Publications by authors named "Giovanni Annicchiarico"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of Diet Supplementation with Quinoa Seed and/or Linseed on Immune Response, Productivity and Meat Quality in Merinos Derived Lambs.

Animals (Basel) 2018 Nov 10;8(11). Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Agricultural Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25-71121 Foggia, Italy.

In the last years several studies have investigated the strong relation between nutrition and immune response in the livestock production, particularly in dairy cattle and sheep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation based on linseed, quinoa seeds and their combination on welfare, productivity and quality of meat from merinos derived lambs. 32 weaned lambs were divided into 4 experimental groups: quinoa (Q), linseed (LS) and combination of quinoa and linseed (LS + Q) that received the respective supplementation and control group (C) without supplementation. Lambs from all supplemented groups showed lower plasma urea, creatinine and cholesterol than control. Both linseed and quinoa supplementation enhanced the cell-mediated immune responses of lambs, furthermore, linseed supplementation resulted in the lowest level of cortisol secretion after handling, loading and transport. Meat from lambs supplemented with linseed and LS + Q showed the highest pH, at 1 and 3 h post-mortem, while, meat from all supplemented groups was more tender than meat from control. Results indicated that linseed and quinoa seeds supplementation can help the animal to cope with stressful events due to the close link between stress responses and the immune system and for improving meat quality in terms of better tenderness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani8110204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6262584PMC
November 2018

Proteomic approach to investigate the impact of different dietary supplementation on lamb meat tenderness.

Meat Sci 2017 Sep 29;131:74-81. Epub 2017 Apr 29.

Department of Agricultural Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25-71121 Foggia, Italy.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of linseed and/or quinoa on tenderness and on proteome of lamb meat. Thirty-two Italian Merino lambs were distributed into 4 groups with different diet: control (CO) with no supplemental fat, linseed (LS), quinoa (QS) and QS+LS diets. Meat obtained by lamb fed linseed showed the lowest values of WBSF (P<0.001), hardness (P<0.01), gumminess (P<0.01) and chewiness (P<0.01). Proteomic changes of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins were estimated with SDS-PAGE, Western Blot and Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis. In linseed group proteomic analysis revealed a degradation of desmin and TnT proteins complex and a major number of spots and phosphorylation isoforms of fast MLC2 patterns. Meat obtained by lamb fed quinoa showed a minor effect on the instrumental evaluation of meat tenderness and a major number of spots ascribed to sarcoplasmic proteins and fMHC. Data suggest that dietary supplementation may act on meat tenderness and on proteolytic pattern of myofibrillar fraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2017.04.235DOI Listing
September 2017

Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids from flaxseed affect immune responses of dairy sheep around parturition.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2015 Nov 19;168(1-2):56-60. Epub 2015 Aug 19.

Department of the Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment (SAFE), University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy.

The objective of the study was to characterize the immune profile of dairy ewes fed flaxseed, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), around parturition. The hypothesis to be verified was that a physiological stressor, such as parturition, could be overcome with a nutritional manipulation in the diet of the animal in order to guarantee welfare of animals and to sustain their immune responses. Twenty Comisana ewes were divided in two groups (10 ewes/group), and fed a supplementation of whole flaxseed in the diet (FS group) or no supplementation (CON group). Blood samples were collected at parturition and then 7, 14, 21, 28, and 42 day post partum. Plasma samples were used to assess the humoral immune response after ovalbumin (OVA) immunization. At parturition, at 14 day, and 42 day post partum the level of plasma cytokines was assessed. The sheep showed a reduced responsiveness to OVA immunization. In FS ewes the IL-6 level remained unchanged until 14 day post partum and then significantly decreased from 14 day to 42 day post partum. IL-10 level was significantly higher in FS ewes than in CON ewes at 14 day. At parturition IL-1β level was significantly lower in FS ewes than in CON ewes and significantly decreased in both groups from parturition to 42 day. In conclusion, PUFA from flaxseed, as supplement in the diet of ewes around parturition can modulate sheep immune reactivity by influencing cytokine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2015.08.006DOI Listing
November 2015

Alterations in sheep peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and cytokine release by polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in the diet under high ambient temperature.

