Publications by authors named "Giovanna A Giannico"

38 Publications

PTEN expression and morphological patterns in prostatic adenocarcinoma.

Histopathology 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Aims: Cribriform morphology, which includes intraductal carcinoma (IDCP) and invasive cribriform carcinoma, is an indicator of poor prognosis in prostate cancer. Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) loss is a predictor of adverse clinical outcomes. The association between PTEN expression and morphological patterns of prostate cancer is unclear.

Methods And Results: We explored the association between PTEN expression by immunohistochemistry, Gleason pattern 4 morphologies, IDCP and biochemical recurrence (BCR) in 163 radical prostatectomy specimens. IDCP was delineated from invasive cribriform carcinoma by p63 positive immunohistochemical staining in basal cells. Combined invasive cribriform carcinoma and IDCP were associated with a higher cumulative incidence of BCR [hazard ratio (HR) = 5.06; 2.21, 11.6, P < 0.001]. When including PTEN loss in the analysis, invasive cribriform carcinoma remained predictive of BCR (HR = 3.72; 1.75, 7.94, P = 0.001), while PTEN loss within invasive cribriform carcinoma did not. Glomeruloid morphology was associated with lower odds of cancer stage pT3 and lower cumulative incidence of BCR (HR = 0.27; 0.088, 0.796, P = 0.018), while PTEN loss within glomeruloid morphology was associated with a higher cumulative incidence of BCR (HR = 4.07; 1.04, 15.9, P = 0.043).

Conclusions: PTEN loss within glomeruloid pattern was associated with BCR. The presence of any cribriform pattern was associated with BCR, despite PTEN loss not significantly associated with invasive cribriform carcinoma. We speculate that other drivers independent from PTEN loss may contribute to poor prognostic features in cribriform carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14531DOI Listing
July 2021

The Significance of Squamous Histology on Clinical Outcomes and PD-L1 Expression in Bladder Cancer.

Int J Surg Pathol 2021 Jun 28:10668969211027264. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

6915Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

. To compare the clinicopathologic characteristics of urothelial carcinoma (UC), urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation (UCSD), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder, which have been suggested to differ in terms of risk factors, immunophenotype, and prognosis. . We evaluated the clinicopathologic features of radical cystectomy specimens between 1980 and 2015 with a diagnosis of SCC, UCSD, and UC. PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (clinically available clones 22C3, SP142, and SP263) was performed on SCC and UCSD. Multivariate Cox regression was used to identify prognostic factors. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to assess cancer-specific survival (CSS). . Of the 1478 cases, there were 1126 UC (76%), 217 UCSD (15%), and 135 SCC (9%). Bladder cancer was more common in men than women (80% vs 20%,  < .0001). However, a higher proportion of SCC and UCSD occurred in women (SCC-36%, UCSD-22%, UC-18%). Women were significantly more likely to be never smokers in all 3 cohorts (UC: 45% vs 16%, UCSD: 44% vs 12%, SCC: 40% vs 18%,  < .0001). Patients with SCC and UCSD were at a higher pathologic stage (>pT2) at the time of cystectomy (UCSD-74%, SCC 71%, UC-44%,  < .0001) and had worse CSS compared to patients with UC ( = 0.006). SCC had higher PD-L1 scores (all clones) than UCSD ( < .0001). PD-L1 22C3 ( = .02, HR: 0.36) and SP142 scores ( = .046, HR: 0.27) predicted CSS on Kaplan-Meier analysis for SCC cases. . UC, UCSD, and SCC are associated with different risk factors, gender distributions, and clinical outcomes. PD-L1 is expressed in SCC and UCSD, suggesting some patients may benefit from targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10668969211027264DOI Listing
June 2021

Histopathological findings and clinicopathologic correlation in COVID-19: a systematic review.

Mod Pathol 2021 09 24;34(9):1614-1633. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has had devastating effects on global health and worldwide economy. Despite an initial reluctance to perform autopsies due to concerns for aerosolization of viral particles, a large number of autopsy studies published since May 2020 have shed light on the pathophysiology of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This review summarizes the histopathologic findings and clinicopathologic correlations from autopsies and biopsies performed in patients with COVID-19. PubMed and Medline (EBSCO and Ovid) were queried from June 4, 2020 to September 30, 2020 and histopathologic data from autopsy and biopsy studies were collected based on 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 58 studies reporting 662 patients were included. Demographic data, comorbidities at presentation, histopathologic findings, and virus detection strategies by organ system were collected. Diffuse alveolar damage, thromboembolism, and nonspecific shock injury in multiple organs were the main findings in this review. The pathologic findings emerging from autopsy and biopsy studies reviewed herein suggest that in addition to a direct viral effect in some organs, a unifying pathogenic mechanism for COVID-19 is ARDS with its known and characteristic inflammatory response, cytokine release, fever, inflammation, and generalized endothelial disturbance. This study supports the notion that autopsy studies are of utmost importance to our understanding of disease features and treatment effect to increase our knowledge of COVID-19 pathophysiology and contribute to more effective treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00814-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141548PMC
September 2021

Leiomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder: A SEER database study and comparison to leiomyosarcomas of the uterus and extremities/trunk.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2021 Aug 22;53:151743. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. Electronic address:

