Publications by authors named "Giovanni Ferrari"

182 Publications

Global Greenlight Group: largest international Greenlight experience for benign prostatic hyperplasia to assess efficacy and safety.

World J Urol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Urology, University of Montreal Hospital Center CHUM, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Introduction: Greenlight photo-selective vaporization of the prostate (GL-PVP) has gained international acceptance as a safe and effective alternative procedure for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), especially in anticoagulated men. This descriptive analysis aims to characterize the current state of GL-PVP, pooling data from international centers.

Methods: Data from 3627 patients who underwent GL-PVP with the XPS-180 W system in seven international centers performed by eight expert surgeons between 2011 and 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic, perioperative, and postoperative data were collected, including IPSS, QoL, Qmax, PVR, and PSA, and complications.

Results: At baseline, median age, prostate volume, PSA, and IPSS were 70 years (interquartile range 64-77), 64 (47-90), 3.1 ng/mL (1.8-6), and 22 (19-27), respectively. Median lasing and operative time were 34 (23-48) and 62 min (46-85), respectively. Median energy use was 250.0 kJ (168.4-367.9), with 92.6% of procedures being completed with one laser fiber. In 60.1% of cases, catheter was removed on postoperative day 1 with median length of 2 days. All-cause mortality within 30 days was 0.3%. Median PSA reduction at 3 months and 60 months compared to baseline was 43.9 and 46.4%, respectively (p < 0.001). All functional outcomes (IPSS, QoL, Qmax, and PVR) were significantly improved across study period when compared to baseline (p < 0.001). For those men with longer follow-up available, the observed surgical BPH retreatment rate was 1.5% CONCLUSION: Using the largest multi-user, international database of GL-PVP, Greenlight XPS laser treatment in experienced hands is a safe, effective, and durable BPH treatment option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-021-03688-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Altered Responsiveness to TGFβ and BMP and Increased CD45+ Cell Presence in Mitral Valves Are Unique Features of Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2021 Apr 8:ATVBAHA121316111. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Surgery, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY (E.C., Y.X., C.C., I.G., G.F.).

Objective: Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) often develops after an ischemic event, which results in distortion of the valvulo-ventricular complex and incomplete mitral valve (MV) leaflet coaptation. After left ventricular ischemic events, only some patients develop IMR. The susceptibility of the MV to remodel may influence whether IMR develops. We hypothesized that impaired signaling response in MV cells may contribute to IMR development by inducing maladaptive tissue remodeling. Approach and Results: Sheep (n=14) were subjected to ligation of the circumflex coronary artery to induce myocardial infarction. IMR was reported by echocardiography. MV leaflets and MV interstitial cells (MVICs) were collected at baseline (control, n=10), 4 and 8 weeks post-myocardial infarction. RNA sequencing highlighted differences in TGFβ (transforming growth factor beta) signaling between MV with/without IMR. SMAD6/7 and ID2 (inhibitor of DNA binding 2) were the highest increased TGFβ-signaling genes associated with IMR. MVICs from myocardial infarction sheep were less responsive to BMP (bone morphogenic protein) 4 pro-osteogenic stimulation (ID2, OPN [osteopontin], and OC [osteocalcin] mRNA) than control. MVICs from IMR sheep had a diminished COL (collagen) 1A1 mRNA response to TGFβ1 and enhanced prochondrogenic RUNX2 (runt-related transcription factor 2) and SOX9 mRNA response to BMP4 versus non-IMR MVICs. Baseline CD45 expression was detectable only in IMR MVICs. Upon TGFβ1 stimulation, CD45 expression was detected in all groups. Immunostaining confirmed increased presence of CD45+ cells in IMR MV interstitium.

Conclusions: MVs from sheep with IMR had an altered TGFβ/BMP response, associated with increased CD45+ cell presence within the tissue interstitium. Pharmacological strategies aimed to modulate TGFβ/BMP signaling after myocardial infarction may protect from pathological MV remodeling leading to IMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.121.316111DOI Listing
April 2021

Operational Quantification of Continuous-Variable Quantum Resources.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Mar;126(11):110403

School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637371, Singapore.

The diverse range of resources which underlie the utility of quantum states in practical tasks motivates the development of universally applicable methods to measure and compare resources of different types. However, many of such approaches were hitherto limited to the finite-dimensional setting or were not connected with operational tasks. We overcome this by introducing a general method of quantifying resources for continuous-variable quantum systems based on the robustness measure, applicable to a plethora of physically relevant resources such as optical nonclassicality, entanglement, genuine non-Gaussianity, and coherence. We demonstrate in particular that the measure has a direct operational interpretation as the advantage enabled by a given state in a class of channel discrimination tasks. We show that the robustness constitutes a well-behaved, bona fide resource quantifier in any convex resource theory, contrary to a related negativity-based measure known as the standard robustness. Furthermore, we show the robustness to be directly observable-it can be computed as the expectation value of a single witness operator-and establish general methods for evaluating the measure. Explicitly applying our results to the relevant resources, we demonstrate the exact computability of the robustness for several classes of states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.110403DOI Listing
March 2021

Environmental safety of the 180-W GreenLight Laser: a pilot study on plume and irrigating fluids.

Urology 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Urology, Hesperia Hospital, CURE Group, Modena, Italy.

Objectives: To analyze the chemical composition of the surgical smoke and the outflow irrigation fluid produced during a common endourological surgical procedure to treat benign prostatic obstruction (BPO).

Methods: A prospective study was performed to analyze the surgical smoke generated during photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) using the 180-W GL-XPS GreenLight Laser system. Surgical smoke samples were collected from 5 patients, and irrigation fluid samples were collected from 5 different patients. Qualitative organic compound determination was performed on both types of collected specimens using headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) analysis.

