (mineral and non-mineral) have the same catchment area, which is located in the Matese massif. As regards the sulphurous springs, they receive both meteoric waters infiltration and uprising of deeper waters rich in endogenous CO and HS gases through important faults systems. Far from these faults, the chemistry of groundwater is scarcely (or not at all) affected by these deep fluid enrichment processes. This scheme is very significant; in fact, when very important groundwater resources are present, it is possible to use both mineral waters in Spa and, in areas far from the faults, those not yet mineralized. Finally, at Montepugliano Hill, in the final stage of the flow path, groundwater is also affected by change in the microbiome: this could provide a basis for comparison between various mineral waters.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-021-00806-4DOI Listing
January 2021

The levels of trace elements in sputum as biomarkers for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Chemosphere 2020 Dec 31;271:129514. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a rare lung disease that quickly leads to death. This paper addressed the issue of whether the levels of trace elements in sputum samples are suitable biomarkers for IPF disease. The sputum Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were measured by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in populations sampled in Sardinia Island (Italy) including 31 patients with IPF, 31 patients with other lung-related diseases and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Risk factors in the disease as gender, age, severity and duration of the disease were assessed. Results showed that IPF patients had significantly increased sputum levels of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb respect to controls. In males, but not in females, sputum levels of Cd, Cr and Cu were significantly higher in IPF cases respect to controls. In addition, Cr and Pb were increased in male patients with IPF compared to male patients with other lung diseases. Regarding Zn, it was found higher with the more serious stage of disease. Moreover, the ratios Cu/Zn, Fe/Mn and Cu/Mn were significantly increased in IPF patients and in non-IPF patients than in control subjects. These data showed clear increases in the concentration of some trace elements in sputum from patients with IPF and patients with other lung-related diseases that may contribute to the injury. The non-invasiveness of the sputum analysis is beneficial for its use as biomarker of trace element status in diseased patients for both the researcher and the clinic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129514DOI Listing
December 2020

An overview on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cadmium.

Neurol Sci 2021 Feb 5;42(2):531-537. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Department of Biomedical Science - Histology, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.

The present review represents an update about the knowledge of the possible role of Cadmium (Cd) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) initiation and its progression. ALS is a neurodegenerative disease that occurs in adulthood; its etiology is unknown and leads to death within a few years from its appearance. Among the various possible causes that can favor the development of the disease, heavy metals cannot be excluded. Cadmium is a heavy metal that does not play a biological role, but its neurotoxicity is well known. Numerous in vitro studies on cell and animal models confirm the toxicity of the metal on the nervous system, but these data are not accompanied by an epidemiological evidence, and, thus, an unclear correlation between Cd and the onset of the disease can be pointed out. On the other hand, a possible multifactorial and synergic mechanism in which Cd may have a role can explain the ALS onset. More efforts in new clinical, biochemical, and epidemiological studies are necessary to better elucidate the involvement of Cd in this lethal disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04957-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843544PMC
February 2021

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and lead: A systematic update.

Neurotoxicology 2020 12 14;81:80-88. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Biomedical Science - Histology, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Heavy metals are considered to be among the leading environmental factors that trigger amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, no convincing biopathological mechanism and therapeutic clinical implication of such metals in ALS pathogenesis have been established. This is partly attributable to the technical and scientific difficulties in demonstrating a direct and causative role of heavy metals in the onset of ALS in patients. However, a body of epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidences suggest that lead (Pb), more than other metals, could actually play a major role in the onset and progression of ALS. Here, to clarify the nature of the association and the causative role of Pb in ALS, we comprehensively reviewed the scientific literature of the last decade with objective database searches and the methods typically adopted in systematic reviews, critically analysing and summarising the various scientifically sound evidence on the relationship between ALS and Pb. From these tasks, we noted a number of multidisciplinary associations between ALS and Pb, and specifically the importance of occupational exposure to Pb in ALS development and/or progression. We also report the possible involvement of TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43)-based molecular mechanism in Pb-mediated ALS, although these data rely on a single study, which included both in vitro experiments and an animal model, and are therefore still preliminary. Finally, we briefly examined whether this knowledge could inspire new targeted therapies and policies in the fight against ALS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2020.09.003DOI Listing
December 2020

A pilot study to evaluate the levels of aqueous humor trace elements in open-angle glaucoma.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2020 May 22;61:126560. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Biomedical Sciences-Histology, University of Sassari, Viale San Pietro 43/B, 07100 Sassari, Italy; I.S.R.C.T.--International Society for Research on Cadmium Toxicity, Viale San Pietro 43/B, 07100 Sassari, Italy.

Background: Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of chronic, progressive optic neuropathies characterized by slow degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells and their axons, resulting in visual field loss. Risk factors for this disease are elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), increased age, European and African ethnicity, family history, myopia and decreased corneal thickness. In addition, studies indicated that levels of trace elements are also significantly related to the POAG.

