Publications by authors named "Giorgio Ivan Russo"

109 Publications

Mechanical and Ablative Minimally Invasive Techniques for Male LUTS due to Benign Prostatic Obstruction: A Systematic Review according to BPH-6 Evaluation.

Urol Int 2021 Apr 13:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Urology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

The treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic obstruction represents one of the major interesting aspects in urological clinical practice. Although transurethral resection of the prostate is still considered the surgical gold standard for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with prostate volume <80 mL, various minimally invasive surgical treatments (MITs) have been developed to overcome the limitations of the "conventional" surgery. To date, there are no validated tools to evaluate the surgical outcomes of MITs; however, in the past, BPH-6 has been used for this purpose. In this systematic review, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of MITs according to BPH-6 score system. We focused our attention on MITs based on mechanical devices (prostatic urethral lift and the temporary implantable nitinol device) and techniques for prostate ablation (image guided robotic waterjet ablation and convective water vapor energy ablation). Evidence shows that MITs are capable of leading to an improvement in LUTS without having an overwhelming impact on complications and are a valid alternative to other treatments in patients who wish to preserve their sexual function or in case of inapplicability of conventional surgery. However, comparative studies between these techniques are still missing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514438DOI Listing
April 2021

Penile length and circumference dimensions: A large study in young Italian men.

Andrologia 2021 Mar 21:e14053. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Centro Integrato di Sessuologia Il Ponte, Florence, Italy.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the size of the penis in flaccidity and in erection of Italian men. A total of 4,685 men living in Italy and who have been visited at the Italian urology operating units were involved in the study between January 2019 and January 2020. Each patient was given details on how to measure their penis (erect length and circumference) in flaccidity and in erection, from the lower base to the distal penile tip. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) flaccid penis length was 9.47 (2.69), mean (SD) flaccid penis circumference was 9.59 (3.08), mean (SD) erect penis length was 16.78 (2.55) and mean (SD) erect penis circumference was 12.03 (3.82). At the linear regression analysis, height was associated with flaccid penis length (β = 0.04; p-value = .01), and erect penis length was (β = 0.05; p-value < .01) and erect penis circumference was (β = 0.06; p-value < .01). Height is proportional to the length of the penis in flaccidity and in erection, and to the circumference in erection. The increase in BMI leads to a reduction in the length of the erect penis, as well as weight gain reduces the length of the flaccid penis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/and.14053DOI Listing
March 2021

Penile Rehabilitation and Treatment Options for Erectile Dysfunction Following Radical Prostatectomy and Radiotherapy: A Systematic Review.

Front Surg 2021 2;8:636974. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Urology Department, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

After radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer, erectile dysfunction (ED) is the main complication next to urinary incontinence, affecting quality of life. The pathophysiology of ED after these treatments is believed to include neuropraxia causing reduced oxygenation and structural changes of the tissue in the corpora cavernosa. Next to the option of sparing the nerves during RP, research has been focusing on methods for penile rehabilitation after RP and RT, since it occurs often, even after nerve-sparing techniques were used. In animal studies, the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) after cavernous nerve damage is supported, but results in human studies are contradictory. Non-medical treatment options such as vacuum device therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, yoga, aerobic, or pelvic floor training may be helpful, but evidence is scarce. Clear guidelines for penile rehabilitation are not yet available. However, care and support for ED after RP and RT is highly demanded by a large group of patients, so measures have to be taken even though the evidence is not strong yet. In this systematic review, an overview of the literature for penile rehabilitation and treatment options for ED after RP and RT is provided, using only randomized controlled trials (RCT).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2021.636974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961076PMC
March 2021

Systemic combining inflammatory score (SCIS): a new score for prediction of oncologic outcomes in patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Feb;10(2):626-635

Urology Section, Department of Surgery, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Background: An accurate and early diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC) is essential to offer patients the most appropriate treatment and the highest cure rate. For this reason, patients need to be best stratified by class and risk factors. We aimed to develop a score able to better predict cancer outcomes, using serum variables of inflammation.

Methods: A total of 1,510 high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients were included in this retrospective observational study. Patients with pathologically proven T1 HG/G3 at first TURBT were included. Systemic combined inflammatory score (SCIS) was calculated according to systemic inflammatory markers (SIM), modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) dichotomized (final score from 0 to 3).