Results: Four organic compounds were identified in the analyses of the smoke samples: tetradecane, hexadecane, 7-methylpentadecane and 2,6-dimethyleptadecane. In the analysis of fluid samples, 16 organic elements were identified. Interestingly, two compounds present in the first group (7-methylpentadecane and 2,6-dimethyleptadecane) were not detected in the fluid samples from the second group. None of the sixteen compounds detected in the fluids were present in all of the samples. Overall, seven of these compounds can be classified as toxic for acute exposure, while 4 others may represent a health hazard.

Conclusions: We found that the different types of surgical smoke and irrigation fluids produced during PVP with a GreenLight Laser contain a limited number of organic compounds with a potential inhalation hazard. More studies are needed to understand the potential hazard for the exposed employees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2021.03.016DOI Listing
March 2021

Rezum procedure with Exime stent: a step forward to micro-invasiveness.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Urology, Hesperia Hospital, CUrE Group, Modena, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04316-2DOI Listing
March 2021

Green Light laser enucleation of the prostate with early apical release is safe and effective: single center experience and revision of the literature.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Urology, CURE Group, Hesperia Hospital, Modena, Italy.

Background: Green Light laser enucleation of the prostate (GreenLEP) is an endoscopic treatment to treat bladder outlet obstruction in men with large prostate (>100 cc). Herein, we describe our GreenLEP series and describe its safety and efficacy.

Methods: Between February 2014 and April 2019, 120 patients from a single center underwent en-bloc GreenLEP with early apical release. All procedures were performed with the AMS XPS laser generator (set: 120 W for vaporization and 20 W for coagulation). Morcellation was carried out with the Wolf Piranha morcellator. Data concerning the pre-, intra- and postoperative outcomes were prospectively collected. The follow-up data at 6, 12 months and at the last control were collected.

Results: The median age was 66.0 (IQR: 61.0-71.0) years; 37.5% of the patients were under antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy, 15.0% had indwelling catheter history. The median prostate volume and the baseline PSA value were 98.5ml (IQR 83.0-130.0) and 4.2ng/ml (IQR: 3.2-6.8), respectively. The median operative and lasing time were 65.0 (IQR: 51.0-83.5) and 6.0 (IQR: 6.0-10.0) minutes, respectively. In the post-operative period 1 patient was transfused. The median follow-up was 18.0 (IQR: 12.0-39.5) months. All patients had significant improvement in terms of improvement of uroflowmetry [median from 9ml/sec (IQR 7.8, 11.0) to 20.0 (IQR 18.0, 22.0), p <0.001] and symptoms control [IPSS median score from 26.0ml/sec (IQR 22.0, 28.0) to 7.0 (IQR 6.0, 8.0), p <0.001]) over time. After 12 months 1 patient complained of stress incontinence (1 pad/day) and 1 of "de novo" wet urgency.

Conclusions: En-bloc GreenLEP with early apical release is a safe and effective procedure even for large volume prostates. It allows us to limit the use of laser energy and shorten the operating times with stable and satisfactory long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04145-XDOI Listing
March 2021

Is BMI a Factor in Compliance to Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer?

Chirurgia (Bucur) 2021 Jan-Feb;116(1):51-59

AIMS Academy Clinical Research Network

Compliance to adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) for patients undergoing rectal surgery ranges from 43% to 73.6%. Reasons reported for not initiating or completing AC include onset of postoperative complications, drug toxicity, disease progression and/or patient preferences. Little is known regarding the impact of obesity on the compliance to AC in this setting. This multicenter, retrospective study analyzed compliance to AC and treatment-related morbidity in 511 patients having undergone surgery with curative intent for rectal cancer in six Italian colorectal centers between January 2013 and December 2017. 70 patients were obese (BMI 30 kg/m2). The proportion of open procedures (22.9% vs. 13.4%) and conversions (14.3% vs. 4.8%) was greater in obese compared to non-obese patients (p 0.001). Median hospital stay was one day longer for obese patients (9 days vs. 10 days, p=0.038) while there was no statistically significant difference in the complication rate, whether overall (58.6% in obese vs. 52.3% in non-obese) or with a Clavien-Dindo score 3 (17.1% vs 10.9%). AC was offered to 49/70 (70%) patients in the obese group and 306/441 (69.4%) in the non-obese group (p=0.43). There was no statistically significant difference in AC compliance: 18.4% and 22.9% did not start AC, while 36.7% and 34.6%, started AC but did not complete the scheduled treatment (p=0.79) in the obese and non-obese group, respectively. Overall, 55% of patients who started AC successfully completed their adjuvant treatment. Obesity did not impact compliance to AC for locally advanced rectal cancer: compliance was poor in obese and non-obese patients with no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Major complication rate was not statistically significantly affected by increased BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21614/chirurgia.116.1.51DOI Listing
April 2021

Influence of aneurysmal aortic root geometry on mechanical stress to the aortic valve leaflet.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Feb 21. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University Medical Center, 707 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Aims: While mechanical stress caused by blood flow, e.g. wall shear stress (WSS), and related parameters, e.g. oscillatory shear index (OSI), are increasingly being recognized as key moderators of various cardiovascular diseases, studies on valves have been limited because of a lack of appropriate imaging modalities. We investigated the influence of aortic root geometry on WSS and OSI on the aortic valve (AV) leaflet.