J Dairy Sci 2015 Feb 12;98(2):872-9. Epub 2014 Dec 12.

Department of the Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation from different sources in the diet of dairy sheep under high ambient temperatures on ex vivo lymphocyte proliferation and inflammatory responses. The experiment was carried out during summer: 32 Comisana ewes were divided into 4 groups of 8. The FS group was supplemented with whole flaxseed, the AG group was supplemented with Ascophyllum nodosum, the FS+AG group was supplemented with a combination of flaxseed and A. nodosum. The fourth group (CON group) was a control and received a diet containing no supplement. The average maximum temperature was around 33°C during wk 2 and 3, whereas the mean temperature never decreased below 26°C. Following 15 d of treatment with respective diets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from sheep who received a diet supplemented with A. nodosum had impaired cell proliferation responses and IL-6 production after mitogen stimulation compared with PBMC from FS+AG sheep. In addition, PBMC from AG sheep displayed impaired cell proliferation compared with cells from the CON group. The FS+AG cells produced lower levels of IL-10 than CON cells, and higher IL-6 than AG and CON cells. Results demonstrated that the supplementation with PUFA from different sources in a sheep's diet can influence their immunological responses under high ambient temperatures depending on the composition of fatty acid supplementation. In particular, synergistic effects of different PUFA from flaxseed and A. nodosum, simultaneously administrated in the sheep diet, were observed on activation of inflammation response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8333DOI Listing
February 2015

Effect of manure vs. fertilizer inputs on productivity of forage crop models.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2011 06 1;8(6):1893-913. Epub 2011 Jun 1.

Unit for Extensive Animal Production, Research Council of Agriculture, Via Appia-Bella Scalo, 74085, Muro Lucano, Italy.

Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF) were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV). The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha(-1), respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha(-1) of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha(-1) under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph8061893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3138003PMC
June 2011

Influence of space allowance and housing conditions on the welfare, immune response and production performance of dairy ewes.

J Dairy Res 2009 Feb 16;76(1):66-73. Epub 2008 Oct 16.

Dipartimento PRIME and Istituto per la Ricerca e le Applicazioni Biotecnologiche per la Sicurezza e la Valorizzazione dei Prodotti Tipici e di Qualità (BIOAGROMED), Università di Foggia, Via Napoli 25, 71100 Foggia (Italy).

The experiment used 45 Comisana ewes, divided into 3 groups of 15. The aim was to determine the effects of two different stocking densities and two different housing conditions on welfare, and on production performance of dairy ewes. The stocking densities tested were: high stocking density (1 x 5 m2/ewe, HD group) and low stocking density (3 m2/ewe, LD group); the two housing conditions tested were: ewes housed indoors (LD group, 3 m2/ewe) and ewes allowed to use an outdoor area (LDP group, 3 m2/ewe divided into 1 x 5 m2/ewe indoors and 1 x 5 m2/ewe outdoors). At the beginning of the experiment, and then every 2 months, the cell-mediated immune status of sheep was evaluated. One month after the beginning of the experiment, and 20 d later, the ewes were injected with chicken egg albumin (OVA) to assess their humoural immune responses. Starting from the beginning of the experiment and then monthly, behavioural activities of ewes were monitored using 15-min scans. After lamb weaning, milk yield from individual ewes was measured and milk composition analysed weekly. Housing conditions (low density reared ewes indoors v. low density reared ewes with free access to an outdoor area) affected cell-mediated response, which was higher in LDP than in LD ewes. Concentrations of anti-OVA IgG were mainly influenced by space allowance, with higher antibody titres in LD than in HD ewes throughout the experiment. Both housing conditions and space allowance affected sheep behavioural activities: a greater proportion of LDP ewes displayed standing and drinking behaviours than LD ewes, and a greater proportion of LD ewes was observed walking than HD ewes. Ewes allowed access to the outdoor area had a higher protein content and lower somatic cell count in their milk, whereas reduced space allowance led to a reduction in milk yield and an increase in somatic cell count of milk. Results indicate that both increased space allowance and availability of outdoor area can improve the welfare and production performance of the lactating ewe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029908003683DOI Listing
February 2009

Effects of ventilation rate and of dietary protein level in an intensive dairy sheep system on the features of Canestrato Pugliese cheese.