Method: The association between toxic and essential elements and POAG was explored in a population-based case-control study in the Sardinia Island (Italy). The aqueous humor levels of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in 25 POAG patients compared to 20 age- and gender-matched healthy controls by sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Risk factors as gender, age and increased IOP were also explored.

Results: The concentrations of Fe, Hg and Zn were significantly higher in POAG patients than in control subjects, showing these elements as possible determinants in POAG development or degeneration. Other findings were the increased Cu and Fe levels in glaucomatous patients with age less than 70 years. Levels of Ni were found elevated in POAG females. Mercury accumulated more in POAG females, in patients over 70 years and in those with higher levels of IOP in the left eye. Moreover, the positive associations CuFe and Mn-Zn may indicate synergistic effects of elements.

Conclusions: Altogether, these findings suggested a multifactorial role in the risk for POAG disease. The present study documented the levels of trace elements in aqueous humor of Sardinian POAG patients for the first time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2020.126560DOI Listing
May 2020

Neurocognitive impact of metal exposure and social stressors among schoolchildren in Taranto, Italy.

Environ Health 2019 07 19;18(1):67. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Department of Environment and Health, Italian National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy.

Background: Metal exposure is a public health hazard due to neurocognitive effects starting in early life. Poor socio-economic status, adverse home and family environment can enhance the neurodevelopmental toxicity due to chemical exposure. Disadvantaged socio-economic conditions are generally higher in environmentally impacted areas although the combined effect of these two factors has not been sufficiently studied.

Methods: The effect of co-exposure to neurotoxic metals including arsenic, cadmium, manganese, mercury, lead, selenium, and to socio-economic stressors was assessed in a group of 299 children aged 6-12 years, residing at incremental distance from industrial emissions in Taranto, Italy. Exposure was assessed with biological monitoring and the distance between the home address and the exposure point source. Children's cognitive functions were examined using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Linear mixed models were chosen to assess the association between metal exposure, socio-economic status and neurocognitive outcomes.

Results: Urinary arsenic, cadmium and hair manganese resulted inversely related to the distance from the industrial emission source (β - 0.04; 95% CI -0.06, - 0.01; β - 0.02; 95% CI -0.05, - 0.001; β - 0.02 95% CI -0.05, - 0.003) while the WISC intellectual quotient and its sub-scores (except processing speed index) showed a positive association with distance. Blood lead and urinary cadmium were negatively associated with the IQ total score and all sub-scores, although not reaching the significance level. Hair manganese and blood lead was positively associated with the CANTAB between errors of spatial working memory (β 2.2; 95% CI 0.3, 3.9) and the reaction time of stop signal task (β 0.05; 95% CI 0.02, 0.1) respectively. All the other CANTAB neurocognitive tests did not show to be significantly influenced by metal exposure. The highest socio-economic status showed about five points intellectual quotient more than the lowest level on average (β 4.8; 95% CI 0.3, 9.6); the interaction term between blood lead and the socio-economic status showed a significant negative impact of lead on working memory at the lowest socio-economic status level (β - 4.0; 95% CI -6.9, - 1.1).

Conclusions: Metal exposure and the distance from industrial emission was associated with negative cognitive impacts in these children. Lead exposure had neurocognitive effect even at very low levels of blood lead concentration when socio-economic status is low, and this should further address the importance and prioritize preventive and regulatory interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-019-0505-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6642538PMC
July 2019

Tetra-substituted pyrrole derivatives act as potent activators of p53 in melanoma cells.

Invest New Drugs 2020 06 26;38(3):634-649. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Fisciano, SA, Italy.

Cutaneous melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, is characterized by activating BRAF mutations. Despite the initial success of selective BRAF inhibitors, only few patients exhibited complete responses, whereas many showed disease progression. Melanoma is one of the few types of cancer in which p53 is not frequently mutated, but p53 inactivation can be indirectly achieved by a stable activation of MDM2 induced by a deletion in CDKN2A (Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A) locus, encoding for p16 and p14, two tumor suppressor genes. In this study, we tested the efficacy of the previously synthesized tetra-substituted pyrrole derivatives, 8 g, 8 h and 8i, in melanoma cell lines, and we compared the effects of the most active of these, the 8i compound, with that exerted by Nutlin 3, a well-known inhibitor of p53-MDM2 interaction. The obtained results showed that 8i potentiates the inhibitory effect of Nutlin 3 and the combined use of 8i and Nutlin 3 triggers apoptosis and significantly impairs melanoma viability. Finally, the 8i compound reduces p53-MDM2 interaction and induces p53-HSP90 complex formation, suggesting that the observed raise in p53 transcriptional activity could be mediated by HSP90. Because the main feature of melanoma is the resistance to most chemotherapeutics, our studies suggest that the 8i tetra-substituted pyrrole derivative, restoring p53 functions and its transcriptional activities, may have potential application, at least as adjuvant, in the treatment of human melanoma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-019-00813-4DOI Listing
June 2020

Novosphingobium sp. PP1Y as a novel source of outer membrane vesicles.

J Microbiol 2019 Jun 27;57(6):498-508. Epub 2019 May 27.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy.

Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nanostructures of 20-200 nm diameter deriving from the surface of several Gram-negative bacteria. OMVs are emerging as shuttles involved in several mechanisms of communication and environmental adaptation. In this work, OMVs were isolated and characterized from Novosphingobium sp. PP1Y, a Gram-negative non-pathogenic microorganism lacking LPS on the outer membrane surface and whose genome was sequenced and annotated. Scanning electron microscopy performed on samples obtained from a culture in minimal medium highlighted the presence of PP1Y cells embedded in an extracellular matrix rich in vesicular structures. OMVs were collected from the exhausted growth medium during the mid-exponential phase, and purified by ultracentrifugation on a sucrose gradient. Atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis showed that purified PP1Y OMVs had a spherical morphology with a diameter of ca. 150 nm and were homogenous in size and shape. Moreover, proteomic and fatty acid analysis of purified OMVs revealed a specific biochemical "fingerprint", suggesting interesting details concerning their biogenesis and physiological role. Moreover, these extracellular nanostructures do not appear to be cytotoxic on HaCaT cell line, thus paving the way to their future use as novel drug delivery systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-019-8483-2DOI Listing
June 2019

Identification of the 2-Benzoxazol-2-yl-phenol Scaffold as New Hit for JMJD3 Inhibition.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2019 Apr 25;10(4):601-605. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, I-84084 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy.

JMJD3 is a member of the KDM6 subfamily and catalyzes the demethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27). This protein was identified as a useful tool in understanding the role of epigenetics in inflammatory conditions and in cancer as well. Guided by a virtual fragment screening approach, we identified the benzoxazole scaffold as a new hit suitable for the development of tighter JMJD3 inhibitors. Compounds were synthesized by a microwave-assisted one-pot reaction under catalyst and solvent-free conditions. Among these, compound presented the highest inhibitory activity (IC = 1.22 ± 0.22 μM) in accordance with molecular modeling calculations. Moreover, induced the cycle arrest in S-phase on A375 melanoma cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.8b00589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466828PMC
April 2019

Association Between Exposure to Heavy Metals and Systemic Sclerosis: the Levels of Al, Cd, Hg, and Pb in Blood and Urine of Patients.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2019 Jul 13;190(1):1-10. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Biomedical Sciences - Histology, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem connective tissue disease; exogenous factors-including heavy metals-may have a role in the disease pathogenesis. In this context, a study on the quantification of Al, Cd, Hg, and Pb in blood and urine of 27 SSc patients and 30 controls was carried out. Main findings were that Al was significantly depleted in blood and increased in urine of SSc patients respect to controls; and Pb was found slightly increased in blood and significantly decreased in SSc group. In addition, higher Hg levels in urine were found in SSc subjects with the higher severity of the disease. Females showed the most marked differences in the levels of blood Al, blood Pb, and urine Cd between patients and controls. Smoking, hobby, ingestion of contaminated food, job exposure may contribute to the bodily levels of Al, Hg, Pb in SSc patients. The results indicated that low, chronic, and multiple exposures to heavy metals-also through habits, diet, and environment-may influence the risk for SSc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-018-1509-5DOI Listing
July 2019

Discovery of new erbB4 inhibitors: Repositioning an orphan chemical library by inverse virtual screening.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 May 12;152:253-263. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084, Fisciano, SA, Italy. Electronic address:

Inverse Virtual Screening (IVS) is a docking based approach aimed to the evaluation of the virtual ability of a single compound to interact with a library of proteins. For the first time, we applied this methodology to a library of synthetic compounds, which proved to be inactive towards the target they were initially designed for. Trifluoromethyl-benzenesulfonamides 3-21 were repositioned by means of IVS identifying new lead compounds (14-16, 19 and 20) for the inhibition of erbB4 in the low micromolar range. Among these, compound 20 exhibited an interesting value of IC on MCF7 cell lines, thus validating IVS in lead repurposing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.04.018DOI Listing
May 2018

Trace elements in ALS patients and their relationships with clinical severity.

Chemosphere 2018 Apr 16;197:457-466. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

Department of Biomedical Sciences - Histology, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

An exploratory study of trace elements in ALS and their relationships with clinical severity was detected. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes irreversible damage in humans, with the consequent loss of function of motoneurons (MNs), with a prognosis up to 5 years after diagnosis. Except to genetic rare cases it is not known the etiology of the disorder. Aim of our research is to investigate the possible role of heavy metals in the severity of the disease. In this study, by the use of plasma mass (ICP-MS), we have analyzed the content of essential and heavy metals such: Pb, Cd, Al, Hg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Mg, and Ca, in blood, urine and hair of ALS patients and controls; moreover we divided the patients in two groups for disease severity and analyzed the difference among the groups, in order to study a possible involvement of metals in the severity of the damage. Our results suggest a protective role of Selenium, involved in protective antioxidant mechanisms, and a risk factor in the case of presence of Lead in blood. The levels of the other metals are not easy to interpret, because these may be due to life style and for essential metals a consequence of the disease condition, not a cause.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.01.076DOI Listing
April 2018

Metals in bones of the middle-aged inhabitants of Sardinia island (Italy) to assess nutrition and environmental exposure.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Mar 6;25(9):8404-8414. Epub 2018 Jan 6.