Methods And Results: We applied our novel approach of intraoperative epi-aortic echocardiogram to measure the haemodynamic parameters of WSS and OSI on the AV leaflet. Thirty-six patients were included, which included those who underwent valve-sparing aortic root replacement (VSARR) with no significant aortic regurgitation (n = 17) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) with normal AV (n = 19). At baseline, those who underwent VSARR had a higher systolic WSS (0.52 ± 0.12 vs. 0.32 ± 0.08 Pa, respectively, P < 0.001) and a higher OSI (0.37 ± 0.06 vs. 0.29 ± 0.04, respectively, P < 0.001) on the aortic side of the AV leaflet than those who underwent CABG. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the size of the sinus of Valsalva had a significant association with WSS and OSI. Following VSARR, WSS and OSI values decreased significantly compared with the baseline values (WSS: 0.29 ± 0.12 Pa, P < 0.001; OSI: 0.26 ± 0.09, P < 0.001), and became comparable to the values in those who underwent CABG (WSS, P = 0.42; OSI, P = 0.15).

Conclusions: Mechanical stress on the AV gets altered in correlation with the size of the aortic root. An aneurysmal aortic root may expose the leaflet to abnormal fluid dynamics. The VSARR procedure appeared to reduce these abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jeab006DOI Listing
February 2021

Prognostic value of pathological tumor regression grade in locally advanced gastric cancer: New perspectives from a single-center experience.

J Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 26;123(4):923-931. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Division of Minimally-invasive Surgical Oncology, Niguarda Cancer Center, ASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Piazza Ospedale Maggiore, Milan, Italy.

Background And Objective: Perioperative chemotherapy (PC) with radical surgery represents the gold standard of treatment for resectable advanced gastric cancer (GC). The prognostic value of pathological tumor regression grade (TRG) induced by neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is not clearly established. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between TRG and survival in GC.

Methods: Patients affected by advanced GC undergoing PC and radical surgery were considered. TRG was assessed for each patient according to Becker's grading system. The correlation between TRG and survival was investigated.

Results: One-hundred patients were selected; 25 showed a good response (GR) (TRG 1a/1b), while 75 had a poor response (PR) (TRG 2/3) to NACT. GR patients showed better disease-free survival (DFS) (52 vs. 19 months, p < .001) and disease-specific survival (DSS) (57 vs. 25 months, p < .0001) when compared to PR patients. On univariate analysis, TRG, lymph node ratio (LNR), tumor size, grading, and post-neoadjuvant therapy TNM stage were significantly correlated with survival. On multivariate analysis, TRG, LNR and tumor size were independent prognostic factors for DFS and DSS.

Conclusions: TRG, LNR, and tumor size are independent prognostic factors for DFS and DSS in patients with advanced GC undergoing NACT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26391DOI Listing
March 2021

Noncalcific Mechanisms of Bioprosthetic Structural Valve Degeneration.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Feb 26;10(3):e018921. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Surgery Columbia University New York NY.

Bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs) largely circumvent the need for long-term anticoagulation compared with mechanical valves but are increasingly susceptible to deterioration and reduced durability with reoperation rates of ≈10% and 30% at 10 and 15 years, respectively. Structural valve degeneration is a common, unpreventable, and untreatable consequence of BHV implantation and is frequently characterized by leaflet calcification. However, 25% of BHV reoperations attributed to structural valve degeneration occur with minimal leaflet mineralization. This review discusses the noncalcific mechanisms of BHV structural valve degeneration, highlighting the putative roles and pathophysiological relationships between protein infiltration, glycation, oxidative and mechanical stress, and inflammation and the structural consequences for surgical and transcatheter BHVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955440PMC
February 2021

Model studies of advanced glycation end product modification of heterograft biomaterials: The effects of in vitro glucose, glyoxal, and serum albumin on collagen structure and mechanical properties.

Acta Biomater 2021 03 11;123:275-285. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, United States. Electronic address:

Glutaraldehyde cross-linked heterograft tissues, bovine pericardium (BP) or porcine aortic valves, are the leaflet materials in bioprosthetic heart valves (BHV) used in cardiac surgery for heart valve disease. BHV fail due to structural valve degeneration (SVD), often with calcification. Advanced glycation end products (AGE) are post-translational, non-enzymatic reaction products from sugars reducing proteins. AGE are present in SVD-BHV clinical explants and are not detectable in un-implanted BHV. Prior studies modeled BP-AGE formation in vitro with glyoxal, a glucose breakdown product, and serum albumin. However, glucose is the most abundant AGE precursor. Thus, the present studies investigated the hypothesis that BHV susceptibility to glucose related AGE, together with serum proteins, results in deterioration of collagen structure and mechanical properties. In vitro experiments studied AGE formation in BP and porcine collagen sponges (CS) comparing C-glucose and C-glyoxal with and without bovine serum albumin (BSA). Glucose incorporation occurred at a significantly lower level than glyoxal (p<0.02). BSA co-incubations demonstrated reduced glyoxal and glucose uptake by both BP and CS. BSA incubation caused a significant increase in BP mass, enhanced by glyoxal co-incubation. Two-photon microscopy of BP showed BSA induced disruption of collagen structure that was more severe with glucose or glyoxal co-incubation. Uniaxial testing of CS demonstrated that glucose or glyoxal together with BSA compared to controls, caused accelerated deterioration of viscoelastic relaxation, and increased stiffness over a 28-day time course. In conclusion, glucose, glyoxal and BSA uniquely contribute to AGE-mediated disruption of heterograft collagen structure and deterioration of mechanical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.12.053DOI Listing
March 2021

Expanding endoscopic treatment strategies for pancreatic leaks following pancreato-duodenectomy: a single centre experience.

Surg Endosc 2021 Apr 5;35(4):1908-1914. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Digestive and Interventional Endoscopy Unit, ASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Piazza dell'Ospedale Maggiore, 3, 20162, Milan, Italy.