Results: After 48 months of follow-up (IQR 40.0-73.0), 727 patients recurred (48.1%), 485 progressed (32.1%), 81 died for cancer (7.0%), and 163 died for overall causes (10.8%). Overall, 231 (15.3%) patients had concomitant Cis, 669 (44.3%) patients had multifocal pathology, 967 (64.1%) patients had tumor size >3 cm. Overall, 357 (23.6%) patients received immediate-intravesical therapy, 1,356 (89.8%) received adjuvant intravesical therapy, of which 1,382 (91.5%) received BCG, 266 (17.6%) patients received mitomycin C, 4 (0.5%) patients received others intravesical therapy. Higher SCIS was independently predictive of recurrence (hazard ratio HR 1.5, 1.3 and 2.2) and cancer specific mortality for SCIS 0 and 3 (HR: 1.61 and 2.3), and overall mortality for SCIS 0 and 3 (HR: 2.4 and 3.2). Conversely, SCIS was not associated with a higher probability of progression.

Conclusions: The inclusion of the SCIS in clinical practice is simple to apply and can help improve the prediction of cancer outcomes. It can identify patients with high-grade BC who are more likely to experience disease mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-1272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947442PMC
February 2021

Assessment of PSIM (Prostatic Systemic Inflammatory Markers) Score in Predicting Pathologic Features at Robotic Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Low-Risk Prostate Cancer Who Met the Inclusion Criteria for Active Surveillance.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Feb 20;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Urology, European Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, 20141 Milan, Italy.

Background: circulating levels of lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils have been identified as factors related to unfavorable clinical outcome for many solid tumors. The aim of this cohort study is to evaluate and validate the use of the Prostatic Systemic Inflammatory Markers (PSIM) score in predicting and improving the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) in men undergoing robotic radical prostatectomy for low-risk prostate cancer who met the inclusion criteria for active surveillance.

Methods: we reviewed the medical records of 260 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria for active surveillance. We performed a head-to-head comparison between the histological findings of specimens after radical prostatectomy (RP) and prostate biopsies. The PSIM score was calculated on the basis of positivity according to cutoffs (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) 2.0, platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) 118 and monocyte-to-lymphocyte-ratio (MLR) 5.0), with 1 point assigned for each value exceeding the specified threshold and then summed, yielding a final score ranging from 0 to 3.

Results: median NLR was 2.07, median PLR was 114.83, median MLR was 3.69.

Conclusion: we found a significantly increase in the rate of pathological International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) ≥ 2 with the increase of PSIM. At the multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, prostate specific antigen (PSA), PSA density, prostate volume and PSIM, the latter was found the sole independent prognostic variable influencing probability of adverse pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11020355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7924196PMC
February 2021

The Investigative Role of Statins in Ameliorating Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS): A Systematic Review.

J Clin Med 2021 Jan 22;10(3). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Minimally Invasive and Robotic Urologic Surgery and Kidney Transplantation, University of Florence, 50100 Florence, Italy.

Previous data have shown that patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) could be refractory to the medical treatment. In this context, the evidence suggests a role for statin use in LUTS/BPE patients. The present systematic review aimed to evaluate the impact of statins on the treatment of men with LUTS/BPE. This review has been registered on PROSPERO (CRD42019120729). A systematic review of English-language literature was performed up to January 2020 in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA statement) criteria. Retrieved studies had to include adults with LUTS connected to BPE treated with statins drugs for metabolic syndrome. After removing duplicates, a total of 381 studies were identified by the literature search and independently screened. Of these articles, 10 fit the inclusion criteria and were further assessed for eligibility. Data from our systematic review suggest that a long-term therapy with statins, at least 6 months, is required to achieve significant impacts on prostate tissue and LUTS. Moreover, besides statins' direct activity, the risk reduction of LUTS might be connected to the improvement of hypercholesterolemia and MetS. The role of statins for the treatment of LUTS/BPE may be beneficial; however, evidence from robust studies is not enough, and more clinical trial are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865704PMC
January 2021

Surgical outcomes after collagenase Clostridium histolyticum failure in patients with Peyronie's disease in a multicenter clinical study.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 8;11(1):166. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Surgery, Urology Section, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

In the present study we aimed to investigate the surgical outcomes of patients with persistent penile curvature (PC) after Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) intraplaque injections. Data from 90 patients with persistent PC after CCH in a multicentre study from 6 andrological centres were retrospectively reviewed. Three standardized surgical techniques were performed. Group 1: plaque incision grafting (PIG) with penile prosthesis implant (PPI); Group 2: PIG without PPI; Group 3: Nesbit technique. Hospital stay, operative time, postoperative complications and PC persistency/recurrence (> 20°) were evaluated. Overall satisfaction and functional outcomes were assessed through International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function (IIEF-EF), Peyronie's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ), Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) administered pre and 3 months postoperatively. Of all, 25 (27.8%) patients received grafting procedure + PPI (Group 1), 18 (20.0%) patients belonged to Group 2, and 47 (52.2%) to Group 3. Bovine pericardium graft and collagen fleece have been used in in 22 (51.2%) and 21 (48.8%) patients, respectively. Median penile length after surgery was 13.0 cm (IQR 12.0-15.0). After surgery, Group 1 showed higher increase in penile length after surgery and better improvements in terms of PDQ-PS. In contrast, both IIEF-EF and FSFI scores did not differ among groups. Overall, 86 (95.6%) did not report any complication. 4 (4.4%) patients had PC recurrence; of those, 2 (8.0%), 1 (5.6%) and 1 (2.1%) cases were observed in Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3, respectively. In case of persistent PC after CCH, surgical correction by grafting with or without concomitant PPI or Nesbit technique emerged as a technically feasible, effective and safe procedure, with no significant postoperative complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80551-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794401PMC
January 2021

Erectile disfunction medical treatment with phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and side effects.