J Dairy Res 2007 Feb 15;74(1):26-33. Epub 2006 Sep 15.

Dipartimento PRIME. Università di Foggia, Italy.

Effects of ventilation rate and of dietary protein level in an intensive dairy sheep system on the features of Canestrato Pugliese cheese were studied. Cheeses were manufactured from the bulk milk obtained from ewes subjected to four different experimental treatments: (1) low dietary crude protein (CP) of 13% in dry matter (DM) at a low ventilation rate (23.5 m3/h per ewe) (LPLV); (2) low dietary CP at a moderate ventilation rate (47 m3/h per ewe) (LPMV), (3) moderate dietary CP of 16% DM at a low ventilation rate (MPLV); and (4) moderate dietary CP dietary at a moderate ventilation rate (MPMV). Bulk milk and cheeses (at 1, 15, 45 and 90 d of ripening) were analysed for chemical composition, N fractions and plasmin-plasminogen activities. The pH 4.6-soluble and insoluble N fractions were analysed by urea-PAGE. Bulk milk from ewes receiving the low CP diet displayed higher casein and lower urea contents. Ewes subjected to the low ventilation rate displayed a higher plasminogen activity in milk, whereas no differences emerged among treatments in the conversion of zymogen to plasmin. During ripening the plasmin-plasminogen system in cheese did not display significant changes across treatments. At 90 d of ripening, the cheese produced with milk from ewes receiving the low CP diet and exposed to the low ventilation rate displayed more markedly stained bands in the area of gamma-caseins in pH 4.6-insoluble N fraction. As from 15 d of ripening, the pH 4.6-soluble fraction showed a greater number of bands in the LPMV and MPMV than in the LPLV and MPLV cheeses. The results showed that Canestrato Pugliese cheese manufactured with milk from ewes fed the low CP diet and exposed to the moderate ventilation rate was characterized by higher protein and casein content in the fresh cheese and by a greater proteolysis after 90 d of ripening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029906002111DOI Listing
February 2007

Effects of dietary protein level on ewe milk yield and nitrogen utilization, and on air quality under different ventilation rates.

J Dairy Res 2006 May 14;73(2):197-206. Epub 2006 Feb 14.

Dipartimento Pr.I.M.E., Facoltà di Agraria di Foggia, via Napoli, 25, 71100 Foggia, Italy.

The experiment, which lasted 53 d, was conducted during the winter (February and March) of 2004 and used 48 Comisana ewes in mid lactation. A 2 x 2 factorial design was used, with ewes receiving two levels of dietary crude protein (CP) (moderate, 16% CP v. low, 13% CP) in the dry matter (DM) and being exposed to two ventilation rates (moderate, 47 m3/h v. low, 23.5 m3/h per ewe) for each dietary treatment. Air concentrations of NH3 and of microorganisms were measured twice weekly. Milk yield was recorded daily. Individual milk samples were analysed weekly for composition and fortnightly for bacteriological characteristics. After the last milk sampling (day 49 of the study period), four animals from each group were placed in a metabolism box and their individual faeces and urine were collected for three consecutive days. Amounts of urine and faeces excreted, and urinary and faecal N outputs were measured. The 16% CP diet resulted in a lower milk casein content and a higher milk urea concentration than the 13% CP diet, as well as in a reduced gross efficiency of utilization of dietary N, a greater amount of N excreted and a higher total coliform concentration in milk. The moderate ventilation rate resulted in higher yields of milk, irrespective of CP content. Significant interactions of CP level x ventilation rate were found for the amounts of urine, of total water and of faecal N, and for mesophilic concentration in milk, the highest values being displayed by the ewes fed the 16% CP diet and exposed to the low ventilation rate. The moderate dietary CP level and low ventilation rate had a deleterious effect on air concentrations of microorganisms and ammonia. Results suggested that a reduction of dietary CP level from 16 to 13% of DM had no detrimental effect on ewe milk yield in mid lactation and could even improve some of its nutritional and hygienic characteristics. Our findings also indicate that the choice of a proper ventilation rate is critical for high efficiency of production in the lactating ewe, especially in intensively managed flocks receiving diets high in CP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029905001469DOI Listing
May 2006