Background And Aim: Clinically relevant pancreatic leaks of jejunal-pancreatic anastomosis after pancreato-duodenectomy (PD) occur in 9-15% of cases. Endoscopic strategies for management of pancreatic fistula, may allow to avoid reoperation and shorten times for fistula closure, but are still understudied and not widely performed. Aim of the present paper is to describe different endoscopic techniques used to treat such conditions.

Methods: It was a retrospective, single centre, study. All patients who underwent endoscopic treatment for pancreatic leaks following PD between 1st January 2013 and 31th May 2019 at our Centre were reviewed. Depending on the morphology and severity of the leak, four main endoscopic techniques were performed: (1) trans-anastomotic intraductal pancreatic stent insertion; (2) lumen-apposing metal stent between the jejunal loop and the retroperitoneum toward the pancreatic stump insertion ("yoyo-stent"); (3) large calibre nose-to-retroperitoneum drain insertion; (4) when a wide damage of the jejunal wall or a coexistent biliary-jejunal leak were observed, triple metal stent insertion was performed as follow in order to close the defect: enteral fully-covered SEMS in the jejunal stump, a pancreatic metal stent into the Wirsung duct and a fully-covered SEMS across the bilio-digestive anastomosis, through the meshes of the enteral stent. In all cases, surgical drain was simultaneously retracted.

Results: We identified 13 patients who underwent endoscopic treatment for POPF after PD. In total, 5 patients underwent "Yoyo stent insertion", 3 with nose-to-collection drain placement and four patients were treated with triple-stent insertion; in only one patient intrapancreatic SEMS insertion was performed. Technical success was 100% and clinical success was 83.3%. Mean time for leak closure was 4.8 days (range 2-10). During the follow-up interval, no leak recurrences were observed.

Conclusions: Our experience confirms efficacy and safety of endoscopic management of POPF following pancreatoduodenectomy management. Endoscopy should play a central role in this clinical scenario.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-08199-8DOI Listing
April 2021

Impact of the presence of a median lobe on functional outcomes of greenlight photovaporization of the prostate (PVP): an analysis of the Global Greenlight Group (GGG) Database.

World J Urol 2021 Jan 3. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Division of Urology, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM), Montreal, QC, Canada.

Objectives: Previous analyses of the impact of median lobe presence on Greenlight photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) outcomes were limited by their small sample size and the ability to adjust for important confounders. As such, we sought to investigate the impact of prostate median lobe presence on the operative outcomes of 180 W XPS GreenLight PVP using a large international database.

Methods: Data were obtained from the Global GreenLight Group (GGG) database which pools data of eight high-volume, experienced surgeons, from a total of seven international centers. All men with established benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent GreenLight PVP using the XPS-180 W system between 2011 and 2019 were eligible for the study. Patients were assigned to two groups based on presence or absence of median lobes. Analyses were adjusted for patient age, prostate volume, body mass index, and American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) score.

Results: A total of 1650 men met the inclusion criteria. A median lobe was identified in 621 (37.6%) patients. Baseline prostate volume, patient age, and ASA score varied considerably between the two groups. In adjusted analyses, the operative and lasing time of patients with median lobes was 6.72 (95% CI 3.22-10.23; p < 0.01) minutes and 2.90 (95% CI 1.02-4.78; p < 0.01) minutes longer than the control group. Men with median lobes had similar postoperative functional outcomes to those without a median lobe except for a 1.59-point greater drop in the 12-month IPSS score compared to baseline (95% CI 0.11-3.08; p = 0.04) in the median lobe group, and a decrease in PVR after 6 months which was 46.51 ml (95% CI 4.65-88.36; p = 0.03) greater in patients with median lobes compared to men without median lobes.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the presence of a median lobe has no clinically significant impact on procedural or postoperative outcomes for patients undergoing Greenlight PVP using the XPS-180 W system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-020-03529-wDOI Listing
January 2021

The safety and feasibility of the simultaneous use of 180-W GreenLight laser for prostate vaporization during concomitant surgery.

Arch Ital Urol Androl 2020 Dec 17;92(4). Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Urology, Private Hospital Villa Stuart, Rome.

Objectives: To explore the safety and feasibility of photo-selective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) with GreenLight XPS 180 Watt laser (GL-180- W XPS) combined with other surgical procedures.

Material And Methods: Data on patients in whom GL-180-W XPS was performed to relieve lower urinary tract symptoms/ benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) symptoms were extracted from a multi-institutional database (2011-2016). Patients were stratified into two groups. In the first all patients who had GL-180-W XPS with a concomitant procedure during the same surgical session were included as cases while those who underwent GL-180-W XPS PVP only were included as control.

Results: A total of 487 patients were included. Fifty-eight (11.9%) patients underwent concomitant procedures. Multivariable linear regression models failed to find an association between concomitant procedures and longer laser time (p = 0.4). Similarly, multivariable linear regression models failed to find an association between concomitant procedures and laser time even when the analyses were repeated and stratified into endoscopic (p = 0.6) and open/laparoscopic (p = 0.4) procedures. Multivariable logistic regression models failed to demonstrate any association between concomitant procedures and early complications (OR:1.39, CI: 0.379-2.44, p = 0.2), late complications (OR:1.84, CI:0.78-3.98; p = 0.1) and acute urinary retention (OR:1.84, CI:0.78-3.98; p = 0.1). When the analyses were repeated and the concomitant procedures stratified into endoscopic and open/laparoscopic ones, they yielded virtually the same results.

Conclusions: GL-180-W XPS PVP could be safely performed in concomitant endoscopic or open/laparoscopic surgery. These results should be taken into consideration in the counseling of the patient who might choose to undergo simultaneous procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/aiua.2020.4.297DOI Listing
December 2020

Impact of COVID-19 outbreak on esophageal cancer surgery in Northern Italy: lessons learned from a multicentric snapshot.