No well-established staging system exists for bladder leiomyosarcoma (LMS), and the current staging system does not include tumor size, a thoroughly validated prognostic parameter for sarcomas. Uterine and extremity/trunk LMS are more common than those in the bladder and have well-established staging systems incorporating tumor size. We aim to improve the understanding of LMS of the urinary bladder by assessing cancer-specific survival (CSS) and comparing LMS at this unusual anatomic site to those arising at other sites using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The SEER database (1973-2013) was queried for bladder, uterus, and trunk/extremity LMS. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to identify predictors of CSS for each anatomic location and used to compare outcomes at different sites. We identified 165 bladder, 4987 uterus, and 2536 extremity/trunk LMS cases. Five-year CSS was 52% for uterus, 73% for bladder, and 82% for extremity/trunk LMS. For LMS at all sites, uterine location (HR = 2.14, P < 0.001) and increasing tumor size (HR = 1.05, P < 0.001) were significant predictors of worse CSS on multivariate analysis. For bladder LMS, increasing tumor size (HR = 1.18, P = 0.003) was an independent prognostic factor and the conventional staging cut-off threshold of 5 cm for sarcomas outside the head/neck showed statistical significance in stratifying patient risk of cancer-related death. Bladder LMS appears to have clinical behavior intermediate between those of the extremities/trunk and uterus. We suggest that the conventional sarcoma staging protocols based on tumor size be applied to LMS of the urinary bladder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2021.151743DOI Listing
August 2021

Electron microscopy identification of SARS-COV-2: what is the evidence?

Cardiovasc Pathol 2021 May-Jun;52:107338. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carpath.2021.107338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8057683PMC
June 2021

Diagnostic renal mass biopsy is associated with individual categories of PADUA and RENAL nephrometry scores: Analysis of diagnostic and concordance rates with surgical resection.

Urol Oncol 2021 06 26;39(6):371.e7-371.e15. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Microbiology; Nashville, TN. Electronic address:

Background: Renal mass biopsy (RMB) is a safe and accurate method for diagnosis and clinical management of renal masses. However, the non-diagnostic rate is a limiting factor. We tested the hypothesis that imaging characteristics and anatomic complexity of the mass may impact RMB diagnostic outcome using the preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical (PADUA) classification and radius-exophytic/endophytic-nearness-anterior/posterior-location (RENAL) score.

Material And Methods: Single institution, retrospective study of 490 renal masses from 443 patients collected from 2001 to 2018. Outcome measurements include (1) diagnostic and concordance rates amongst RMB types and RMB with surgical resection specimens; (2) association between diagnostic RMB and anatomical complexity of renal masses. The analysis was conducted in unselected masses and small renal masses (SRMs).

Results: RMB was performed by fine needle aspiration (FNA), core needle biopsy (CNB), or both (FNA+CNB). Non-diagnostic rate was significantly higher for FNA compared to CNB and FNA+CNB in both unselected and SRMs. Subset analysis in the FNA+CNB group showed similar diagnostic rates for FNA and CNB. In unselected masses, specificity for FNA, CNB, and FNA+CNB was 100%. Sensitivity was higher for CNB (90.1%, P = 0.002) and FNA+CNB (96.3%, P = 0.004) compared to FNA (66.7%). For unselected masses, endophytic growth predicted a non-diagnostic CNB. R.E.N.A.L location entirely between the polar lines (central) and entirely above the upper polar line predicted a diagnostic CNB. Sonography-guidance predicted a diagnostic FNA. For SRMs, non-diagnostic CNB was associated with endophytic growth, while diagnostic CNB was associated with renal sinus invasion and operator experience. More cystic masses were sampled by FNA, but diagnostic results were similar for FNA and CNB.

Conclusions: Endophytic growth consistently predicted a non-diagnostic CNB in unselected and SRMs, whereas sonography-guidance predicted a diagnostic FNA. Cystic masses could be adequately sampled by FNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.02.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205938PMC
June 2021

Claudin-2 inhibits renal clear cell carcinoma progression by inhibiting YAP-activation.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Feb 23;40(1):77. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 985870 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198-5870, USA.

Background: Claudin-2 expression is upregulated in multiple cancers and promotes cancer malignancy. Remarkably, the regulation of claudin-2 expression in kidney cell lines contrasts its reported regulation in other organs. However, claudin-2 role in renal clear cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unknown despite its predominant expression in the proximal tubular epithelium (PTE), the site of RCC origin.

Methods: Publicly available and independent patient databases were examined for claudin-2 association with RCC. The novel protein function was validated in vitro and in vivo by gain or loss of function assays. Mechanistic results were concluded by Mass spectroscopy, immunoprecipitation and mutational studies, and functional evaluations.

Results: We show that the significant decrease in claudin-2 expression characterized PTE cells and Ex-vivo cultured mouse kidney subjected to dedifferentiation. Inhibition of claudin-2 was enough to induce mesenchymal plasticity and invasive mobility in these models. Further, a progressive loss of claudin-2 expression associated with the RCC progression and poor patient survival. Overexpression of claudin-2 in RCC-derived cancer cells inhibited tumorigenic abilities and xenograft tumor growth. These data supported a novel tumor-suppressive role of claudin-2 in RCC. Mechanistic insights further revealed that claudin-2 associates with YAP-protein and modulates its phosphorylation (S127) and nuclear expression. The tumor suppressive effects of claudin-2 expression were lost upon deletion of its PDZ-binding motif emphasizing the critical role of the PDZ-domain in claudin-2 interaction with YAP in regulating RCC malignancy.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate a novel kidney specific tumor suppressive role for claudin-2 protein and further demonstrate that claudin-2 co-operates with the YAP signaling in regulating the RCC malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-021-01870-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901196PMC
February 2021

A distinct repertoire of cancer-associated fibroblasts is enriched in cribriform prostate cancer.

