Publications by authors named "Giovanni Arpa"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prognostic relevance and putative histogenetic role of cytokeratin 7 and MUC5AC expression in Crohn's disease-associated small bowel carcinoma.

Virchows Arch 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Unit of Anatomic Pathology, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia and Fondazione IRCCS San Matteo Hospital, Via Carlo Forlanini 16 -, 27100, Pavia, Italy.

Most Crohn's disease-associated small bowel carcinomas (CrD-SBCs) are diagnosed in advanced stage and have poor prognosis. To improve diagnosis and therapy, a better knowledge of tumour precancerous lesions, histotypes and prognostic factors is needed. We investigated histologically and immunohistochemically 52 CrD-SBCs and 51 small bowel carcinomas unrelated to inflammatory disease, together with their tumour-associated mucosa, looking for Crohn-selective changes. Histologic patterns and phenotypic markers potentially predictive of CrD-SBC histogenesis and prognosis were analysed. Cytokeratin 7 or MUC5AC-positive metaplastic changes were found in about half of investigated CrD-SBCs, significantly more frequently than in CrD-unrelated SBCs. They correlated with metaplastic changes of their associated mucosa, while being absent in normal ileal mucosa. Histologic patterns suggestive for progression of some cytokeratin 7 and/or MUC5AC-positive metaplastic lesions into cancer of the same phenotype were also observed. Patient survival analyses showed that tumour cytokeratin 7 or MUC5AC expression and non-cohesive histotype were adverse prognostic factors at univariable analysis, while cytokeratin 7 and non-cohesive histotype were also found to predict worse survival in stage- and age-inclusive multivariable analyses. Besides conventional dysplasia, hyperplasia-like non-conventional lesions were observed in CrD-SBC-associated mucosa, with patterns suggestive for a histogenetic link with adjacent cancer. In conclusion the cytokeratin 7 and/or MUC5AC-positive metaplastic foci and the non-conventional growths may have a role in cancer histogenesis, while tumour cytokeratin 7 and non-cohesive histotype may also predict poor patient survival. Present findings are worth being considered in future prospective histogenetic and clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-021-03109-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Small Bowel Epithelial Precursor Lesions: A Focus on Molecular Alterations.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 22;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia and Fondazione IRCCS San Matteo Hospital, 27100 Pavia, Lombardy, Italy.

The wider use of gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures has led to an increased detection of small intestinal preneoplastic and neoplastic epithelial lesions, most of which are identified in the duodenum and ampullary region. Like their malignant counterparts, small intestinal glandular precursor lesions, which include adenomas and hamartomas, may arise sporadically or be associated with hereditary tumor syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis, -associated polyposis, Lynch syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenile polyposis syndrome, and Cowden syndrome. In addition, dysplastic, preinvasive lesions have been observed adjacent to small bowel adenocarcinomas complicating immune-related disorders, such as celiac or Crohn's disease. Adenomatous lesions may exhibit an intestinal-type, gastric-type, or, very rarely, serrated differentiation, related to different molecular pathogenetic mechanisms. Finally, in the background of multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 syndrome, precursor neuroendocrine growths have been described. In this review we offer a comprehensive description on the histo-molecular features of the main histotypes of small bowel epithelial precursors lesions, including: (i) sporadic adenomas (intestinal-type and gastric-type; non-ampullary and ampullary); (ii) syndromic adenomas; (iii) small bowel dysplasia in celiac and Crohn's disease; (iv) serrated lesions; (v) hamartomatous lesions; and (vi) neuroendocrine precursor lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122855PMC
April 2021

Histologic heterogeneity and syndromic associations of non-ampullary duodenal polyps and superficial mucosal lesions.

Dig Liver Dis 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

First Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, Viale Golgi 19, 27100, Italy.

Background: Duodenal polyps and superficial mucosal lesions (DP/SMLs) are poorly characterised.

Aims: To describe a series of endoscopically-diagnosed extra-ampullary DPs/SMLs.

Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary referral Endoscopy Unit, including patients who had DPs or SMLs that were biopsied or removed in 2010-2019. Age, gender, history of familial polyposis syndromes, DP/SML characteristics were recorded. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses were performed.