Dis Esophagus 2020 Nov 27. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

General, Esophageal and Gastric Surgery Unit, University Hospital of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak has significantly burdened healthcare systems worldwide, leading to reorganization of healthcare services and reallocation of resources. The Italian Society for Study of Esophageal Diseases (SISME) conducted a national survey to evaluate changes in esophageal cancer management in a region severely struck by COVID-19 pandemic. A web-based questionnaire (26 items) was sent to 12 SISME units. Short-term outcomes of esophageal resections performed during the lockdown were compared with those achieved in the same period of 2019. Six (50%) centers had significant restrictions in their activity. However, overall number of resections did not decrease compared to 2019, while a higher rate of open esophageal resections was observed (40 vs. 21.7%; P = 0.034). Surgery was delayed in 24 (36.9%) patients in 6 (50%) centers, mostly due to shortage of anesthesiologists, and occupation of intensive care unit beds from intubated COVID-19 patients. Indications for neoadjuvant chemo (radio) therapy were extended in 14% of patients. Separate COVID-19 hospital pathways were active in 11 (91.7%) units. COVID-19 screening protocols included nasopharyngeal swab in 91.7%, chest computed tomography scan in 8.3% and selective use of lung ultrasound in 75% of units. Postoperative interstitial pneumonia occurred in 1 (1.5%) patient. Recovery from COVID-19 pandemic was characterized by screening of patients in all units, and follow-up outpatient visits in only 33% of units. This survey shows that clinical strategies differed considerably among the 12 SISME centers. Evidence-based guidelines are needed to support the surgical esophageal community and to standardize clinical practice in case of further pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/dote/doaa124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717178PMC
November 2020

Totally laparoscopic versus open pancreaticoduodenectomy: A propensity score matching analysis of short-term outcomes.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 5;47(3 Pt B):674-680. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

ASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Division of Minimally-invasive Surgical Oncology, Piazza Ospedale Maggiore, 3 20162, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD) is a demanding operation that has not yet gained popularity. Safety, feasibility, and clinical advantages of LPD in comparison with open pancreaticoduodenectomy (OPD) have not been clearly demonstrated. The aim of this study was to compare the short term outcomes of LPD with those of OPD.

Material And Methods: Data from a prospectively collected database of patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy at our institution between January 2013 and March 2020 were retrieved and analyzed, comparing the short-term postoperative outcomes of LPD and OPD, using a propensity score matching analysis.

Results: In the study period, 177 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy were selected, 52 of these were LPD. In the LPD group, the conversion rate to OPD was 3.8%. After matching, a total of 50 LPD and 50 OPD were compared. LPD was associated with a shorter length of stay (14 vs 20 days, p = 0.011), decreased blood loss (255 vs 350 ml, p = 0.022), but longer median operative time (590 vs 382.5 min; p < 0.001). No significant difference was found between LPD and OPD in terms of overall complications (56% vs 62%, p = 0.542), severe complications (26% vs 22%, p = 0.640), and postoperative mortality (4% vs 6%, p = 0.646). The groups had similar reoperation rate, pancreatic-specific complications, and readmission rate.

Conclusions: In comparison with the open approach, LPD seems associated to with improved short-term outcomes in terms of hospital stay and blood loss, but with a longer operative time. No difference in morbidity and mortality rate were found in our series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2020.10.036DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical-Pathologic Characteristics and Long-term Outcomes of Left Flexure Colonic Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis of an International Multicenter Cohort.

Dis Colon Rectum 2020 12;63(12):1593-1601

Department of Surgery, Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Colorectal cancer seldom presents at the splenic flexure. Small series on left flexure tumors reported a high occurrence of negative prognostic factors called into question as causes of poor prognosis. However, because of the small number of cases, no definite conclusions can be drawn.

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare clinical-pathologic characteristics and short- and long-term outcomes of left flexure tumors with other colonic locations.

Design: This was a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent surgery for tumors at the splenic flexure. Each tumor was paired in a 1 to 1 fashion with a right-sided and sigmoid tumor.

Settings: The study was conducted in 10 international centers.

Patients: A total of 641 patients with left flexure tumors were included in the study.

Main Outcome Measures: Overall survival and cancer-specific survival were measured.

Results: Left flexure tumors presented more frequently with stenosis (30.5%; p < 0.001), with lesions infiltrating beyond the serosa (21.9%; p = 0.001) and with a high rate of mucinous histology (8.8%; p = 0.001). Looking at long-term prognosis, no differences were observed among the 3 groups, both considering overall and cancer-specific survival. However, left flexure tumors recurred more frequently as peritoneal carcinomatosis (20.6%; p < 0.001).

Limitations: This study was limited because of its retrospective nature.