J Pathol Clin Res 2021 May 18;7(3):271-286. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Outcomes for men with localized prostate cancer vary widely, with some men effectively managed without treatment on active surveillance, while other men rapidly progress to metastatic disease despite curative-intent therapies. One of the strongest prognostic indicators of outcome is grade groups based on the Gleason grading system. Gleason grade 4 prostate cancer with cribriform morphology is associated with adverse outcomes and can be utilized clinically to improve risk stratification. The underpinnings of disease aggressiveness associated with cribriform architecture are not fully understood. Most studies have focused on genetic and molecular alterations in cribriform tumor cells; however, less is known about the tumor microenvironment in cribriform prostate cancer. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a heterogeneous population of fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment that impact cancer aggressiveness. The overall goal of this study was to determine if cribriform prostate cancers are associated with a unique repertoire of CAFs. Radical prostatectomy whole-tissue sections were analyzed for the expression of fibroblast markers (ASPN in combination with FAP, THY1, ENG, NT5E, TNC, and PDGFRβ) in stroma adjacent to benign glands and in Gleason grade 3, Gleason grade 4 cribriform, and Gleason grade 4 noncribriform prostate cancer by RNAscope®. Halo® Software was used to quantify percent positive stromal cells and expression per positive cell. The fibroblast subtypes enriched in prostate cancer were highly heterogeneous. Both overlapping and distinct populations of low abundant fibroblast subtypes in benign prostate stroma were enriched in Gleason grade 4 prostate cancer with cribriform morphology compared to Gleason grade 4 prostate cancer with noncribriform morphology and Gleason grade 3 prostate cancer. In addition, gene expression was distinctly altered in CAF subtypes adjacent to cribriform prostate cancer. Overall, these studies suggest that cribriform prostate cancer has a unique tumor microenvironment that may distinguish it from other Gleason grade 4 morphologies and lower Gleason grades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjp2.205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073007PMC
May 2021

Distal Tubular Hyperplasia: A Proposal for a Unique Form of Renal Tubular Proliferation Distinct From Papillary Adenoma.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 04;45(4):516-522

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

We identified an unusual pattern of renal tubular proliferation associated with chronic renal disease, found in 23 patients, diffusely (n=12), or focally (n=11). Incidence was 5% of end-stage renal disease kidneys from one institution (8/177) and 7/23 patients with acquired cystic kidney disease-associated renal cell carcinoma from another. Most (19 patients) had 1 or more neoplasms including papillary (n=9), acquired cystic kidney disease (n=8), clear cell (n=4), or clear cell papillary (n=3) renal cell carcinoma. All (20 men, 3 women) had end-stage renal disease. The predominant pattern (n=18) was the indentation of chronic inflammation into renal tubules forming small polypoid structures; however, 5 had predominantly hyperplastic epithelium with less conspicuous inflammation. In 14 patients both patterns were appreciable, whereas the remainder had only the inflammatory pattern. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin 7, high-molecular-weight cytokeratin, PAX8, and GATA3. Staining for alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase was negative or weak, dramatically less intense than papillary neoplasms or proximal tubules. CD3 and CD20 showed a mixture of B and T lymphocytes in the inflammatory areas. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed no trisomy 7 or 17 or loss of Y (n=9). We describe a previously uncharacterized form of renal tubular proliferation that differs from papillary adenoma (with weak or negative alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, lack of trisomy 7 or 17, and sometimes diffuse distribution). On the basis of consistent staining for high-molecular-weight cytokeratin and GATA3, we propose the name distal tubular hyperplasia for this process. Future studies will be helpful to assess preneoplastic potential and etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001680DOI Listing
April 2021

College of American Pathologists Cancer Protocols: From Optimizing Cancer Patient Care to Facilitating Interoperable Reporting and Downstream Data Use.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2021 01;5:47-55

College of American Pathologists, Northfield, IL.

The College of American Pathologists Cancer Protocols have offered guidance to pathologists for standard cancer pathology reporting for more than 35 years. The adoption of computer readable versions of these protocols by electronic health record and laboratory information system (LIS) vendors has provided a mechanism for pathologists to report within their LIS workflow, in addition to enabling standardized structured data capture and reporting to downstream consumers of these data such as the cancer surveillance community. This paper reviews the history of the Cancer Protocols and electronic Cancer Checklists, outlines the current use of these critically important cancer case reporting tools, and examines future directions, including plans to help improve the integration of the Cancer Protocols into clinical, public health, research, and other workflows.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/CCI.20.00104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140812PMC
January 2021

Complete Pathologic Responses With Immunotherapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Case Reports.

Front Oncol 2020 22;10:609235. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States.