Arch Ital Urol Androl 2020 Dec 18;92(4). Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Surgery, Urology Section, University of Catania.

Retinitis pigmentosa represents a heterogeneous group of degenerative hereditary pathologies of the retinal photoceptors, some forms mainly affect the cones and others the rods. The prevalence of the disease is of 1 case per 3000-5000 inhabitants, in 80-90% of cases these are forms with prevalent involvement of the rods (RCD) and in 10-20% of cases of forms with prevalent involvement of the cones (CRD) [...].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/aiua.2020.4.326DOI Listing
December 2020

How Can the COVID-19 Pandemic Lead to Positive Changes in Urology Residency?

Front Surg 2020 24;7:563006. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Urology, IEO European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

The COVID-19 outbreak, in a few weeks, overloaded Italian hospitals, and the majority of medical procedures were postponed. During the pandemic, with hospital reorganization, clinical and learning activities performed by residents suffered a forced remodulation. The objective of this study is to investigate how urology training in Italy has been affected during the COVID-19 era. In this multi-academic study, we compared residents' training during the highest outbreak level with their previous activity. Overall 387 (67.1%) of the 577 Italian Urology residents participated in a 72-h anonymous online survey with 36 items sent via email. The main outcomes were clinical/surgical activities, social distancing, distance learning, and telemedicine. Clinical and learning activity was significantly reduced for the overall group, and after categorizing residents as those working only in COVID hospitals, both "junior" and "senior" residents, and those working in any of three geographical areas created (Italian regions were clustered in three major zones according to the prevalence of COVID-19). A significant decrease in outpatient activity, invasive diagnostic procedures, and endoscopic and major surgeries was reported. Through multivariate analysis, the specific year of residency has been found to be an independent predictor for all response modification. Being in zone 3 and zone 2 and having "senior" resident status were independent predictors associated with a lower reduction of the clinical and learning activity. Working in a COVID hospital and having "senior" resident status were independent predictors associated with higher reduction of the outpatient activity. Working in zone 3 and having "senior" resident status were independent predictors of lower and higher outpatient surgical activity, respectively. Working in a COVID hospital was an independent predictor associated with robotic surgical activity. The majority of residents reported that distance teaching and multidisciplinary virtual meetings are still not used, and 44.8% reported that their relationships with colleagues decreased. The COVID-19 pandemic presents an unprecedented challenge, including changes in the training and education of urology residents. The COVID era can offer an opportunity to balance and implement innovative solutions that can bridge the educational gap and can be part of future urology training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2020.563006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732553PMC
November 2020

Analysis of Arterial Stiffness and Sexual Function after Adding on PCSK9 Inhibitor Treatment in Male Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A Single Lipid Center Real-World Experience.

J Clin Med 2020 Nov 8;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, 95100 Catania, Italy.

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) subjects have high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and may be at high risk of erectile dysfunction and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of PCSK9-i on sexual function evaluated by the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire (MSHQ) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire and on pulse wave velocity (PWV) in FH male subjects. In this prospective observational study, we evaluated 30 FH male patients on high-intensity statins plus ezetimibe and with an LDL-C off-target. All patients added PCSK9-i treatment and obtained clinical assessment at baseline and after six months of PCSK9-i. As expected, LDL-C significantly decreased after adding-on PCSK9-i (-48.73%, < 0.001). MSHQ and PWV significantly improved after adding-on PCSK9-i (for MSHQ 93.63 ± 6.28 vs. 105.41 ± 5.86, < 0.05; for PWV 9.86 ± 1.51 vs. 7.7 ± 1.42, < 0.05); no significant change of IIEF-5 was found. Finally, a simple regression showed that ∆ MSHQ was significantly associated with ∆ LDL-C and ∆ PWV ( value for both <0.05). In conclusion, PCSK9-i therapy significantly improves lipid profile, PWV, and sexual function in FH male patients; our results support the favorable function of PCSK9-i on these parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7695132PMC
November 2020

Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Sarcopenia in Hip Fractured Patients: Where We Are and Where We Are Going: A Systematic Review.

J Clin Med 2020 Sep 17;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of General Surgery and Medical Surgical Specialties, Section of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University Hospital Policlinico-San Marco, University of Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy.