Conclusions: Although left flexure tumors display several negative prognostic factors, they are not characterized by a worse prognosis compared with other colon cancer locations. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B395. CARACTERÍSTICAS CLÍNICO-PATOLÓGICAS Y RESULTADOS A LARGO PLAZO DEL CÁNCER DE COLON DE ÁNGULO IZQUIERDO: UN ANÁLISIS RETROSPECTIVO DE UNA COHORTE MULTICÉNTRICA INTERNACIONAL: El cáncer colorrectal rara vez se presenta en el ángulo esplénico. Pequeñas series sobre tumores de ángulo izquierdo informaron una alta incidencia de factores pronósticos negativos cuestionados como causas de mal pronóstico. Sin embargo, debido al pequeño número de casos, no se pueden sacar conclusiones definitivas.El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar las características clínico-patológicas, los resultados a corto y largo plazo de los tumores de ángulo izquierdo con otras ubicaciones de colon.Análisis retrospectivo de pacientes consecutivos que se sometieron a cirugía por tumores en el ángulo esplénico. Cada tumor se emparejó de forma individual con un tumor del lado derecho y sigmoide.El estudio se realizó en 10 centros internacionales.Se incluyeron en el estudio un total de 641 pacientes con tumores del ángulo izquierdo.Supervivencia general y específica del cáncerLos tumores de ángulo izquierda se presentaron con mayor frecuencia con estenosis (30.5%, p <0.001), con lesiones infiltradas más allá de la serosa (21.9%, p = 0.001), y con una alta tasa de histología mucinosa (8.8%, p = 0.001). En cuanto al pronóstico a largo plazo, no se observaron diferencias entre los tres grupos, considerando la supervivencia general y específica del cáncer. Sin embargo, los tumores de ángulo izquierdo recurrieron con mayor frecuencia como carcinomatosis peritoneal (20,6%; p <0,001).Este estudio fue limitado debido a su naturaleza retrospectiva.Aunque los tumores de ángulo izquierdo muestran varios factores pronósticos negativos, no se caracterizan por un peor pronóstico en comparación con otras ubicaciones de cáncer de colon. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B395.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000001785DOI Listing
December 2020

Permanent end-colostomy parastomal hernia prevention using a novel three-dimensional mesh.

Hernia 2020 Oct 31. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Division of Oncologic and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Niguarda General Hospital, ASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Piazza Ospedale Maggiore 3, 20162, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: Prophylactic mesh placement has been proposed to reduce the high occurrence of parastomal hernia (PSH) after stoma formation.

Methods: This is an observational study comparing two cohorts of patients: a mesh prophylaxis group (who received mesh prevention since introduction at our Institution) and a no mesh prophylaxis group (retrospectively selected from our historical series). Same exclusion criteria were applied for both groups. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral center for colorectal surgery. 43 patients were operated with mesh prophylaxis between May 2015 and may 2019. 45 patients underwent end-colostomy formation without prophylaxis between April 2011 and April 2015. The primary outcome measure was PSH development at 12-month follow up.

Results: Demographic variables and risk factors for PSH were comparable between the two groups. There was no difference between the two cohorts in terms of operative time and main early postoperative outcomes. 37 patients completed the 12-month follow up in each group. PSH occurrence after 12-months was 11% in the mesh prophylaxis group and 54% in the no mesh prophylaxis group (p < 0.0001). There were no differences in long-term complications. 5% of patients who received mesh prophylaxis underwent emergency surgery for bowel occlusion at 7 and 10 months after surgery, with partial or complete mesh removal. At multivariate analysis, mesh prophylaxis was a protective factor for PSH development at 12 months (p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Prophylactic intraperitoneal mesh placement appears to be effective in preventing PSH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10029-020-02326-zDOI Listing
October 2020

Greenlight laser: a laser for every prostate and every urologist.

World J Urol 2020 Oct 26. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Urology, Ospedale Civile Di Guastalla and Ospedale Ercole Franchini Di Montecchio Emilia, Azienda USL-IRCCS Di Reggio Emilia, Via Donatori di Sangue 1, 42016, Guastalla, RE, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-020-03499-zDOI Listing
October 2020

Identification of viscoelastic properties of Dacron aortic grafts subjected to physiological pulsatile flow.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2020 10 30;110:103804. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA. Electronic address:

In vascular surgery, most synthetic vascular grafts currently used for large vessels replacements are made of Dacron (polyethylene terephthalate; PET). In this study, the dynamic response of these synthetic arterial substitutes to physiological pulsatile conditions is investigated in depth. Experiments were performed on a mock circulatory loop developed to replicate physiological pulsatile pressure and flow. Two different models of Dacron grafts (branched and straight) were tested at various heart rate conditions. Results are presented in terms of cyclic axisymmetric diameter changes, hysteretic loops of the pressure-diameter change, and viscoelastic parameters, such as loss factor and storage modulus that are identified from the hysteresis loop. The amplitude of cyclic diameter change of the Dacron graft was found to be always below 0.2% for all the heart rates considered (from 57 to 187 bpm). The loss factor of the Dacron graft slightly increased with the heart rate; almost no effect of the pulse rate was observed on the storage modulus, which was identified to be around 100 MPa. Both glycerol-water mixture (i.e. the blood analogue fluid) and saline solution were used in the circulatory loop and results did not present significant differences between the two cases. This shows that the effect of the shear load on the dynamic response of Dacron grafts is negligible. A comparison between Dacron vascular implants and human thoracic aortas shows a large mismatch in their viscoelastic mechanical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.103804DOI Listing
October 2020

Do We Really Know How Much the Covid-19 Pandemic Affected the Surgical Practice in Northern Italy? A Multi-Center Comparative Study and Cost Analysis.

Chirurgia (Bucur) 2020 Jul-Aug;115(4):469-475

The Covid-19 pandemic in Northern Italy has slowed down the clinical surgical activity. A system of hub and spoke hospitals was set up to take care of oncological patients with the consequent almost complete abolition of the elective surgical activity for non-oncological pathologies. We retrospectively analyzed the surgical volumes of 4 different non academic general hospitals in Lombardy belonging to 4 different provinces. The quarter March April May 2019 was compared with the same period of 2020. All different procedures were listed. The cost analysis was performed using the DRG system. In the four hospitals involved the surgical procedures reduced from 1903 to 350 with a drop of the 81.6%. Procedures for cancer from 403 to 161 with a drop of 60.1%. Procedures for benign disease from 1310 to 118 with a drop of the 91%. Emergencies from 190 to 71 with a drop of the 62.6%. State refund for the procedures performed from 6.708.023 to 1.678.154 with a drop of 75%. Elective surgery was dramatically impaired by the Covid-19 pandemic. Above all procedures for non oncological and non urgent patients were particularly affected. In view of a possible second wave of the pandemic, the surgical planning must select patients not only on onco logical criteria but rather on clinical ones. An ad hoc hub and spoke hospitals pathway has to be implemented for benign surgical diseases by whoever is facing the Covid pandemic at its spike.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21614/chirurgia.115.4.469DOI Listing
September 2020

Glycation and Serum Albumin Infiltration Contribute to the Structural Degeneration of Bioprosthetic Heart Valves.