Department of Biomedical Sciences-Histology, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.

Metals in bones of 72 subjects lived between the twelfth and eighteenth century AC and collected in four Sardinian (Italian insular region) burial sites (Alghero, Bisarcio, Geridu, and Sassari) were determined and used as biomarkers to evaluate diet and potential social-environmental differences. Concentrations of Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sr, and Zn were quantified in different types of compact bone (femur, fibula, humerus, radius, tibia, ulna) by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry previous acidic digestion and differences among the various burial sites, centuries, types of bone, gender, and age were explored by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results indicated differences between sites in terms of diet: Bisarcio (inland village) had increased ratios of Ba/Ca and Zn/Ca due to higher incidence of vegetables, cereals, and animal foods in the diet; Geridu (coastal village) showed increased Sr/Ca ratio indicating foods of plant and marine origin that were predominant; Alghero (coastal site) and Sassari (inland site) displayed prevalently a mixed diet reflecting a higher economy and food imports. In addition, these latter sites showed increased levels of Hg/Ca (fish, drugs, cosmetics) and Pb/Ca (coins, utensils, pipeline for water). In conclusion, the elemental Ba/Ca, Sr/Ca, and Zn/Ca ratios were indicative of provenance and diet, while Hg/Ca and Pb/Ca ratios were associated to various forms of environmental exposure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-1140-6DOI Listing
March 2018

Essential trace elements in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): Results in a population of a risk area of Italy.

Neurol Sci 2017 Sep 10;38(9):1609-1615. Epub 2017 Jun 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences-Histology, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.

Sardinian (Italy) island population has a uniquely high incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Essential trace element levels in blood, hair, and urine of ALS Sardinian patients were investigated in search of valid biomarkers to recognize and predict ALS. Six elements (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se, and Zn) were measured in 34 patients compared to 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls by a validated method. Levels of Ca and Cu in blood and of Se and Zn in hair were significantly higher in ALS than in controls, while urinary excretion of Mg and Se was significantly decreased. The selected cut-off concentrations for these biomarkers may distinguish patients with or without ALS with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Many positive (as Se-Cu and Se-Zn) and negative associations (as Ca-Mg and Ca-Zn) between elements suggested that multiple metals involved in multiple mechanisms have a role in the ALS degeneration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-017-3018-2DOI Listing
September 2017

Drug Affinity Responsive Target Stability (DARTS) Identifies Laurifolioside as a New Clathrin Heavy Chain Modulator.

J Nat Prod 2016 10 5;79(10):2681-2692. Epub 2016 Oct 5.

Dipartimento di Farmacia, Università di Pisa , Via Bonanno 33, 56126 Pisa, Italy.

Five new diterpenes (1-5) and a megastigmane derivative (6) were isolated from the aerial parts of Euphorbia laurifolia, along with several known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by NMR, MS, and ECD and by chemical methods. A chemical proteomics drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) approach to investigate the lathyrane diterpene 1, laurifolioside, on its putative cellular target(s) was performed. Clathrin heavy chain 1, a protein mainly involved in selective uptake of proteins, viruses, and other macromolecules at the plasma membrane of cells, was identified as the major interaction partner of compound 1. The modulation of clathrin activity by 1 was studied through microscopy, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics studies, suggesting a new activity of lathyrane diterpenes in the modulation of trafficking pathways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b00627DOI Listing
October 2016

Determination of mercury in hair: Comparison between gold amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2017 Sep 29;43:3-8. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

Italian National Institute for Health, Rome, Italy.

Mercury is a heavy metal that causes serious health problems in exposed subjects. The most toxic form, i.e., methylmercury (MeHg), is mostly excreted through human hair. Numerous analytical methods are available for total Hg analysis in human hair, including cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal decomposition amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA-AAS). The aim of the study was to compare the TDA-AAS with the ICP-MS in the Hg quantification in human hair. After the washing procedure to minimize the external contamination, from each hair sample two aliquots were taken; the first was used for direct analysis of Hg by TDA-AAS and the second was digested for Hg determination by the ICP-MS. Results indicated that the two data sets were fully comparable (median; TDA-AAS, 475ngg; ICP-MS, 437ngg) and were not statistically different (Mann-Whitney test; p=0.44). The two techniques presented results with a good coefficient of correlation (r=0.94) despite different operative ranges and method limits. Both techniques satisfied internal performance requirements and the parameters for method validation resulting sensitive, precise and reliable. Finally, the use of the TDA-AAS can be considered instead of the ICP-MS in hair analysis in order to reduce sample manipulation with minor risk of contamination, less time consuming due to the absence of the digestion step and cheaper analyses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.09.008DOI Listing
September 2017

Annexin A1 contributes to pancreatic cancer cell phenotype, behaviour and metastatic potential independently of Formyl Peptide Receptor pathway.