Immunotherapy-based combinations have become standard of care in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Despite the potential for complete radiographic response, complete pathologic responses have been rarely reported. We present two cases of confirmed complete pathologic response to immunotherapy despite residual radiographic abnormalities. The first case describes a 68-year-old female with metastatic RCC who was treated with upfront pembrolizumab plus axitinib. She underwent nephrectomy after 15 doses of pembrolizumab with pathology revealing no evidence of viable tumor. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a complete pathologic response with pembrolizumab in metastatic RCC. The second case describes a 64-year-old female with metastatic RCC who was treated with second-line nivolumab after progression on cabozantinib. After 13 doses of nivolumab, she underwent nephrectomy with pathology revealing no evidence of viable tumor. These cases highlight the potential for scar tissue, fibrosis, and necrosis to persist radiographically after treatment with immunotherapy despite the absence of viable tumor cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.609235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783360PMC
December 2020

Practice patterns related to prostate cancer grading: results of a 2019 Genitourinary Pathology Society clinician survey.

Urol Oncol 2021 05 15;39(5):295.e1-295.e8. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Departments of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD.

Purpose: To survey urologic clinicians regarding interpretation of and practice patterns in relation to emerging aspects of prostate cancer grading, including quantification of high-grade disease, cribriform/intraductal carcinoma, and impact of magnetic resonance imaging-targeted needle biopsy.

Materials And Methods: The Genitourinary Pathology Society distributed a survey to urology and urologic oncology-focused societies and hospital departments. Eight hundred and thirty four responses were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics.

Results: Eighty percent of survey participants use quantity of Gleason pattern 4 on needle biopsy for clinical decisions, less frequently with higher Grade Groups. Fifty percent interpret "tertiary" grade as a minor/<5% component. Seventy percent of respondents would prefer per core grading as well as a global/overall score per set of biopsies, but 70% would consider highest Gleason score in any single core as the grade for management. Seventy five percent utilize Grade Group terminology in patient discussions. For 45%, cribriform pattern would affect management, while for 70% the presence of intraductal carcinoma would preclude active surveillance.

Conclusion: This survey of practice patterns in relationship to prostate cancer grading highlights similarities and differences between contemporary pathology reporting and its clinical application. As utilization of Gleason pattern 4 quantification, minor tertiary pattern, cribriform/intraductal carcinoma, and the incorporation of magnetic resonance imaging-based strategies evolve, these findings may serve as a basis for more nuanced communication and guide research efforts involving pathologists and clinicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.08.027DOI Listing
May 2021

Increased nuclear factor I/B expression in prostate cancer correlates with AR expression.

Prostate 2020 09 21;80(13):1058-1070. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Urology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Most prostate cancers express androgen receptor (AR), and our previous studies have focused on identifying transcription factors that modify AR function. We have shown that nuclear factor I/B (NFIB) regulates AR activity in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, the status of NFIB in prostate cancer was unknown.

Methods: We immunostained a tissue microarray including normal, hyperplastic, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, primary prostatic adenocarcinoma, and castration-resistant prostate cancer tissue samples for NFIB, AR, and synaptophysin, a marker of neuroendocrine differentiation. We interrogated publically available data sets in cBioPortal to correlate NFIB expression and AR and neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPCa) activity scores. We analyzed prostate cancer cell lines for NFIB expression via Western blot analysis and used nuclear and cytoplasmic fractionation to assess where NFIB is localized. We performed co-immunoprecipitation studies to determine if NFIB and AR interact.

Results: NFIB increased in the nucleus and cytoplasm of prostate cancer samples versus matched normal controls, independent of Gleason score. Similarly, cytoplasmic AR and synaptophysin increased in primary prostate cancer. We observed strong NFIB staining in primary small cell prostate cancer. The ratio of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear NFIB staining was predictive of earlier biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer, once adjusted for tumor margin status. Cytoplasmic AR was an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence. There was no statistically significant difference between NFIB and synaptophysin expression in primary and castration-resistant prostate cancer, but cytoplasmic AR expression was increased in castration-resistant samples. In primary prostate cancer, nuclear NFIB expression correlated with cytoplasmic NFIB and nuclear AR, while cytoplasmic NFIB correlated with synaptophysin, and nuclear and cytoplasmic AR. In castration-resistant prostate cancer samples, NFIB expression correlated positively with an AR activity score, and negatively with the NEPCa score. In prostate cancer cell lines, NFIB exists in several isoforms. We observed NFIB predominantly in the nuclear fraction of prostate cancer cells with increased cytoplasmic expression seen in castration-resistant cell lines. We observed an interaction between AR and NFIB through co-immunoprecipitation experiments.

Conclusion: We have described the expression pattern of NFIB in primary and castration-resistant prostate cancer and its positive correlation with AR. We have also demonstrated AR interacts with NFIB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.24019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7434711PMC
September 2020

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder Is Not Associated With High-risk HPV.

Urology 2020 Oct 16;144:158-163. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Urology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL; Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL; O'Neal Comprehensive Cancer Center at UAB, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical features, pathologic features, and prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder. SCC of the bladder is known to be associated with conditions that cause chronic inflammation/irritation. The literature is inconsistent regarding the association of HPV with pure SCC of the bladder.

Methods: A multi-institutional study identified cases of SCC of the bladder. Pure squamous histology and the absence of urothelial carcinoma in situ were required for inclusion. Clinical and pathologic features were collected, and tissues were evaluated for high-risk HPV using p16 immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.