Quality of milk and of Canestrato Pugliese cheese from ewes exposed to different ventilation regimens.

J Dairy Res 2004 Nov;71(4):434-43

Dipartimento PRIME Università di Foggia, Italy.

Effects of ventilation regimen on the quality of ewes' milk and on proteolysis in Canestrato Pugliese cheese during ripening were studied. Cheeses were manufactured from the bulk milk of Comisana ewes subjected to three different ventilation regimens, which were designated low (LOV, 23 m3/h per ewe), moderate (MOV, 47 m3/h per ewe) and programmed ventilation regimen (PROV, 73 m3/h per ewe; fan set to maintain 70% relative humidity). Bulk milk was analysed for chemical and microbial composition, renneting parameters and plasmin-plasminogen activities. At 1, 15, 30 and 45 d of ripening, the cheeses were analysed for gross chemical composition, nitrogen fractions, and plasmin and plasminogen activities. The pH 4.6-insoluble nitrogen fractions were analysed by urea-PAGE. Free amino acid content was determined at the end of ripening. Lower concentrations of bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and of mesophilic bacteria were found in the MOV group than in the LOV and the PROV groups. A lower plasminogen (PG) to plasmin (PL) ratio (PG/PL) was observed in the MOV and PROV than in the LOV cheeses. Irrespective of treatment, PL activity in cheeses was higher at 15d of ripening, while a sudden decrease of PL and PG activities was observed at 30 d, which was associated with a marked increase in non-protein nitrogen. The peptide profile characterized in the urea-PAGE showed a greater intensity of alpha- and beta-CN hydrolysis in the MOV than in the PROV and LOV cheeses. The results provide evidence that a proper ventilation regimen is critical for optimizing the hygienic quality of milk and the proteolysis of Canestrato Pugliese cheese during ripening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0022029904000330DOI Listing
November 2004

Lambs prevented from suckling their mothers display behavioral, immune and endocrine disturbances.

Physiol Behav 2003 Jan;78(1):81-9

Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Animali, via Nazario Sauro, 85100 Potenza, Italy.

The aim of the experiment was to assess the effects of either maternal deprivation or prevented suckling on lambs. Thirty Comisana lambs were assigned to a control dam-suckled group (DS) and two test groups of 10 each. Test lambs were maintained with their mothers 24 to 30 h after parturition and subsequently offered ewe milk from buckets: EM lambs were separated from their mothers, while EM+D animals were reared with their dams but suckling was denied by covering ewe udders with juta bags. Behavioral, immune and cortisol responses of lambs were assessed throughout the experiment. EM+D lambs spent less time (P<.001) on investigative behavior compared to the two other groups. When isolated in a novel environment, EM+D lambs exhibited a shorter duration of movement (P<.01) and a longer latency time compared to DS and EM lambs (P<.001 and P<.05, respectively) as well as a higher number of bleats (P<.01) than EM lambs. EM+D lambs also displayed higher (P<.001) plasma cortisol levels than the other two groups when isolated at 4 days of age. When subjected to discrimination tests, EM+D lambs spent less time near their companions (P<.01) than EM lambs and took a longer time to reach their pen mates (P<.01) than DS and EM lambs. EM+D lambs displayed reduced growth (P<.001) compared to DS animals during the 0-7 and 8-14-day periods. We conclude that frustration arising from maternal feeding deprivation results in altered endocrine and behavioral responses and reduced growth suggesting emotional disturbances of lambs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0031-9384(02)00892-2DOI Listing
January 2003
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