Sci Rep 2016 07 14;6:29660. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (SA) Italy.

Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a Ca(2+)-binding protein over-expressed in pancreatic cancer (PC). We recently reported that extracellular ANXA1 mediates PC cell motility acting on Formyl Peptide Receptors (FPRs). Here, we describe other mechanisms by which intracellular ANXA1 could mediate PC progression. We obtained ANXA1 Knock-Out (KO) MIA PaCa-2 cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology. LC-MS/MS analysis showed altered expression of several proteins involved in cytoskeletal organization. As a result, ANXA1 KO MIA PaCa-2 partially lost their migratory and invasive capabilities with a mechanism that appeared independent of FPRs. The acquisition of a less aggressive phenotype has been further investigated in vivo. Wild type (WT), PGS (scrambled) and ANXA1 KO MIA PaCa-2 cells were engrafted orthotopically in SCID mice. No differences were found about PC primary mass, conversely liver metastatization appeared particularly reduced in ANXA1 KO MIA PaCa-2 engrafted mice. In summary, we show that intracellular ANXA1 is able to preserve the cytoskeleton integrity and to maintain a malignant phenotype in vitro. The protein has a relevant role in the metastatization process in vivo, as such it appears attractive and suitable as prognostic and therapeutic marker in PC progression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep29660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4944142PMC
July 2016

Level of neurotoxic metals in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A population-based case-control study.

J Neurol Sci 2015 Dec 19;359(1-2):11-7. Epub 2015 Oct 19.

Department of Biomedical Sciences -Histology, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Rome, Italy.

The association between exposure to toxic metals and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was explored in a population-based case-control study in the Sardinia island (Italy), a region characterized by elevated rates of ALS cases. In 34 patients with ALS (mean age, 62 ± 10 years) and 30 controls (mean age, 65 ± 11 years), Al, Cd, Hg, Mn and Pb were determined in blood, hair and urine by sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Results indicated that, in blood, concentrations of Al (p=0.045) and Pb were higher (p=0.026) in ALS patients than in control subjects. In hair, a depletion of Al (p=0.006) and Mn (p=0.032) concentrations in ALS subjects respect to controls was found. In urine, no significant differences between cases and controls were observed. Thus, some metals seemed to be associated with ALS degeneration, but a definitive conclusion is still far considering the multiple risk factors (genetic mutations, environmental toxicants and stressors) involved in the disease. Finally, the interpretation that deregulated metal concentrations can be a consequence of the degenerative process, rather than a cause, is also valid.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2015.10.023DOI Listing
December 2015

Identification and mechanism of action analysis of the new PARP-1 inhibitor 2″-hydroxygenkwanol A.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2015 Sep 19;1850(9):1806-14. Epub 2015 May 19.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano, SA, Italy.

Background: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases as cancer, inflammation, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders, therefore the research for new PARP-1 inhibitors is still an active area.

Methods: To identify new potential PARP-1 inhibitors, we performed a screening of a small-molecule library consisting of polyphenols isolated from plants used in the traditional medicine, by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Biochemical and cellular assays were performed to confirm SPR results and select the promising candidate(s). Finally, limited proteolysis and ligand docking analyses allowed defining the protein region involved in the interaction with the putative inhibitor(s).

Results: The dimeric spiro-flavonoid 2″-hydroxygenkwanol A, member of a relatively recently discovered class of flavonoids containing a spirane C-atom, has been identified as possible PARP-1 inhibitor. This compound showed a high affinity for the polymerase (KD: 0.32±0.05μM); moreover PARP-1 activity in the presence of 2″-hydroxygenkwanol A was significantly affected both when using the recombinant protein and when measuring the cellular effects. Finally, our study suggests this compound to efficiently interact with the protein catalytic domain, into the nicotine binding pocket.

Conclusion: 2″-hydroxygenkwanol A efficiently binds and inhibits PARP-1 at submicromolar concentrations, thus representing a promising lead for the design of a new class of PARP-1 modulators, useful as therapeutic agents and/or biochemical tools.

General Significance: Our study has identified an additional class of plant molecules, the spiro-biflavonoids, with known beneficial pharmacological properties but with an unknown mechanism of action, as a possible novel class of PARP-1 activity inhibitors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2015.05.014DOI Listing
September 2015

Association of trace elements with lipid profiles and glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in northern Sardinia, Italy: An observational study.

Chemosphere 2015 Aug 29;132:101-7. Epub 2015 Mar 29.