Results: We identified 207 cases of SCC of the bladder. Risk factors for bladder cancer included smoking (133/207, 64%) and chronic bladder irritation (83/207, 40%). The majority (155/207, 75%) of patients had > pT2 disease. Mean tumor size was 5.6 ± 3.0 cm and 36/207 (17%) patients had lymph node positive disease. p16 immunohistochemistry was positive in 52/204 (25%) cases but high-risk HPV was identified with in situ hybridization in only 1 (0.5%) case. Tumor size, stage, number of lymph nodes removed, number of positive lymph nodes, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and positive margins each were associated with cancer-specific mortality when adjusted for demographic factors. A multivariate analysis of variable importance further revealed sex and race as important factors in predicting cancer-specific mortality.

Conclusion: SCC of the bladder is an aggressive histologic subtype. Although bladder SCC can express p16, it is not typically associated with high-risk HPV, although rare cases can occur.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2020.06.065DOI Listing
October 2020

The 2019 Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) White Paper on Contemporary Grading of Prostate Cancer.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021 04;145(4):461-493

Douglass Hanly Moir Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Macquarie University, North Ryde, Australia (Maclean).

Context.—: Controversies and uncertainty persist in prostate cancer grading.

Objective.—: To update grading recommendations.

Data Sources.—: Critical review of the literature along with pathology and clinician surveys.

Conclusions.—: Percent Gleason pattern 4 (%GP4) is as follows: (1) report %GP4 in needle biopsy with Grade Groups (GrGp) 2 and 3, and in needle biopsy on other parts (jars) of lower grade in cases with at least 1 part showing Gleason score (GS) 4 + 4 = 8; and (2) report %GP4: less than 5% or less than 10% and 10% increments thereafter. Tertiary grade patterns are as follows: (1) replace "tertiary grade pattern" in radical prostatectomy (RP) with "minor tertiary pattern 5 (TP5)," and only use in RP with GrGp 2 or 3 with less than 5% Gleason pattern 5; and (2) minor TP5 is noted along with the GS, with the GrGp based on the GS. Global score and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted biopsies are as follows: (1) when multiple undesignated cores are taken from a single MRI-targeted lesion, an overall grade for that lesion is given as if all the involved cores were one long core; and (2) if providing a global score, when different scores are found in the standard and the MRI-targeted biopsy, give a single global score (factoring both the systematic standard and the MRI-targeted positive cores). Grade Groups are as follows: (1) Grade Groups (GrGp) is the terminology adopted by major world organizations; and (2) retain GS 3 + 5 = 8 in GrGp 4. Cribriform carcinoma is as follows: (1) report the presence or absence of cribriform glands in biopsy and RP with Gleason pattern 4 carcinoma. Intraductal carcinoma (IDC-P) is as follows: (1) report IDC-P in biopsy and RP; (2) use criteria based on dense cribriform glands (>50% of the gland is composed of epithelium relative to luminal spaces) and/or solid nests and/or marked pleomorphism/necrosis; (3) it is not necessary to perform basal cell immunostains on biopsy and RP to identify IDC-P if the results would not change the overall (highest) GS/GrGp part per case; (4) do not include IDC-P in determining the final GS/GrGp on biopsy and/or RP; and (5) "atypical intraductal proliferation (AIP)" is preferred for an intraductal proliferation of prostatic secretory cells which shows a greater degree of architectural complexity and/or cytological atypia than typical high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, yet falling short of the strict diagnostic threshold for IDC-P. Molecular testing is as follows: (1) Ki67 is not ready for routine clinical use; (2) additional studies of active surveillance cohorts are needed to establish the utility of PTEN in this setting; and (3) dedicated studies of RNA-based assays in active surveillance populations are needed to substantiate the utility of these expensive tests in this setting. Artificial intelligence and novel grading schema are as follows: (1) incorporating reactive stromal grade, percent GP4, minor tertiary GP5, and cribriform/intraductal carcinoma are not ready for adoption in current practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2020-0015-RADOI Listing
April 2021

Paratesticular Cyst with Benign Epithelial Proliferation Arising from a Mesonephric Duct Remnant.

Urology 2020 Jul 19;141:e30-e31. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN; Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN. Electronic address:

A 65-year-old male presented with a cystic scrotal mass that fluctuated in size. The cyst was associated with aberrant epididymal tissue and was found to have benign epithelial proliferations, with immunohistochemistry supporting a mesonephric origin (GATA3, CD10, and WT1 positive). Clinical presentation, imaging, and pathologic findings are described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2020.04.012DOI Listing
July 2020

SATB2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry is a sensitive and specific marker of appendiceal and rectosigmoid well differentiated neuroendocrine tumours.

Histopathology 2020 Mar 24;76(4):550-559. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Aims: Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NNs) range from well to poorly differentiated and indolent to highly aggressive. The site of origin in metastatic NNs has therapeutic and prognostic implications. SATB2 is a transcriptional regulator involved in osteoblastic and neuronal differentiation and is a sensitive and specific marker of colorectal epithelium. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of SATB2 in NNs from various primary sites and its utility as a marker in determining the site of origin of these neoplasms.