Background: Sarcopenia is defined as a progressive loss of muscle mass and muscle strength associated to increased adverse events, such as falls and hip fractures. The aim of this systematic review is to analyse diagnosis methods of sarcopenia in patients with hip fracture and evaluate prevention and treatment strategies described in literature.

Methods: Three independent authors performed a systematic review of two electronic medical databases using the following inclusion criteria: Sarcopenia, hip fractures, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention with a minimum average of 6-months follow-up. Any evidence-level studies reporting clinical data and dealing with sarcopenia diagnosis, or the treatment and prevention in hip fracture-affected patients, were considered.

Results: A total of 32 articles were found. After the first screening, we selected 19 articles eligible for full-text reading. Ultimately, following full-text reading, and checking of the reference list, seven articles were included.

Conclusions: Sarcopenia diagnosis is challenging, as no standardized diagnostic and therapeutic protocols are present. The development of medical management programs is mandatory for good prevention. To ensure adequate resource provision, care models should be reviewed, and new welfare policies should be adopted in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563874PMC
September 2020

The Impact of the COVID-19 Quarantine on Sexual Life in Italy.

Urology 2021 01 1;147:37-42. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Urology, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate how individual and couple's sexuality had changed during the COVID-19 pandemic-related quarantine.

Methods: A quantitative correlational research study was conducted, using a web-based survey.

Results: About 1576 participants were involved: 1018 women (64.6%) and 558 men (35.4%). A significant decline in the mean well-being scores during the quarantine, compared to before, was reported. A positive correlation between the well-being scores and the number of sexual intercourse (SI) before and during the quarantine was found. The mean number of SI decreased significantly during the quarantine. The main reasons were: poor privacy (43.2%) and lack of psychological stimuli (40.9%). About 1124 respondents (71.3%) did not report sexual desire (SD) reduction. A positive association between SD and SI during the quarantine was found. About 61.2% did not report autoerotism reduction. In those who reported decreased masturbation activity, the main causes were poor privacy (46.4%) and lack of desire (34.7%). We found that men presented lower SD during the quarantine, than women (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: Potentially, the more time available might lead couples to reconnect at an intimate level and to improve their sexuality. However, the majority of quarantined participants experienced reduced number of SI per week, with poor household privacy and lack of psychological stimuli as cited causes, even as a majority did not report reduced autoeroticism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2020.06.101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7462585PMC
January 2021

Problems in defining sexual dysfunction in prostate cancer patients.

Int J Impot Res 2020 Aug 28. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Urology Section, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41443-020-00350-2DOI Listing
August 2020

Low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy among urologist practitioners: how the opinion of urologists changed between 2016 and 2019.

Int J Impot Res 2020 Aug 21. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Urology Section, Department of Surgery, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Over the past few years, an increase use of low-intensity shockwave therapy (LISWT) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been observed. However, many controversies in the scientific literature about its efficacy still exist. We aimed to investigate changes in the pattern of usage and attitudes toward LISWT for ED among experts over the last years. A dedicated online survey was sent to delegates at the Congress for the EAU Section of Andrological Urology (ESAU) in Prague from 31st October to 1st November 2019. The survey captured demographic data, professional background, and the experience and personal knowledge about LISWT. The results were compared with a previous survey conducted in 2016 and investigating the same topics in order to assess changes in the knowledge and opinion on LISWT over time. Overall, 172 and 192 questionnaires were available from 2019 and 2016, respectively. Participants in the 2019 survey were 80 (45.7%) urologists, 52 (29.7%) uro-andrologists, and 34 (19.4%) residents in urology, from 30 different countries. Compared to the past, we observed an increase of respondents who were familiar with LISWT (75 vs. 95%; p < 0.0001) and who performed LISWT in their routine practice (38% in 2019 vs. 14% in 2016; p < 0.0001). Conversely, no changes in terms of overall perception of treatment efficacy were registered over time (68% in 2019 vs. 72% in 2016 considered LISWT as an effective treatment, respectively (p = 0.5)). An increased proportion of physicians had suggested a wider application of LISWT, and some even advocated its use in nonvasculogenic ED (33% in 2019 vs. 5.9% in 2016; p < 0.0001). The awareness and clinical application of LISWT for ED have increased over time, despite the lack of robust evidence in terms of effectiveness. Further research on the benefit of LISWT is needed to guide physicians in the therapeutic management of ED patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41443-020-00347-xDOI Listing
August 2020

Patterns of sexual behavior and psychological processes in asexual persons: a systematic review.