University of Sassari, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Viale San Pietro 43B, 07100 Sassari, Italy; National Institute Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d'Oro 305, 00136 Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Sardinia is an Italian region with a high incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to determine the associations of trace elements with lipid profiles and glycaemic control in patients with T1DM. A total of 192 patients with T1DM who attended the Unit of Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases in Sassari, Italy, were enrolled. Trace elements zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, and iron were measured in whole blood by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The correlations between metabolic variables and the levels of trace elements were determined. Zinc was positively correlated with total cholesterol (P=0.023), low-density lipoprotein (P=0.0015), and triglycerides (P=0.027). Iron as significantly correlated with TC (P=0.0189), LDL (P=0.0121), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P=0.0466). In males, Cr was positively correlated with HDL (P=0.0079) and Se, in females was correlated with TG (P=0.0113). The mean fasting plasma glucose was166.2mgdL(-1). Chromium was correlated with fasting plasma glucose (P=0.0149), particularly in males (P=0.0038). Overall, 63.5% of the patients had moderate HbA1c (7-9%). Copper was significantly correlated with HbA1c% in males (P=0.0155). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that trace elements show different associations with lipid levels and glycaemic control in T1DM. Zinc, Fe, and Se were associated with lipid levels whereas Cu and Cr were associated with HbA1c%.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.02.052DOI Listing
August 2015

Toxic metals contained in cosmetics: a status report.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2014 Apr 12;68(3):447-67. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

Italian National Institute for Health, Rome, Italy.

The persistence of metals in the environment and their natural occurrence in rocks, soil and water cause them to be present in the manufacture of pigments and other raw materials used in the cosmetic industry. Thus, people can be exposed to metals as trace contaminants in cosmetic products they daily use. Cosmetics may have multiple forms, uses and exposure scenarios, and metals contained in them can cause skin local problems but also systemic effects after their absorption via the skin or ingestion. Even this, cosmetics companies are not obliged to report on this kind of impurities and so consumers have no way of knowing about their own risk. This paper reviewed both the concentration of metals in different types of cosmetics manufactured and sold worldwide and the data on metals' dermal penetration and systemic toxicology. The eight metals of concern for this review were antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). This was because they are banned as intentional ingredients in cosmetics, have draft limits as potential impurities in cosmetics and are known as toxic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2014.02.003DOI Listing
April 2014

Blood metals concentration in type 1 and type 2 diabetics.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2013 Dec 14;156(1-3):79-90. Epub 2013 Nov 14.

Italian National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy.

Mechanisms for the onset of diabetes and the development of diabetic complications remain under extensive investigations. One of these mechanisms is abnormal homeostasis of metals, as either deficiency or excess of metals, can contribute to certain diabetic outcomes. Therefore, this paper will report the blood levels of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 192, mean age 48.8 years, mean disease duration 20.6 years), type 2 diabetes (n = 68, mean age 68.4 years, mean disease duration 10.2 years), and in control subjects (n = 59, mean age 57.2 years), and discuss the results indicating their possible role in diabetes. The metal concentrations were measured by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-induced acid digestion of blood samples. The accuracy was checked using a blood-based certified reference material, and recoveries of all elements were in the range of 92-101 % of certified values. Type 1 diabetes was found to be associated with Cr (p = 0.02), Mn (p < 0.001), Ni (p < 0.001), Pb (p = 0.02), and Zn (p < 0.001) deficiency, and type 2 diabetes with Cr (p = 0.014), Mn (p < 0.001), and Ni (p < 0.001) deficiency. These deficiencies were appreciated also subdividing the understudied patients for gender and age groups. Furthermore, in type 1 diabetes, there was a positive correlation between Pb and age (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.400) and Pb and BMI (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.309), while a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.002, ρ = -0.218). In type 2 diabetes, there was a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.017, ρ = -0.294) and Fe and BMI (p = 0.026, ρ = -0.301). Thus, these elements may play a role in both forms of diabetes and combined mineral supplementations could have beneficial effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-013-9858-6DOI Listing
December 2013

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells play a key role in tumor progression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated lung tumor-bearing mice.

J Immunol 2013 Mar 25;190(5):2391-402. Epub 2013 Jan 25.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, University of Salerno, Fisciano 84084, Italy.

The antitumor activity of LPS was first described by Dr. William Coley. However, its role in lung cancer remains unclear. The aim of our study was to elucidate the dose-dependent effects of LPS (0.1-10 μg/mouse) in a mouse model of B16-F10-induced metastatic lung cancer. Lung tumor growth increased at 3 and 7 d after the administration of low-dose LPS (0.1 μg/mouse) compared with control mice. This was associated with an influx of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and CD8(+) regulatory T cells. In contrast, high-dose LPS (10 μg/mouse) reduced lung tumor burden and was associated with a greater influx of pDCs, as well as a stronger Th1 and Th17 polarization. Depletion of pDCs during low-dose LPS administration resulted in a decreased lung tumor burden. Depletion of pDCs during high-dose LPS treatment resulted in an increased tumor burden. The dichotomy in LPS effects was due to the phenotype of pDCs, which were immunosuppressive after the low-dose LPS, and Th1- and T cytotoxic-polarizing cells after the high-dose LPS. Adoptive transfer of T cells into nude mice demonstrated that CD8(+) T cells were responsible for pDC recruitment following low-dose LPS administration, whereas CD4(+) T cells were required for pDC influx after the high-dose LPS. In conclusion, our data suggest differential effects of low-dose versus high-dose LPS on pDC phenotype and tumor progression or regression in the lungs of mice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1202086DOI Listing
March 2013

Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

Environ Monit Assess 2013 Jul 16;185(7):5837-46. Epub 2012 Nov 16.