Results: 399 non-ampullary DP/SMLs from 345 patients (60.6% males; median age 67 years) were identified. Gastric foveolar metaplasia represented the most frequent histotype (193 cases, 48.4%), followed by duodenal adenomas (DAs; 77 cases, 19.3%). Most DAs (median size 6 mm) were sessile (Paris Is; 48%), intestinal-type (96.1%) with low-grade dysplasia (93.5%). Among syndromic DAs (23%), 15 lesions occurred in familial adenomatous polyposis 1, two were in MUTYH-associated polyposis and one was in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (foveolar-type, p53-positive, low-grade dysplasia). Only one (3.3%) tubular, low-grade DA showed mismatch repair deficiency (combined loss of MLH1 and PMS2, heterogeneous MSH6 expression), and it was associated with a MLH1 gene germline mutation (Lynch syndrome).

Conclusion: DPs/SMLs are heterogeneous lesions, most of which showing foveolar metaplasia, followed by low-grade, intestinal-type, non-syndromic DAs. MMR-d testing may identify cases associated with Lynch syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2021.03.011DOI Listing
April 2021

Small Bowel Adenocarcinomas Featuring Special AT-Rich Sequence-Binding Protein 2 (SATB2) Expression and a Colorectal Cancer-Like Immunophenotype: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Nov 19;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Anatomic Pathology Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia and Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 27100 Pavia, Lombardy, Italy.

Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a transcription factor expressed by colonic cryptic epithelium and epithelial neoplasms of the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract, as well as by small bowel adenocarcinomas (SBAs), though at a lower rate. Nevertheless, up to now, only small SBA series, often including a very limited number of Crohn's disease-associated SBAs (CrD-SBAs) and celiac disease-associated SBAs (CD-SBA), have been investigated for SATB2 expression. We evaluated the expression of SATB2 and other GI phenotypic markers (cytokeratin (CK) 7 and CK20, caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) and alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR)), as well as mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, in 100 SBAs, encompassing 34 CrD-SBAs, 28 CD-SBAs and 38 sporadic cases (Spo-SBAs). Any mutual association and correlation with other clinico-pathologic features, including patient prognosis, were searched. Twenty (20%) SATB2-positive SBAs (4 CrD-SBAs, 7 CD-SBAs and 9 Spo-SBAs) were identified. The prevalence of SATB2 positivity was lower in CrD-SBA (12%) in comparison with both CD-SBAs (25%) and Spo-SBAs (24%). Interestingly, six SBAs (two CD-SBAs and four Spo-SBAs) displayed a full colorectal carcinoma (CRC)-like immunoprofile (CK7-/CK20+/CDX2+/AMACR+/SATB2+); none of them was a CrD-SBA. No association between SATB2 expression and MMR status was observed. Although SATB2-positive SBA patients showed a more favorable outcome in comparison with SATB2-negative ones, the difference did not reach statistical significance. When cancers were stratified according to CK7/CK20 expression patterns, we found that CK7-/CK20- SBAs were enriched with MMR-deficient cases (71%) and patients with CK7-/CK20- or CK7-/CK20+ SBAs had a significantly better survival rate compared to those with CK7+/CK20- or CK7+/CK20+ cancers ( = 0.002). To conclude, we identified a small (6%) subset of SBAs featuring a full CRC-like immunoprofile, representing a potential diagnostic pitfall in attempts to identify the site of origin of neoplasms of unknown primary site. In contrast with data on colorectal carcinoma, SATB2 expression is not associated with MMR status in SBAs. CK patterns influence patient survival, as CK7-/CK20- cancers show better prognosis, a behavior possibly due to the high rate of MMR-deficient SBAs within this subgroup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699330PMC
November 2020

Celiac disease: histology-differential diagnosis-complications. A practical approach.

Pathologica 2020 Sep;112(3):186-196

Pathology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, FG, Italy.

Celiac disease is a multi-factorial chronic inflammatory intestinal disease, characterized by malabsorption resulting from mucosal injury after ingestion of wheat gluten or related rye and barley proteins. Inappropriate T-cell-mediated immune response against ingested gluten in genetically predisposed people, leads to characteristic histological lesions, as villous atrophy and intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Nevertheless, celiac disease is a comprehensive diagnosis with clinical, serological and genetic characteristics integrated with histological features. Biopsy of duodenal mucosa remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of celiac disease with the recognition of the spectrum of histological changes and classification of mucosa damage based on updated Corazza-Villanacci system. Appropriate differential diagnosis evaluation and clinical context also for the diagnosis of complications is, moreover, needed for correct histological features interpretation and clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.32074/1591-951X-157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7931573PMC
September 2020

Comment on Jun, S.Y.; et al. "Tumor Budding and Poorly Differentiated Clusters in Small Intestinal Adenocarcinoma" 2020, , 2199.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Oct 15;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 15.

First Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia and Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

We read with interest the paper by Jun S [...].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7602438PMC
October 2020

Prognostic Role of Mismatch Repair Status, Histotype and High-Risk Pathologic Features in Stage II Small Bowel Adenocarcinomas.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Feb 5;28(2):1167-1177. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Unit of Pathology, Cervello Hospital, Palermo, Italy.

Background: Small bowel adenocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, often diagnosed in an advanced stage. In localized and resectable disease, surgery alone or in combination with adjuvant chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment. In the recently published National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice guidelines, criteria for selecting patients with stage II small bowel adenocarcinoma to receive adjuvant chemotherapy are provided, and they are mainly extrapolated from studies on colorectal cancer.

Patients And Methods: In the present study, we aimed to verify whether mismatch repair deficiency phenotype, high-risk pathologic features (including T4, positive resection margins and a low number of lymph nodes harvested), as well as tumor histologic subtype, were associated with cancer-specific survival in 66 stage II non-ampullary small bowel adenocarcinoma patients, collected through the Small Bowel Cancer Italian Consortium. A central histopathology review was performed. Mismatch repair deficiency was tested by immunohistochemistry for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2, and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction for microsatellite instability.

Results: We identified mismatch repair deficiency, glandular/medullary histologic subtype, and celiac disease as significant predictors of favorable cancer-specific survival using univariable analysis with retained significance in bivariable models adjusted for pT stage. Among the high-risk features, only T4 showed a significant association with an increased risk of death; however, its prognostic value was not independent of mismatch repair status.

Conclusions: Mismatch repair protein expression, histologic subtype, association with celiac disease, and, in the mismatch repair proficient subset only, T stage, may help identify patients who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08926-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801310PMC
February 2021

PD-L1 in small bowel adenocarcinoma is associated with etiology and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, in addition to microsatellite instability.

Mod Pathol 2020 07 17;33(7):1398-1409. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia and Fondazione IRCCS San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, Italy.

Small bowel adenocarcinomas (SBAs) are often associated with poor prognosis and have limited therapeutic options. Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway blockade is an effective treatment in many microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) solid tumors. We aimed at investigating PD-L1 and PD-1 expression in non-hereditary, non-ampullary SBAs, associated with celiac disease (CeD), Crohn's disease (CrD), or sporadic, recruited through the Small Bowel Cancer Italian Consortium. We assessed PD-L1 and PD-1 by immunohistochemistry in a series of 121 surgically resected SBAs, including 34 CeD-SBAs, 49 CrD-SBAs, and 38 sporadic SBAs. PD-L1 and PD-1 expression was correlated with several clinico-pathological features, such as the etiology, microsatellite instability status, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) density. The prevalence of PD-L1 positivity according to combined positive score (CPS) was 26% in the whole cohort of SBAs, with significantly (p = 0.001) higher percentage (35%) in both CeD-SBAs and CrD-SBAs in comparison with sporadic SBAs (5%). CPS ≥ 1 SBAs were significantly (p = 0.013) more frequent in MSI-H cases (41%) than in non-MSI-H ones (18%); however, 15 CPS ≥ 1 microsatellite stable SBAs were also identified. CPS ≥ 1 SBAs showed higher TIL and PD-1 immune cell density, more frequently medullary histotype, as well as a better outcome in comparison with CPS < 1 cases. This study demonstrates an increased proportion of PD-L1 cases in both CeD-SBAs and CrD-SBAs in comparison with sporadic SBAs. In addition, the identification of a subset of PD-L1 microsatellite stable SBAs supports the need to ascertain additional biomarkers of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors along with MSI-H.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-020-0497-0DOI Listing
July 2020

Small-bowel carcinomas associated with celiac disease: transcriptomic profiling shows predominance of microsatellite instability-immune and mesenchymal subtypes.