Int J Impot Res 2020 Aug 10. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Urology section, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Asexuality is commonly regarded as lack of sexual attraction. Research in asexuality grew progressively in the past two decades. However, asexuals' patterns of sexual behavior and psychological processes were not yet systematized. This review searched for articles that could potentially help establishing these patterns. Articles published in English until December 31st 2019 were retrieved from Medline, Embase, Cochrane, EBSCO, PubMed, Scopus, and PsycARTICLES. A systematic search was conducted using an exhaustive list of key terms regarding asexuality and sexual behavior following PRISMA guidelines. Of the 195 initially retrieved, only 23 were considered for this review. Of the 23 articles, 16 were quantitative studies, 5 were qualitative studies, and 2 comprised quantitative and qualitative studies. Overall, current findings suggest that asexuals present great heterogeneity of sexual behaviors and psychological processes regarding sexuality, including different aspects and types of interpersonal and romantic relationships, sexual attitudes or fantasies. Conversely, data did not find support for the claim that asexuals present impaired sexual functioning. The little geographic and cultural diversity of the samples is a major limitation in these studies, preventing the properly representation of asexuals. Furthermore, asexuals may benefit from evidence on the biopsychosocial factors shaping sexual, emotional, and relationship well-being, as far as such evidence is built upon asexuals' lenses, rather than on heteronormativity criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41443-020-0336-3DOI Listing
August 2020

Total Glans Resurfacing for the Management of Superficial Penile Cancer: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis in a Tertiary Referral Center.

Urology 2020 Nov 16;145:281-286. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

A.O.U. Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino - University of Turin - Department of Urology, Turin, Italy.

Objectives: To report surgical and oncological outcomes of total glans resurfacing in a consecutive series of superficial penile cancers.

Design, Settings And Partecipants: 26 patients were enrolled in the present trial. A retrospective analysis was conducted. Inclusion criteria were age < 80, "de novo" malignancy, clinically suspected superficial disease and disease confirmation by a penile biopsy. Clinically palpable corporeal or urethral involvement, high histological grade, clinically palpable nodes on physical examination and unwillingness to comply with follow-up were considered as exclusion criteria.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Descriptive features and surgical outcomes were extrapolated from the clinical records. The categorical variables were described using frequency and percentage, and the continuous variables were described using median and interquartile range (IQR) value. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate survival over time.

Results And Limitations: Median follow-up was 38 (IQR 13-86) months. Median age was 65 (IQR 55-68). An history of lichen sclerosus was reported by 50% of patients. No intraoperative complications were reported. Median hospital stay was 5 (IQR 2-6) days. Final histology confirmed superficial disease in 42.4% and T1 in 53.8%. T2 was detected in a single case. Postoperative complications were minimal (3.8%). No regional nodal recurrence was reported. At Kaplan-Meier analysis, overall survival rate was 100% at 1 year, 1-year recurrence free survival was 96.1% and 2-year recurrence free survival was 88.5%.

Conclusion: Total glans resurfacing may represent an excellent option for organ preserving surgery in patients with a superficial penile cancer. Surgical and oncological outcomes proved to be satisfactory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2020.06.066DOI Listing
November 2020

Quality of Information in YouTube Videos on Erectile Dysfunction.

Sex Med 2020 Sep 24;8(3):408-413. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Urology, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Herlev, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Introduction: Many patients seek information online including on social media.

Aim: To assess the quality of information regarding erectile dysfunction (ED) in YouTube videos.

Methods: We searched "erectile dysfunction" on YouTube in October 2019 and evaluated the first 100 videos in English sorted by relevance.

Main Outcome Measure: We recorded the user engagement, video producer, intended audience, and content. Videos containing medical information were evaluated using the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT) and the DISCERN quality criteria for consumer health information. The PEMAT evaluates the understandability and actionability of materials as a percentage. The DISCERN assesses the quality of information by a scale from 1 (serious or extensive shortcomings) to 5 (minimal shortcomings).

Results: The median number of total views was 22,450 (range 591-20,255,133) and the median number of views/month was 654 (range 9-723,398). 42 percent of the videos were posted by professional medical institutions, and 21% were posted by individual medical professionals. Most videos were aimed at the general public or patients suffering from ED. The median PEMAT understandability and actionability scores were both 100% (range 50-100% and 33-100%, respectively). The median DISCERN score was 2 (range 1-5) with 80.4% receiving a score of ≤3. Overall, 28% of the videos contained direct misinformation. DISCERN scores were higher in videos produced by medical institutions (P = .0104), not selling specific products (P = .007) and not promoting alternative medicine (P = .0002). The number of subscribers was an independent predictor of views/month (P < .0001).

Conclusion: Patients may be exposed to videos of poor quality when searching for information about ED on YouTube. The medical community needs to adapt a strategy to improve the quality of online medical information. Fode M, Nolsøe AB, Jacobsen FM, et al. Quality of Information in YouTube Videos on Erectile Dysfunction. J Sex Med 2020;8:408-413.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.esxm.2020.05.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7471071PMC
September 2020

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the sexual behavior of the population. The vision of the east and the west.