Department of Biomedical Sciences-Histology, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.

A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2988-zDOI Listing
July 2013

Permanent tattoos: evidence of pseudolymphoma in three patients and metal composition of the dyes.

Eur J Dermatol 2012 Nov-Dec;22(6):776-80

Istituto Dermatologico San Gallicano IRCCS, Via Elio Chianesi 53, 00144 Rome, Italy.

Tattoo-induced pseudolymphoma is a cutaneous inflammatory response, the pathogenesis of which is still unknown. The objective of the present work was to find a possible causal relationship between pseudolymphomatous reactions on the red areas of tattoos and the metals contained in tattoo pigments and skin biopsies. Three individuals with cutaneous lesions on the red areas of tattoos were observed. Clinical and immunohistochemical examinations of the lesions were performed, and the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb were measured in pigments and biopsy samples. Pseudolymphomas in the red areas were diagnosed in all three cases; one showed the prevalence of B-lymphocytes, whereas the other two showed a prevalence of T cells with a lichenoid pattern. Patch tests were negative. Corticosteroid therapy was ineffective. Cadmium, Co, Hg and Pb in the pigments were probably present as impurities, whereas Cr and Ni were the main components. Chromium and Ni had the highest concentrations, also in the biopsy samples. Permanent tattoos appear to be unsafe, considering the increasing number of diagnosed pseudolymphomas. It can be excluded that Hg was responsible for the reactions, given that the concentration in the red dyes and biopsies was very low. Significant levels of Cr and Ni should be considered as the causes of possible dermal reactions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/ejd.2012.1844DOI Listing
June 2013

Adoptive immunotherapy with Cl-IB-MECA-treated CD8+ T cells reduces melanoma growth in mice.

PLoS One 2012 24;7(9):e45401. Epub 2012 Sep 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy.

Cl-IB-MECA is a selective A3 adenosine receptor agonist, which plays a crucial role in limiting tumor progression. In mice, Cl-IB-MECA administration enhances the anti-tumor T cell-mediated response. However, little is known about the activity of Cl-IB-MECA on CD8+ T cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ex vivo Cl-IB-MECA treatment of CD8+ T cells, adoptively transferred in melanoma-bearing mice. Adoptive transfer of Cl-IB-MECA-treated CD8+ T cells or a single administration of Cl-IB-MECA (20 ng/mouse) inhibited tumor growth compared with the control group and significantly improved mouse survival. This was associated with the release of Th1-type cytokines and a greater influx of mature Langerin+ dendritic cells (LCs) into the tumor microenvironment. CD8+ T cells treated with Cl-IB-MECA released TNF-α which plays a critical role in the therapeutic efficacy of these cells when injected to mice. Indeed, neutralization of TNF-α by a specific monoclonal Ab significantly blocked the anti-tumor activity of Cl-IB-MECA-treated T cells. This was due to the reduction in levels of cytotoxic cytokines and the presence of fewer LCs. In conclusion, these studies reveal that ex vivo treatment with Cl-IB-MECA improves CD8+ T cell adoptive immunotherapy for melanoma in a TNF-α-dependent manner.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0045401PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3454429PMC
February 2013

Inhibition of CD73 improves B cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity in a mouse model of melanoma.

J Immunol 2012 Sep 23;189(5):2226-33. Epub 2012 Jul 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, University of Salerno, Fisciano, 84084 Salerno, Italy.

CD73 is a cell surface enzyme that suppresses T cell-mediated immune responses by producing extracellular adenosine. Growing evidence suggests that targeting CD73 in cancer may be useful for an effective therapeutic outcome. In this study, we demonstrate that administration of a specific CD73 inhibitor, adenosine 5'-(α,β-methylene)diphosphate (APCP), to melanoma-bearing mice induced a significant tumor regression by promoting the release of Th1- and Th17-associated cytokines in the tumor microenvironment. CD8+ T cells were increased in melanoma tissue of APCP-treated mice. Accordingly, in nude mice APCP failed to reduce tumor growth. Importantly, we observed that after APCP administration, the presence of B cells in the melanoma tissue was greater than that observed in control mice. This was associated with production of IgG2b within the melanoma. Depletion of CD20+ B cells partially blocked the anti-tumor effect of APCP and significantly reduced the production of IgG2b induced by APCP, implying a critical role for B cells in the anti-tumor activity of APCP. Our results also suggest that APCP could influence B cell activity to produce IgG through IL-17A, which significantly increased in the tumor tissue of APCP-treated mice. In support of this, we found that in melanoma-bearing mice receiving anti-IL-17A mAb, the anti-tumor effect of APCP was ablated. This correlated with a reduced capacity of APCP-treated mice to mount an effective immune response against melanoma, as neutralization of this cytokine significantly affected both the CD8+ T cell- and B cell-mediated responses. In conclusion, we demonstrate that both T cells and B cells play a pivotal role in the APCP-induced anti-tumor immune response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1200744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3442235PMC
September 2012

Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid limits tumor outgrowth in a mouse model of metastatic lung cancer.