JACC Basic Transl Sci 2020 Aug 5;5(8):755-766. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Surgery, Columbia University, New York, New York.

Valvular heart diseases are associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and often require surgical and/or percutaneous repair or replacement. Valve replacement is limited to mechanical and biological prostheses, the latter of which circumvent the need for lifelong anticoagulation but are subject to structural valve degeneration (SVD) and failure. Although calcification is heavily studied, noncalcific SVD, which represent roughly 30% of BHV failures, is relatively underinvestigated. This original work establishes 2 novel and interacting mechanisms-glycation and serum albumin incorporation-that occur in clinical valves and are sufficient to induce hallmarks of structural degeneration as well as functional deterioration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacbts.2020.06.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7452200PMC
August 2020

Biomechanical characterization of a chronic type a dissected human aorta.

J Biomech 2020 09 31;110:109978. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 0C3, Canada; Department of Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 2B4, Canada.

Aortic dissection is one of the most lethal cardiovascular diseases. A chronic Type A (Stanford) dissected aorta was retrieved for research from a 73-year-old male donor without diagnosed genetic disease. The aorta presented a dissection over the full length, and it reached a diameter of 7.7 cm in its ascending portion. The descending thoracic aorta underwent layer-specific quasi-static and dynamic mechanical characterizations after layer separation. Mechanical tests showed a physiological (healthy) behavior of the intima and some mechanical anomalies of the media and the adventitia. In particular, the static stiffness of both these layers at smaller strains was three times smaller than any one measured for twelve healthy aortas. When the viscoelastic properties were tested, adventitia presented a larger relative increase of the dynamic stiffness at 3 Hz with respect to most of the healthy aortas. The loss factor of the adventitia, which is associated with dissipation, was at the lower limit of those measured for healthy aortas. It seems reasonable to attribute these anomalies of the mechanical properties exhibited by the media and the adventitia to the severe remodeling secondary to the chronic nature of the dissection. However, it cannot be excluded that some of the mechanical anomalies were present before remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2020.109978DOI Listing
September 2020

Functional and Short-term Outcomes in Elective Laparoscopic Colectomy for Symptomatic Diverticular Disease With Either Low Ligation or Inferior Mesenteric Artery Preservation: A Randomized Trial.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2020 Aug 4;31(1):40-43. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Colorectal Department, ASST Monza, Desio Hospital, Desio.

Background: The current treatment of symptomatic diverticular disease is left colectomy/sigmoidectomy with low ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery versus the inferior mesenteric artery preservation. Up to now, there is no strong evidence in favor of one of the 2 strategies. The aim of this study is to compare the bowel-specific quality of life and functional outcomes between these 2.

Methods: Between June 2015 and February 2019, patients were randomly assigned to inferior mesenteric artery low ligation or inferior mesenteric artery preservation during elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease. Gastrointestinal, genitourinary functions and surgical outcomes were compared postoperatively between groups.

Results: One-hundred sixty-eight patients were randomized providing 2 homogenous groups. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary functions were not significantly different between groups after 1 and 6 months postoperative. In both groups, the function was restored to the preoperative level 6 months after surgery. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of conversion rate, blood loss, length of surgery, between groups. There was no difference in the overall complication rate and the anastomotic leak rate among groups.

Conclusions: Inferior mesenteric artery low ligation or inferior mesenteric artery preservation during elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for a diverticular disease can be considered equivalent in affecting the postoperative bowel-related quality of life, genitourinary function, and surgical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLE.0000000000000850DOI Listing
August 2020

Postoperative risk of pancreatic fistula after distal pancreatectomy with or without spleen preservation.

Tumori 2021 Apr 8;107(2):160-165. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Oncologic and Minimally-invasive Surgery, ASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: Outcomes after distal pancreatectomy with or without splenectomy are controversial. The present study aims to investigate differences in short-term and long-term outcomes between spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (SPDP) and distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (DPS).

Methods: In this retrospective review of consecutive patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy with or without splenectomy from January 2011 until December 2017 for benign disease, the primary endpoint was to compare postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). The secondary endpoint was to compare duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and long-term outcomes.

Results: Patients undergoing SPDP had a lower rate of POPF (13.6% vs 46.1%; = 0.02). Patients undergoing SPDP (n = 22) were discharged earlier than patients undergoing DPS (n = 26) (8 [4-29] vs 12 [6.48] days; = 0.003). No differences in other intraoperative and postoperative outcomes were found between groups.

Conclusion: Patients undergoing SPDP developed fewer POPF and were discharged earlier compared to patients undergoing DPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300891620936744DOI Listing
April 2021

Totally Laparoscopic Pancreaticoduodenectomy: Technical Notes.