Int Braz J Urol 2020 07;46(suppl.1):104-112

Department of Surgery and Urology Section, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

The COVID-19 pandemic has radically changed the way of life around the World. The state of alarm has forced the population to stay at home, radically changing both interpersonal and partner relationships; work at home, social distancing, the continued presence of children at home, fear of infection and not being able to physically meet with others have changed most people's sexual habits. We conducted a review by exploring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sexual behavior in the population from three different countries: Iran, Italy and Spain from each country's perspective. The impact of the coronavirus will be very important in the sexual life of the people and we will attend in the next months or years, to some changes in the relationships at all the levels. The pandemic will negatively affect sexual behaviors due to multiple contact restrictions. In the future, we will be able to assess these effects in more detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2020.S116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719991PMC
July 2020

Desire for parenthood at the time of COVID-19 pandemic: an insight into the Italian situation.

J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2020 09 7;41(3):183-190. Epub 2020 May 7.

Assisted Reproductive Technology Centre, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lifestyle change on couples of reproductive age and on their desire for parenthood. A quantitative correlational research study, based on a web survey, was conducted among Italian men and women in heterosexual stable relationships, aged between 18 and 46 years. The self-administered Italian version questionnaire was created using Google Forms and posted on chats and social networks.The mood of participants before and during the quarantine was assessed using a scale from 1 to 10 (1 = no wellbeing; 10 = total wellbeing). Couples' quality of life and their reproductive desire were evaluated. 1482 respondents were included: 944 women (63.7%) and 538 men (36.3%). A significant trend toward reduced mean wellbeing scores during the quarantine, compared to before, was found ( < .01). From 18.1% participants who were planning to have a child before the pandemic, 37.3% abandoned the intention, related to worries of future economic difficulties (58%) and consequences on pregnancy (58%). Of 81.9% who did not intend to conceive, 11.5% revealed a desire for parenthood during quarantine than before ( < .01), related to will for change (50%) and need for positivity (40%). 4.3% of these actually tried to get pregnant. Stratifying by age, a trend toward older ages was found in the desire for parenthood before and during the COVID-19 pandemic ( < .05). COVID-19 pandemic is impacting on the desire for parenthood. It is unknown whether these findings will result in a substantial modification of birth rate in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0167482X.2020.1759545DOI Listing
September 2020

Efficacy of Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (Xiapex) in Patients with the Acute Phase of Peyronie's Disease.

Clin Drug Investig 2020 Jun;40(6):583-588

Andrology Center, Villa Donatello Hospital, Florence, Italy.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Plaque formation ordinarily takes place in the acute phase of Peyronie's disease. There is no unanimous consent regarding the management of the acute phase of Peyronie's disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the advantages of using a single intralesional injection of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum in patients with the active phase of Peyronie's disease and to assess its effect on disease progression by reducing penile curvature and ameliorating pain during sexual intercourse.

Methods: Sexually active men aged older than 18 years with the acute phase of Peyronie's disease were enrolled. All patients received treatment with a single intralesional injection of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum. The primary outcome of the study was the change in penile curvature after treatment while secondary outcomes were the change in sexual function (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF-5]) and in the Peyronie Disease Questionnaire (PDQ) and its sub-scores, PDQ-PS (psychological symptoms), PDQ-PP (penile pain) and PDQ-BD (bother disease).

Results: Overall, 74 patients were enrolled. Mean penile curvature at baseline was 41.1° ± 12.2°. The mean changes before and at the 3-month evaluation in terms of penile curvature, Visual Analog Scale score at rest, and Visual Analog Scale score during intercourse were - 19.3 ± 8.4 (p < 0.0001), - 0.8 ± 1.1 (p < 0.0001) and - 3.8 ± 0.9 (p < 0.0001) with the benefit persisting also after 6 months. Moreover, improvements of mean IIEF-5 score (1.1 ± 0.9, p = 0.03; 0.9 ± 0.5, p = 0.02), PDQ-PS (- 2.7 ± 2.2; - 2.5 ± 2.0, p = 0.01), PDQ-PP (- 1.2 ± 1.6; - 1.1 ± 1.2, p = 0.02) and PDQ-BD (- 3.8 ± 3.4; - 3.5 ± 3.1, p = 0.001) were observed 3 and 6 months after the end of treatment, respectively. At the multivariable regression analysis, the time since disease onset (modelled with non-linear terms) and baseline curvature were independently associated with the degree of curvature improvement (coefficient: 0.30; 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.44) after a single intralesional injection (all p < 0.03).

Conclusions: Although intralesional therapy with collagenase Clostridium histolyticum is not yet indicated for the acute phase of Peyronie's disease, these preliminary results suggest the effectiveness of this minimally invasive option by improving penile curvature and IIEF-5 and PDQ scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40261-020-00916-4DOI Listing
June 2020

Type 2 diabetes mellitus predicts worse outcomes in patients with high-grade T1 bladder cancer receiving bacillus Calmette-Guérin after transurethral resection of the bladder tumor.