Methods And Results: SATB2 immunohistochemistry was performed on 266 NNs, including lung small cell carcinomas (n = 39) and carcinoids (n = 30), bladder (n = 21) and prostate (n = 31) small cell carcinomas, and gastrointestinal (GI)/pancreatic NNs of various primary sites (n = 145) consisting of well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (WDNET)s (n = 124) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (PDNEC)s (n = 21). SATB2 was expressed in prostatic (10 of 31, 32%) and bladder (eight of 21, 38%) small cell carcinomas, lung carcinoid tumours (one of 30, 3%), and lung small cell carcinomas (eight of 39, 21%). Among primary GI NNs, SATB2 was expressed in 37 of 124 (30%) WDNETs and four of 21 (19%) PDNECs. Of the former, 15 of 15 (100%) rectal/rectosigmoid and 22 of 22 (100%) appendiceal neoplasms expressed SATB2. Using receiver operator characteristic analysis, SATB2 was a sensitive and specific marker for rectal (100.0%, 80.0%) and appendiceal (100.0%, 84.5%) WDNETs, respectively.

Conclusions: In summary, SATB2 is a sensitive and specific marker for rectal/rectosigmoid and appendiceal WDNETs, and may represent a useful diagnostic tool when these sites of origin are considered in the differential diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14012DOI Listing
March 2020

Renal cell tumors with an entrapped papillary component: a collision with predilection for oncocytic tumors.

Virchows Arch 2020 Mar 23;476(3):399-407. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Departments of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Renal cell tumors with mixed morphology resembling multiple renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtypes are generally regarded as unclassified RCC. However, occasionally, papillary adenoma or RCC appears admixed with a larger, different tumor histology. We retrieved 17 renal tumors containing a papillary adenoma or papillary RCC component admixed with another tumor histology and studied them with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Larger tumors were oncocytomas (n = 10), chromophobe RCCs (n = 5), borderline oncocytic tumor (n = 1), and clear cell RCC (n = 1). The size of papillary component ranged from 1 to 34 mm. One tumor was an oncocytoma encircled by a cyst (2.0 cm) with papillary hyperplasia of the lining. The papillary lesions were diffusely cytokeratin 7 positive (17/17), in contrast to "host" tumors. Alpha-methylacyl-coA-racemase labeling was usually stronger in the papillary lesions (13/15). KIT was negative in all papillary lesions and the clear cell RCC and positive in 16/16 oncocytic or chromophobe tumors. Eight of 15 (53%) collision tumors had differing FISH results in the two components. A papillary renal cell proliferation within another tumor is an uncommon phenomenon with predilection for oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC, possibly related to their common entrapment of benign tubules. When supported by distinct morphology and immunohistochemistry in these two components, this phenomenon should be diagnosed as a collision of two processes. A diagnosis of unclassified RCC should be avoided, due to potential misrepresentation as an aggressive renal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-019-02648-zDOI Listing
March 2020

Correction to: Evaluation of Prostate Needle Biopsies.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1096:E1

Pathology Medical Director, HCA Midwest Division, Kansas City, MO, USA.

Author affiliations in chapter 4 was incorrect and it has now been corrected in this version.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99286-0_11DOI Listing
January 2018

Evaluation of Prostate Needle Biopsies.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2018;1096:69-86

Pathology Medical Director, HCA Midwest Division, Kansas City, MO, USA.

The introduction of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) screening has caused a stage shift in diagnosis of prostate cancer and an increasing number of patients receiving early diagnosis. This has led to early detection of limited foci of cancer on prostate biopsy, and clinically insignificant prostate cancer at radical prostatectomy. Therefore, current methods for sampling, diagnosing and managing prostate cancer have significantly evolved in recent years. In light of recent management changes and conservative surveillance protocols prompting new handling, grading and staging guidelines, the evaluation of prostate biopsy in contemporary practice has become pivotal. It is therefore critical to recognize minor foci of cancer or atypical glands, and distinguish these from benign mimics that could lead to a false positive diagnosis.In this chapter, current biopsy modalities and imaging techniques, tissue handling and recent updates in the interpretation of prostate biopsy will be discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99286-0_4DOI Listing
July 2019

VSTM2A Overexpression Is a Sensitive and Specific Biomarker for Mucinous Tubular and Spindle Cell Carcinoma (MTSCC) of the Kidney.

Am J Surg Pathol 2018 12;42(12):1571-1584

Michigan Center for Translational Pathology.

Our recent study revealed recurrent chromosomal losses and somatic mutations of genes in the Hippo pathway in mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC). Here, we performed an integrative analysis of 907 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) samples (combined from The Cancer Genome Atlas and in-house studies) and the Knepper data set of microdissected rat nephrons. We identified VSTM2A and IRX5 as novel cancer-specific and lineage-specific biomarkers in MTSCC. We then assessed their expression by RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) in 113 tumors, including 33 MTSCC, 40 type 1 papillary RCC, 8 type 2 papillary RCC, 2 unclassified RCC, 15 clear cell RCC, and 15 chromophobe RCC. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated as the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). All MTSCC tumors demonstrated moderate to high expression of VSTM2A (mean ISH score=255). VSTM2A gene expression assessed by RNA sequencing strongly correlated with VSTM2A ISH score (r(2)=0.81, P=0.00016). The majority of non-MTSCC tumors demonstrated negative or low expression of VSTM2A. IRX5, nominated as a lineage-specific biomarker, showed moderate to high expression in MTSCC tumors (mean ISH score=140). IRX5 gene expression assessed by RNA sequencing strongly correlated with IRX5 ISH score (r(2)=0.69, P=0.00291). VSTM2A (AUC: 99.2%) demonstrated better diagnostic efficacy than IRX5 (AUC: 87.5%), and may thus serve as a potential diagnostic marker to distinguish tumors with overlapping histology. Furthermore, our results suggest MTSCC displays an overlapping phenotypic expression pattern with the loop of Henle region of normal nephrons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903805PMC
December 2018

Fibromyxoid Nephrogenic Adenoma in the Ureter.