J Immunol 2012 Jun 18;188(11):5357-64. Epub 2012 Apr 18.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Science, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Salerno 84084, Italy.

Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a TLR3 ligand, is currently being tested in human clinical trials as an adjuvant to anti-cancer vaccines and in combination with other therapies. However, little is known about its activity in established pulmonary metastasis. The aim of our study was to elucidate the effect of poly I:C (1, 10, or 100 μg/mouse) in a mouse model of B16-F10-induced metastatic lung cancer. Lung tumor growth was arrested after a single administration of poly I:C. This was associated with higher influx of mature dendritic cells (DCs), which drove toward a Th1-like, Th17-like, and cytotoxic immune environment. The interference with IFN type I receptor signaling by means of a specific mAb reversed poly I:C-mediated tumor regression due to lower presence of myeloid DCs, cytotoxic DCs (CD11c(+)CD8(+)), NKT cells, CD8(+) T cells, and Th1-like cytokines. Moreover, the adoptive transfer of poly I:C-activated bone marrow-derived DCs into tumor-bearing mice resulted in activities similar to those of the systemic administration of poly I:C on lung tumor burden. In conclusion, our data prove that poly I:C has potential anti-tumor activity in a mouse model of established pulmonary metastasis. The activation of DCs and the production of IFN type I are responsible for an effective T cytotoxic immune response against metastatic lung cancer progression after poly I:C treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1103811DOI Listing
June 2012

Diet and nutrients are contributing factors that influence blood cadmium levels.

Nutr Res 2011 Sep;31(9):691-7

Department of Biomedical Sciences-Histology, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.

Studies suggested the intake of Cd from diet can be approximately equivalent to that from smoking. Moreover, a mutual metabolic influence between Cd and nutrients has been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between blood cadmium concentration (BCdC) and food consumption, nutrients intake (Ca, Fe, Zn, vitamin C, and vitamin D), tobacco smoking, and some other variables (age, body mass index, and residence) in 243 adults living in the Italian island of Sardinia (Sassari Province). Specifically, we hypothesized that offal consumption contributes to Cd intakes and blood levels. The BCdC was quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and information on personal data was collected through questionnaires. Smoke significantly contributed to the BCdC (P < .001). Nonsmoker subjects who eat offal showed significantly higher BCdC (P = .04). Moreover, slightly higher BCdCs were also observed in nonsmoker subjects who eat rice, fish, and bread. The BCdC positively correlated with age of subjects (r = 0.144; P = .025) and offal daily intake in nonsmokers (r = 0.393; P < .001). The intake of Ca was negatively correlated (r = -0.281; P = .001) with the BCdC in females. The multiple linear regression analysis showed smoking > consumption of offal > body mass index ≈ age as the most important risk factors for the BCdC in the selected population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2011.09.003DOI Listing
September 2011

Artificial-turf playing fields: contents of metals, PAHs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs, inhalation exposure to PAHs and related preliminary risk assessment.

Sci Total Environ 2011 Nov 9;409(23):4950-7. Epub 2011 Sep 9.

Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy.

The artificial-turf granulates made from recycled rubber waste are of health concern due the possible exposure of users to dangerous substances present in the rubber, and especially to PAHs. In this work, we determined the contents of PAHs, metals, non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), PCDDs and PCDFs in granulates, and PAH concentrations in air during the use of the field. The purposes were to identify some potential chemical risks and to roughly assess the risk associated with inhalation exposure to PAHs. Rubber granulates were collected from 13 Italian fields and analysed for 25 metals and nine PAHs. One further granulate was analysed for NDL-PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs and 13 PAHs. Air samples were collected on filter at two fields, using respectively a high volume static sampler close to the athletes and personal samplers worn by the athletes, and at background locations outside the fields. In the absence of specific quality standards, we evaluated the measured contents with respect to the Italian standards for soils to be reclaimed as green areas. Zn concentrations (1 to 19 g/kg) and BaP concentrations (0.02 to 11 mg/kg) in granulates largely exceeded the pertinent standards, up to two orders of magnitude. No association between the origin of the recycled rubber and the contents of PAHs and metals was observed. The sums of NDL-PCBs and WHO-TE PCDDs+PCDFs were, respectively, 0.18 and 0.67×10(-5) mg/kg. The increased BaP concentrations in air, due to the use of the field, varied approximately from <0.01 to 0.4 ng/m(3), the latter referring to worst-case conditions as to the release of particle-bound PAHs. Based on the 0.4 ng/m(3) concentration, an excess lifetime cancer risk of 1×10(-6) was calculated for an intense 30-year activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.07.042DOI Listing
November 2011