Urol Oncol 2020 05 12;38(5):459-464. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Urology, Andrology and Kidney Transplantation Unit, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Objectives: The aim of this multicenter study was to investigate the prognostic role of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) comorbidity in a large multi-institutional cohort of patients with primary T1HG/G3 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) treated with transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB).

Materials And Methods: A total of 1,172 patients with primary T1 HG/G3 who had NMIBC on re-TURB and who received adjuvant intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy with maintenance were included. Endpoints were recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival.

Results: A total of 231 (19.7%) of patients had T2DM prior to TURB. Five-year recurrence-free survival estimates were 12.5% in patients with T2DM compared to 36% in patients without T2DM, P < 0.0001. Five-year PFS estimates were 60.5% in patients with T2DM compared to 70.2% in patients without T2DM, P = 0.003. T2DM was independently associated with disease recurrence (hazard ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.20-1.66, P < 0.001) and progression (hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% confidence interval = 0.99-1.63, P < 0.001), after adjusting for other known predictive factors such as tumor size, multifocality, T1G3 on re-TURB, body mass index, lymphovascular invasion, and neutrophil-to-lymphocytes ratio.

Conclusions: Given the potential implications for management, prospective validation of this finding along with translational studies designed to investigate the underlying biology of such an association are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.02.016DOI Listing
May 2020

Suprapubic pedicled phalloplasty in transgender men: a multicentric retrospective cohort analysis.

Int J Impot Res 2020 Feb 7. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Urology department, Città della Salute e della Scienza-Molinette Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

A variety of approaches are available to address a genital gender affirming surgery (GGAS) in transgender men. The aim of the present study is to report surgical and functional outcomes after a suprapubic pedicled phalloplasty (SPP). From November 2008 to August 2018, a consecutive series of 34 patients underwent an SPP in two tertiary referral centers. GGAS was conducted as a multistaged procedure, consisting (1) SPP with subsequent radial artery-based forearm free-flap urethroplasty, (2) glans sculpting, urethral anastomosis, and scrotoplasty, and (3) penile prosthesis implantation. The duration of surgery, intra and postoperative complications, and hospital stay were selected as variables for surgical outcomes. Functional outcomes were extrapolated from a four-item questionnaire.A partial necrosis of phallus was detected in two cases (5.8 %). Two cases of seroma formation with wound dehiscence (5.8%) were detected. Overall, 89% of patients declared to be fully satisfied of the SPP, 83% would recommend the procedure to someone else, and 89% would undergo the same procedure again. Overall, 66% of patients could achieve an orgasm during sexual penetrative intercourses. The retrospective design, the lack of randomization and validated questionnaire for outcomes reporting, and the limited follow-up represent the main drawbacks of our study. Our evidences suggest that SPP represents as an acceptable option for GGAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41443-020-0238-4DOI Listing
February 2020

Comparison of Intralesional Hyaluronic Acid . Verapamil for the Treatment of Acute Phase Peyronie's Disease: A Prospective, Open-Label Non-Randomized Clinical Study.

World J Mens Health 2021 Apr 20;39(2):352-357. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Urology, Vittorio Emanuele II, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety of intralesional hyaluronic acid (HA) as compared with verapamil injection in patients with Peyronie's disease (PD).

Materials And Methods: Between January 2015 and December 2018, men in PD acute phase were prospectively recruited. This open-label, prospective study included 2 different protocols. Group A: 8-week cycle of weekly intraplaque injections with HA; Group B: 8-week cycle of weekly intraplaque injections with verapamil. Penile curvature, plaque size, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-15 score and visual analogue scale (VAS) were assessed at baseline and after 3 months.

Results: Two-hundred forty-four patients were enrolled. Of these, 125 received intralesional HA (Group A), 119 received intralesional verapamil (Group B). At enrollment, median age was 56.0 years (interquartile range [IQR]=47.0-63.0 years), median curvature 35.0° (IQR=25.0°-45.0°), median IIEF-15 score 19.0 (IQR=16.0-23.0), median VAS 4.0 (IQR=4.0-5.0). Median difference for IIEF-15 was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.12-1.94) in Group A and 0.0 (95% CI=-0.04-0.14) in Group B (p<0.05) and median difference for VAS score was -4.0 (95% CI=-4.11--3.65) in Group A and -1.0 (95% CI=-0.50-2.01) in Group B (p<0.05). Plaque size decreased by -1.50 mm (IQR=1.60-2.10 mm) in Group A and -1.20 in Group B (p=0.10), while penile curvature decreased by -9.50° (IQR=4.50°-13.00°) in group A and -4.50 (IQR=2.50-7.50) in Group B (p<0.01).