Virchows Arch 2020 May 6;476(5):711-723. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Unit of Pathology, Dept. of Medicine and Surgery and Research Center for the Study of Hereditary and Familial Tumors, University of Insubria, Via Rossi 9, 21100, Varese, Italy.

Celiac disease (CD) is a risk factor for developing small-bowel carcinoma with a 14-fold higher risk compared with general population. As small-bowel carcinomas associated with CD (CD-SBCs) are extremely rare, very few molecular data are available about their pathogenesis, and information about their transcriptomic profiling is lacking. We generated RNA-seq data on 13 CD-SBCs, taken from the largest well-characterized series published so far, collected by the Small Bowel Cancer Italian Consortium, and compared the tumor transcriptional signatures with the four Consensus Molecular Subtypes (CMS) of colorectal carcinoma by applying the "CMS classifier." CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) was evaluated using methylation-sensitive multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification. Up to 12 of 13 cancers fell within the two main subtypes exhibiting high immune and inflammatory signatures, i.e., subtypes 1 and 4. The first and predominant subset was commonly microsatellite unstable, and exhibited CIMP and high CD3+ and CD8+ T cell infiltration. Moreover, it showed increased expression of genes associated with T helper 1 and natural killer cell infiltration, as well as upregulation of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and proteasome pathways. By contrast, cancers falling in subtype 4 showed prominent transforming growth factor-β activation and were characterized by complement-associated inflammation, matrix remodeling, cancer-associated stroma production, and angiogenesis. Parallel histologic and histochemical analysis confirmed such tumor subtyping. In conclusion, two molecular subtypes have been consistently identified in our series of CD-SBCs, a microsatellite instability-immune and a mesenchymal subtype, the former likely associated with an indolent and the latter with a worse tumor behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-019-02675-wDOI Listing
May 2020

Natural history of autoimmune atrophic gastritis: a prospective, single centre, long-term experience.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2019 12 17;50(11-12):1172-1180. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

First Department of Internal Medicine, San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Autoimmune atrophic gastritis (AAG) is an immune-mediated disorder characterised by destruction of gastric oxyntic mucosa AIM: To explore gastric histopathological evolution in a cohort of AAG patients over a prolonged follow-up METHODS: Single centre prospective study enrolling consecutive patients with histologically confirmed AAG between 2000 and 2018. All AAG patients undergoing endoscopic follow-up every 1-3 years were classified as having stages 1, 2 or 3 according to atrophy severity (mild, moderate and severe). AAG patients with either glandular or neuroendocrine dysplasia/neoplasia were classified as having stage 4. Disease stage progression, and changes in serum anti-parietal cell antibody (PCA), chromogranin A and gastrin-17 were assessed.

Results: In total, 282 AAG patients (mean age 60.3 years; F:M ratio 2.4:1; median follow-up 3 years, interquartile range 1-7) were enrolled. All patients with stages 1 or 2 progressed to stage 2 or 3 over time with a steady trend (P = .243) and regression from a severe to a milder stage was never noticed. Disease progression of patients with stages 1 or 2 occurred within the first 3 years. PCA positivity rate did not change over time. Stage 3 patients had higher gastrin-17 levels compared to patients with stages 1 and 2 (median 606 vs 295 pg/mL; P < .001). In stage 3, the hazard ratio for the risk of developing stage 4 was 6.6 (95% CI 1.5-29; P = .001).

Conclusions: AAG is a steadily progressive disease, in which stages 1 and 2 always progress to stage 3. The risk of developing a complicated disease stage is greater in patients with more severe gastric lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15540DOI Listing
December 2019

Missplicing in Skeletal Muscle as a Cardiac Biomarker in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 but Not in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 2.

Front Neurol 2019 27;10:992. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Laboratory of Muscle Histopathology and Molecular Biology, IRCCS-Policlinico San Donato, Milan, Italy.