Chirurgia (Bucur) 2020 May-Jun;115(3):385-393

Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodendectomy is still rarely adopted due to its inherent complexity. We hereby present our experience of laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy focused on technical notes. Technical description: A 5 trocars technique is used. Vision is provided by a 30 degree scope with 4K technology for the demolitive phase and 3D for the reconstructive phase. The right colic flexure is mobilized and an extensive Kocher maneuver is carried out exposing the inferior vena cava and left renal vein. The gastric antrum is resected with a mechanical stapler. The common hepatic artery is identified behind the superior pancreatic margin; lymphadenectomy of stations 7, 8, 9, 12 a and b is performed, until the gastroduodenal artery is cleared from the lymphatic tissue; a bull-dog clamp is placed to interrupt the arterial flow through the gastroduodenal artery, in order to exclude aberrant vascularization of the liver from the SMA. The common hepatic duct is transected just above the cystic duct. The pancreas is sectioned with monopolar energy, dividing the main pancreatic duct 2-3 mm distal to the parenchymal transection line with cold scissors, as to leave a stump that will facilitate the duct-to-mucosa anastomosis then the first jejunal loop is sectioned. A complete dissection of the mesopancreas is performed, moving from a caudal to cephalad fashion. Prior to perform the pancreatico-jejunal anastomosis, a fistula risk score based on pancreatic parenchymal texture, tumor type, Wirsung diameter, intraoperative blood loss is assessed. The pancreatico-jejunal anastomosis is carried out using prolene and pds sutures. The end-to-side hepaticojejunostomy is performed about 10 cm distant from the pancreaticojejunostomy. The side to- side gastrojejunostomy is performed using a 60 mm linear stapler. Conclusion: Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy is a demanding procedure affected by high morbidity rates. The standardization of the technique could lead the way to reduce such rates and favor its adoption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21614/chirurgia.115.3.385DOI Listing
July 2020

Iron imaging in myocardial infarction reperfusion injury.

Nat Commun 2020 06 29;11(1):3273. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Restoration of coronary blood flow after a heart attack can cause reperfusion injury potentially leading to impaired cardiac function, adverse tissue remodeling and heart failure. Iron is an essential biometal that may have a pathologic role in this process. There is a clinical need for a precise noninvasive method to detect iron for risk stratification of patients and therapy evaluation. Here, we report that magnetic susceptibility imaging in a large animal model shows an infarct paramagnetic shift associated with duration of coronary artery occlusion and the presence of iron. Iron validation techniques used include histology, immunohistochemistry, spectrometry and spectroscopy. Further mRNA analysis shows upregulation of ferritin and heme oxygenase. While conventional imaging corroborates the findings of iron deposition, magnetic susceptibility imaging has improved sensitivity to iron and mitigates confounding factors such as edema and fibrosis. Myocardial infarction patients receiving reperfusion therapy show magnetic susceptibility changes associated with hypokinetic myocardial wall motion and microvascular obstruction, demonstrating potential for clinical translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16923-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324567PMC
June 2020

The dramatic COVID 19 outbreak in Italy is responsible of a huge drop of urological surgical activity: a multicenter observational study.

BJU Int 2021 01 19;127(1):56-63. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi, Firenze, Italy.

Objective: To describe the trend in surgical volume in urology in Italy during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, as a result of the abrupt reorganisation of the Italian national health system to augment care provision to symptomatic patients with COVID-19.

Methods: A total of 33 urological units with physicians affiliated to the AGILE consortium (Italian Group for Advanced Laparo-Endoscopic Surgery; www.agilegroup.it) were surveyed. Urologists were asked to report the amount of surgical elective procedures week-by-week, from the beginning of the emergency to the following month.

Results: The 33 hospitals involved in the study account overall for 22 945 beds and are distributed in 13/20 Italian regions. Before the outbreak, the involved urology units performed overall 1213 procedures/week, half of which were oncological. A month later, the number of surgeries had declined by 78%. Lombardy, the first region with positive COVID-19 cases, experienced a 94% reduction. The decrease in oncological and non-oncological surgical activity was 35.9% and 89%, respectively. The trend of the decline showed a delay of roughly 2 weeks for the other regions.

Conclusion: Italy, a country with a high fatality rate from COVID-19, experienced a sudden decline in surgical activity. This decline was inversely related to the increase in COVID-19 care, with potential harm particularly in the oncological field. The Italian experience may be helpful for future surgical pre-planning in other countries not so drastically affected by the disease to date.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322984PMC
January 2021

B lines in COVID-19: "Unspecificity" is not "meaningless".

Echocardiography 2020 07 18;37(7):1140-1141. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Cardiac Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, Brighton & Sussex University Hospital, Brighton, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.14768DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323401PMC
July 2020

Aortic Valve Regurgitation: Pathophysiology and Implications for Surgical Intervention in the Era of TAVR.

Struct Heart 2020 23;4(2):87-98. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Columbia University, NY - USA.

Aortic insufficiency (AI) or regurgitation is caused by the malcoaptation of the aortic valve (AV) cusps due to intrinsic abnormalities of the valve itself, a dilatation or geometric distortion of the aortic root, or by some combination thereof. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of studies suggesting that AI is an active disease process caused by a combination of factors including but not limited to alteration of specific molecular pathways, genetic predisposition, and changes in the mechanotransductive properties of the AV apparatus. As the surgical management of AV disease continues to evolve, increasingly sophisticated surgical and percutaneous techniques for AV repair and replacement, including transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), have become more commonplace and will likely continue to expand as new devices are introduced. However, these techniques necessitate frequent reappraisal of the biological and mechanobiological mechanisms underlying AV regurgitation to better understand the risk factors for AI development and recurrence following surgical intervention as well as expand our limited knowledge on patient selection for such procedures. The aim of this review is to describe some of the putative mechanisms implicated in the development of AI, dissect some of the cross-talk among known and possible signaling pathways leading to valve remodeling, identify association between these pathways and pharmacological approaches, and discuss the implications for surgical and percutaneous approaches to AV repair in replacement in the TAVR era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/24748706.2020.1719446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7288848PMC
January 2020