Conclusions: Intralesional HA injections could represent a reliable treatment option for the conservative management of patients with acute phase of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5534/wjmh.190108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994654PMC
April 2021

Clinical Efficacy of Serenoa repens Versus Placebo Versus Alpha-blockers for the Treatment of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/Benign Prostatic Enlargement: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Placebo-controlled Clinical Trials.

Eur Urol Focus 2021 Mar 15;7(2):420-431. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Urology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Context: International guidelines do not make any specific recommendations on Serenoa repens (SeR) for the treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE), due to product heterogeneity and methodological limitations of the published trials and meta-analyses.

Objective: We aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of hexanic extract of SeR (HESr) versus non-HESr (nHESr) versus placebo versus alpha-blockers (ABs) in patients affected by LUTS secondary to BPE through a network meta-analysis method.

Evidence Acquisition: The search was conducted until December 31, 2018 using Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science databases without restriction. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with at least one comparison between SeR, ABs, or placebo for the treatment of LUTS/BPE. Outcomes of the study were the mean change in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and peak flow (PF). This systematic review has been registered on PROSPERO (CRD42018084360).

Evidence Synthesis: In total, 2115 articles were identified. After the global assessment, 22 RCTs matched with the inclusion criteria, including 8564 patients. For IPSS, the mean efficacies against placebo were +0.48 and -1.69 for HESr and nHESr, respectively, at 3 mo; 0.59 for nHESr at 6 mo; and -1.31 and -3.30 for nHESr and HESr, respectively, at 12 mo. For PF, the mean efficacies against placebo were +0.53 and +2.82 for HESr and nHESr, respectively, at 3 mo; +1.85 for nHESr at 6 mo; and +4.05 and +5.52 for HESr and nHESr, respectively, at 12 mo. Based on the surface under the cumulative ranking curve rankograms, terazosin showed the highest score (99.6%), while alfuzosin, tamsulosin, silodosin, HESr, and nHESr showed scores of 53.7%, 42.3%, 68.5%, 36.7%, and 47.3%, respectively.

Conclusions: In this network meta-analysis, we demonstrated that SeR did not show clinically meaningful improvement in LUTS and PF.

Patient Summary: In the present study, we found no clinically meaningful improvement of Serenoa repens for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic enlargement. The analysis showed that the benefit over placebo was minimal and may not justify its clinical use before higher level of evidence will be available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2020.01.002DOI Listing
March 2021

Intratumoral Heterogeneity Determines the Expression of mTOR-pathway Proteins in Prostate Cancer.

Dis Markers 2019 11;2019:1296865. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Urology, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylated-mTOR (p-mTOR), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) in prostate cancer (PCa) in order to assess intratumoral heterogeneity and correlation with clinicopathological parameters. Tissue samples from 115 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were included in a tissue microarray comprising (A) tissue from the tumor center, (B) malignant border of the tumor, (C) tumor-adjacent benign tissue, and (D) tumor-distant benign prostatic tissue. Immune reactive scores 0-12 were correlated with clinical data in reference to localization. A meta-analysis of studies investigating the association between biochemical recurrence (BCR) and parameters of the mTOR pathway was conducted. Regardless of the location within the tumor, cancer tissue showed higher expression of mTOR, p-mTOR, and 4EB-P1 compared to benign tissue ( < 0.01). Significant differences in expression between tissue samples from groups C and D were observed for mTOR and p-mTOR. When considering expression according to the pathological stage, we observed lower p-mTOR expression in pT3 vs. pT2 (7.9 and 6.3; = 0.01). After a median follow-up of 74.5 months (IQR 65.0-84.0), 27 patients (23.47%) developed BCR. Weak staining of mTOR was associated with shorter time to BCR (HR: 2.0; = 0.049) after correcting for PSA and T stage. However, a significant association of mTOR expression with BCR was found for specimens from the malignant border of the tumor (B) but not the tumor center (A) ( = 0.0034 log rank). In a meta-analysis, we found that the expressions of mTOR ((RR) = 0.70; 95% CI 0.43-1.12; = 0.13) and 4E-BP1 ((RR) = 0.86; = 0.53) were not statistically associated with BCR, while strong staining of p-mTOR was associated with a lower risk of BCR ((RR) = 0.57; = 0.002). All 3 markers showed stronger expression in PCa and exhibited local gradients in relation to the border of tumor and healthy tissue. Our results suggest an important role of intratumor heterogeneity for the use of mTOR parameters as biomarkers in PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/1296865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6927025PMC
May 2020

Use of 3D printing in andrological surgery: what are the new perspectives.

Int J Impot Res 2020 Jul 13;32(4):369-370. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Urology Section, Department of Surgery, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41443-019-0221-0DOI Listing
July 2020