Cardiac involvement is one of the most important manifestations of the multisystemic phenotype of patients affected by myotonic dystrophy (DM) and represents the second cause of premature death. Molecular mechanisms responsible for DM cardiac defects are still unclear; however, missplicing of the cardiac isoform of troponin T () and of the cardiac sodium channel () genes might contribute to the reduced myocardial function and conduction abnormalities seen in DM patients. Since, in DM skeletal muscle, the gene shows the same aberrant splicing pattern observed in cardiac muscle, the principal aim of this work was to verify if the aberrant fetal isoform expression could be secondary to myopathic changes or could reflect the DM cardiac phenotype. Analysis of alternative splicing of and of several genes involved in DM pathology has been performed on muscle biopsies from patients affected by DM type 1 (DM1) or type 2 (DM2) with or without cardiac involvement. Our analysis shows that missplicing of muscle-specific genes is higher in DM1 and DM2 than in regenerating control muscles, indicating that these missplicing could be effectively important in DM skeletal muscle pathology. When considering the gene, missplicing appears to be more evident in DM1 than in DM2 muscles since, in DM2, the fetal isoform appears to be less expressed than the adult isoform. This evidence does not seem to be related to less severe muscle histopathological alterations that appear to be similar in DM1 and DM2 muscles. These results seem to indicate that the more severe missplicing observed in DM1 could not be related only to myopathic changes but could reflect the more severe general phenotype compared to DM2, including cardiac problems that appear to be more severe and frequent in DM1 than in DM2 patients. Moreover, missplicing significantly correlates with the QRS cardiac parameter in DM1 but not in DM2 patients, indicating that this splicing event has good potential to function as a biomarker of DM1 severity and it should be considered in pharmacological clinical trials to monitor the possible effects of different therapeutic approaches on skeletal muscle tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.00992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6776629PMC
September 2019

Separation of Low- Versus High-grade Crohn's Disease-associated Small Bowel Carcinomas is Improved by Invasive Front Prognostic Marker Analysis.

J Crohns Colitis 2020 Mar;14(3):295-302

IBD, San Filippo Neri Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Background And Aims: Crohn's disease-associated small bowel carcinoma is a rare event, usually reported to have a severe prognosis. However, in previous investigations we have found a minority of cases displaying a relatively favourable behaviour, thus outlining the need to improve the histopathological prediction of Crohn's disease-associated small bowel carcinoma prognosis.

Methods: As in recent studies on colorectal cancer, a substantial improvement in prognostic evaluations has been provided by the histological analysis of the tumour invasive front; we therefore systematically analysed the tumour budding and poorly differentiated clusters in the invasive front of 47 Crohn's disease-associated small bowel carcinomas collected through the Small Bowel Cancer Italian Consortium.

Results: Both tumour budding and poorly differentiated cluster analyses proved highly effective in prognostic evaluation of Crohn's disease-associated small bowel carcinomas. In addition, they retained prognostic value when combined with two other parameters, i.e. glandular histology and stage I/II, both known to predict a relatively favourable small bowel carcinoma behaviour. In particular, association of tumour budding and poorly differentiated clusters in a combined invasive front score allowed identification of a minor subset of cancers [12/47, 25%] characterised by combined invasive front low grade coupled with a glandular histology and a low stage [I or II] and showing no cancer-related death during a median follow-up of 73.5 months.

Conclusions: The improved distinction of lower- from higher-grade Crohn's disease-associated small bowel carcinomas provided by invasive front analysis should be of potential help in choosing appropriate therapy for these rare and frequently ominous neoplasms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjz140DOI Listing
March 2020

Small Bowel Carcinomas Associated with Immune-Mediated Intestinal Disorders: The Current Knowledge.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Dec 29;11(1). Epub 2018 Dec 29.

First Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia and Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Small bowel carcinomas (SBC) are uncommon neoplasms, whose predisposing conditions include hereditary syndromes and immune-mediated intestinal disorders including coeliac disease (CD) and Crohn's disease (CrD). Although both CD-associated SBC (CD-SBC) and CrD-associated SBC (CrD-SBC) arise from an inflammatory background, they differ substantially in tumour cell phenotype, frequency of microsatellite instability and nuclear β-catenin expression, as well as in prognosis. For these patients, high tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte density and glandular/medullary histotype represent independent positive prognostic factors. Dysplasia adjacent to SBC is rare and characterized by intestinal phenotype and nuclear β-catenin in CD, while it is frequent and typified by gastro-pancreatobiliary marker expression and preserved membranous β-catenin in CrD. Recent evidence suggests that Epstein-Barr virus-positive dysplasia and SBC, albeit exceptional, do exist and are associated with CrD. In this review, we summarize the novel pathological and molecular insights of clinical and therapeutic interest to guide the care of CD-SBC and CrD-SBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11010031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356995PMC
December 2018
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