J Endourol Case Rep 2018 1;4(1):97-99. Epub 2018 Jul 1.

Department of Urologic Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Nephrogenic adenoma is a benign lesion found in the genitourinary tract, often at sites of prior inflammation, and is characterized by tubular, papillary, or tubulopapillary structures. It is thought to arise from distal migration and implantation of renal tubular cells into the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, or urethra. These tumors often resemble malignant neoplasms. Morphologic variants include small tubules, signet ring-like pattern, papillary formations, flat pattern, and vessel-like structures. A fibromyxoid variant was first described in 2007. Here, we present the first known cases of fibromyxoid nephrogenic adenoma of the ureter. A 79-year-old white man presented with asymptomatic right hydroureteronephrosis to the level of the mid-ureter with associated right ureteral wall thickening found on surveillance CT scan for lymphoma. A 59-year-old white man presented with a right ureteral stricture after ureteroscopic ureteral injury and underwent effective robotic ureteroureterostomy. Pathology analysis in both cases revealed fibromyxoid nephrogenic adenoma. Fibromyxoid nephrogenic adenoma may occur in the ureter. Knowledge of this rare tumor is important for urologists and pathologists to prevent misdiagnosis and overtreatment of a typically benign process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cren.2018.0037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6033302PMC
July 2018

MAGI2 is an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer.

Prostate 2018 06 14;78(8):616-622. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Background: Membrane-associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain-containing protein 2 (MAGI2) promotes the activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Recent studies suggest that dysregulation of this signaling pathway has a role in prostate carcinogenesis. Our study aims to determine the prognostic significance of MAGI2 expression in prostate cancer.

Methods: Tissue microarrays from 51 radical prostatectomy cases including benign prostatic tissue, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), and adenocarcinoma were constructed. Immunohistochemistry with double staining for MAGI2 and p63 was performed and analyzed by image analysis as percent of analyzed area (%AREA). Multivariable logistic regression was used to correlate MAGI2 expression with clinical outcomes. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) with linear and logistic regression was used to correlate MAGI2 with intrapatient histology.

Results: MAGI2 %AREA was inversely associated with progression from HGPIN to adenocarcinoma of low to high Gleason score (OR, 0.980; slope, -0.02; P = 0.005) and HGPIN to cancer of any Gleason score (OR, 0.969; P = 0.007). After adjusting for grade, stage, and margin status, MAGI2 %AREA was a significant independent predictor of biochemical recurrence (BCR) (OR, 0.936; 95%CI, 0.880-0.996; P = 0.037; bootstrap P = 0.017). The addition of MAGI2 %AREA to these standard clinical parameters improved accuracy of predicting BCR by 2.9% (91.0% vs 88.1%).

Conclusions: These results reveal that MAGI2 expression is reduced during prostate cancer progression and that retention of MAGI2 signal reduces odds of BCR. The study results further suggest a possible role of MAGI2 in prostate neoplasia. Decreased MAGI2 expression may help predict prostate cancer aggressiveness and provide new insight for treatment decisions and post-operative surveillance intervals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23506DOI Listing
June 2018

Core Needle Biopsy and Fine Needle Aspiration Alone or in Combination: Diagnostic Accuracy and Impact on Management of Renal Masses.

J Urol 2017 06 16;197(6):1396-1402. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee. Electronic address:

Purpose: Fine needle aspiration with and without concurrent core needle biopsy is a minimally invasive method to diagnose and assist in management of renal masses. We assessed the pathological accuracy of fine needle aspiration compared to and associated with core needle biopsy and the impact on management.

Materials And Methods: We performed a single institution, retrospective study of 342 cases from 2001 to 2015 with small and large renal masses (4 or less and greater than 4 cm, respectively). Diagnostic and concordance rates, and the impact on management were analyzed.

Results: Adequacy rates for fine needle aspiration only, core needle biopsy only and fine needle aspiration plus core needle biopsy were 21%, 12% and 8% (aspiration vs aspiration plus biopsy p <0.026). In the aspiration plus biopsy group adding aspiration to biopsy and biopsy to aspiration reduced the inadequacy rate from 23% to 8% and from 27% to 8% for a total reduction rate of 15% and 19%, respectively, corresponding to 32 cases (9.3%). Rapid on-site examination contributed to a 22.5% improvement in fine needle aspiration adequacy rates. In this cohort 30% of aspiration only, 5% of biopsy only and 12% of aspiration plus biopsy could not be subtyped (aspiration vs biopsy p <0.0001, aspiration vs aspiration plus biopsy p <0.0127 and biopsy vs aspiration plus biopsy p = 0.06). The diagnostic concordance rate with surgical resection was 99%. Conversion of an inadequate specimen to an adequate one by a concurrent procedure impacted treatment in at least 29 of 32 patients. Limitations include the retrospective design and accuracy measurement based on surgical intervention.

Conclusions: Fine needle aspiration plus core needle biopsy vs at least fine needle aspiration alone may improve diagnostic yield when sampling renal masses but it has subtyping potential similar to that of core needle biopsy only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2017.01.038DOI Listing
June 2017

New and Emerging Diagnostic and Prognostic Immunohistochemical Biomarkers in Prostate Pathology.

Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jan;24(1):35-44

*Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center †Department of Veterans Affairs, Nashville, TN.

The diagnosis of minimal prostatic adenocarcinoma can be challenging on prostate needle biopsy, and immunohistochemistry may be used to support the diagnosis of cancer. The International Society of Urologic Pathology currently recommends the use of the basal cell markers high-molecular-weight cytokeraratin and p63, and α-methylacyl-coenzyme-A racemase. However, there are caveats associated with the interpretation of these markers, particularly with benign mimickers. Another issue is that of early detection of presence and progression of disease and prediction of recurrence after clinical intervention. There remains a lack of reliable biomarkers to accurately predict low-risk cancer and avoid over treatment. As such, aggressive forms of prostate cancer may be missed and indolent disease may be subjected to unnecessary radical therapy. New biomarker discovery promises to improve early detection and prognosis and to provide targets for therapeutic interventions. In this review, we present the emerging immunohistochemical biomarkers of prostate cancer PTEN, ERG, FASN, MAGI-2, and SPINK1, and address their diagnostic and prognostic advantages and limitations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000136DOI Listing
January 2017

Primary Carcinoid Tumor of the Renal Pelvis Arising From Intestinal Metaplasia: An Unusual Histogenetic Pathway?

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2017 08;25(7):e49-e57

*Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN †Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE.

Objectives: Primary carcinoid tumor of the renal pelvis is a rare neoplasm with few cases reported in the literature. Here we present the clinical and histopathologic findings of a primary carcinoid tumor arising in the left renal pelvis of a horseshoe kidney in a 61-year-old female patient.

Materials And Methods: Pathologic features were evaluated with standard hematoxylin and eosin sections and immunohistochemical studies. A literature review was performed to place our case in context to previous reports.

Results: The tumor was associated with intestinal metaplasia with high-grade dysplasia and neuroendocrine hyperplasia. Molecular testing for microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity were negative.

Conclusions: This report portrays a unique presentation of carcinoid tumor arising from intestinal metaplasia of the pelvic urothelium, and supports its histogenesis from urothelial intestinal metaplasia and neuroendocrine hyperplasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAI.0000000000000445DOI Listing
August 2017

Frozen section evaluation of margins in radical prostatectomy specimens: a contemporary study and literature review.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2016 Oct 9;24:11-8. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

Departments of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN. Electronic address:

The utility of routine frozen section (FS) analysis for margin evaluation during radical prostatectomy (RP) remains controversial. A retrospective search was conducted to identify RPs evaluated by FS over a 5-year period. The potential of FS to discriminate between benign and malignant tissue and to predict final margins was evaluated. During the study period, 71 (12.3%) of 575 cases underwent FS evaluation of margins, generating 192 individual FSs. There were 8 FSs diagnosed as atypical/indeterminate because of significant freezing, crushing, and/or thermal artifacts; 11 as positive for carcinoma; and 173 as benign. Two FSs classified as benign were diagnosed as positive for carcinoma on subsequent permanent section. Frozen sections' sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma were 85%, 100%, 100%, 99%, and 99%, respectively. Overall RP final margin predictive accuracy was 81%. Positive FS was significantly associated with perineural invasion on biopsy and extraprostatic extension and higher stage disease on RP, but not with the overall final margin status. The high FS accuracy supports its use to guide the extent of surgery. However, FS cannot be used to predict the overall final margin status. Recognition of the histological artifacts inherent to the FS procedure is important to ensure appropriate utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2016.08.002DOI Listing
October 2016

MAGI-2 Is a Sensitive and Specific Marker of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma:  A Comparison With AMACR.

Am J Clin Pathol 2016 Sep;146(3):294-302

From the Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology.

Objectives: We compared the utility of membrane-associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain-containing protein 2 (MAGI-2) and α-methylacyl CoA (AMACR) by immunohistochemistry in diagnosing prostatic adenocarcinoma.

Methods: Seventy-eight radical prostatectomies were used to construct three tissue microarrays with 512 cores, including benign prostatic tissue, benign prostatic hyperplasia, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), and adenocarcinoma. AMACR and MAGI-2 immunohistochemistry were evaluated by visual and image analysis.

Results: MAGI-2 and AMACR were significantly higher in adenocarcinoma and HGPIN compared with benign tissue. At H-score cutoffs of 300 and 200, MAGI-2 was more accurate in distinguishing benign from malignant glands than AMACR. Areas under the curve by image and visual analysis were 0.846 and 0.818 for MAGI-2 and 0.937 and 0.924 for AMACR, respectively. The accuracy of MAGI-2 in distinguishing benign from malignant glands on the same core was higher (95% vs 88%).

Conclusions: MAGI-2 could represent a useful adjunct for diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma, especially when AMACR is not discriminatory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqw111DOI Listing
September 2016

Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland.

Case Rep Oncol Med 2016 26;2016:8264140. Epub 2016 Jun 26.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903) and no expression of P501S. The patient's previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8264140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4939205PMC
July 2016
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