Publications by authors named "Giorgia Saporiti"

11 Publications

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The Impact of Graft CD3 Cell/Regulatory T Cell Ratio on Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease and Post-Transplantation Outcome: A Prospective Multicenter Study of Patients with Acute Leukemia Undergoing Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Nov 14;27(11):918.e1-918.e9. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Hematology and Stem Cell Transplantation Unit, AOUC Policlinico, Bari, Italy; Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Aldo Moro University School of Medicine, Bari, Italy.

Although it is well known that tumor site- or bone marrow-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Tregs) might be correlated with worse outcomes in solid tumors and acute leukemias by promoting immune surveillance escape, their contribution to the immediate post-allogeneic transplantation phase by peripheral blood (PB) allografts remains unclear. Moreover, the Treg content in stem cells harvested from PB has been suggested to be correlated with acute graft versus-host-disease (aGVHD) and immunologic recovery after allogeneic PB stem cell transplantation (allo-PBSCT). This study aimed to investigate the impact of the graft content of Tregs, as graft CD3/Tregs ratio (gCD3/TregsR), on acute GVHD and post-allo-PBSCT outcomes. We prospectively enrolled 94 consecutive patients at 9 Italian centers of the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo (GITMO) with acute myelogenous (n = 71; 75%) or lymphoblastic (n = 23; 25%) leukemia in complete remission who underwent matched related donor (n = 35; 37%) or unrelated donor (n = 59; 63%) allo-PBSCT. The median graft CD3 cell, Treg, and gCD3/TregsR values were 196 × 10/kg body weight (range, 17 to 666 × 10/kg), 3 × 10/kg (range, 0.1 to 35 × 10/kg), and 71 (range, 1 to 1883), respectively. The discriminatory power of the gCD3/TregsR value to predict grade ≥II aGVHD was assessed by estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Any grade and grade ≥II aGVHD occurred in 24 (26%) and 17 (18%) allo-PBSCT recipients, respectively. By ROC analysis, AUC (0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.608 to 0.866; P = .002) identified 70 as the optimal gCD3/TregsR cutoff value predicting the appearance of grade ≥II aGVHD with 76% sensitivity and 71% specificity. Patients were subdivided into a high (ROC curve value ≥70) gCD3/TregsR group (HR; n = 48) and a low (ROC curve value <70) gCD3/TregsR group (LR; n = 46). The incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD was lower in the LR group compared with the HR group (9% [4 of 46] versus 27% [13 of 48]) in both univariate analysis (odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% CI, 1.44 to 16.17; P = .015) and multivariate analysis (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.34 to 18.93; P = .017), whereas no differences were documented taking into account aGVHD of any grade. The overall survival, disease-free survival, nonrelapse mortality, and relapse rates at 2 and 3 years were 61% and 54%, 62% and 55%, 15% and 23%, and 27% and 30%, respectively. Of note, gCD3/TregsR did not significantly correlate with relapse (P = .135). Taken together, our data from this prospective multicenter study confirm the value of Tregs in preventing aGVHD while maintaining the graft-versus-leukemia effect. © 2021 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.08.008DOI Listing
November 2021

Allelic HLA Matching and Pair Origin Are Favorable Prognostic Factors for Unrelated Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Neoplastic Hematologic Diseases: An Italian Analysis by the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Cellule Staminali e Terapie Cellulari, Italian Bone Marrow Donor Registry, and Associazione Italiana di Immunogenetica e Biologia dei Trapianti.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 05 16;27(5):406.e1-406.e11. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Stem Cell Transplant and Cellular Therapies Unit, Department of Hemato-Oncology and Radiotherapy, Grande Ospedale Metropolitano "Bianchi-Melacrino-Morelli", Reggio Calabria, Italy.

HLA molecules are important for immunoreactivity in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Cellule Staminali e Terapie Cellulari, Italian Bone Marrow Donor Registry, and Associazione Italiana di Immunogenetica e Biologia dei Trapianti promoted a retrospective observational study to evaluate HLA matching and the impact of allelic HLA mismatching and non-HLA factors on unrelated Italian HSCT outcomes. From 2012 to 2015, 1788 patients were enrolled in the study. The average donor age was 29 years and the average recipient age was 49 years. As a conditioning regimen, 71% of the patients received myeloablative conditioning. For GVHD prophylaxis, 76% received either antithymocyte or anti-T lymphocyte globulin, cyclosporine A, and methotrexate. Peripheral blood was the stem cell source in 80%. The median duration of follow-up was 53 months. Regarding HLA matching, 50% of donor-recipient pairs were 10/10 matched, 38% had 1 mismatch, and 12% had 2 or more mismatches. A total of 302 pairs shared Italian origin. Four-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, GVHD-free relapse-free survival, and relapse rates were 49%, 40%, 22%, and 34%, respectively. The 4-year NRM was 27%, and the 100-day cumulative incidence of grade ≥II acute GVHD (aGVHD) was 26%. In multivariate analysis, 9/10 and ≤8/10 HLA allele-matched pairs were associated with worse OS (P = .04 and .007, respectively), NRM (P = .007 and P < .0001, respectively), and grade III-IV aGVHD (P = .0001 and .01, respectively). Moreover, the incidences of grade II-IV aGVHD (P = .001) and chronic GVHD (P = .002) were significantly lower in Italian pairs. In conclusion, 10/10 HLA matching is a favorable prognostic factor for unrelated HSCT outcome in the Italian population. Moreover, the presence of 2 HLA-mismatched loci was associated with a higher NRM (P < .0001) and grade II-IV aGVHD (P = .006) and a poorer OS (P = .001) compared with 1 HLA-mismatched locus in early or intermediate disease phases. Finally, we found that Italian donor and recipient origin is a favorable prognostic factor for GVHD occurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.11.021DOI Listing
May 2021

A case of aggressive systemic mastocytosis with bulky lymphadenopathy showing response to midostaurin.

Clin Case Rep 2021 Feb 29;9(2):978-982. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Hematology Unit Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico Milan Italy.

Management of systemic mastocytosis is an emerging challenge which requires a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach and personalized treatment strategy. Midostaurin can rapidly reduce the disease burden, also in cladribine refractory cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.3717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869399PMC
February 2021

Viral Infections in HSCT: Detection, Monitoring, Clinical Management, and Immunologic Implications.

Front Immunol 2020 20;11:569381. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Hematology-BMT Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Milano, Italy.

In spite of an increasing array of investigations, the relationships between viral infections and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are still controversial, and almost exclusively regard DNA viruses. Viral infections account for a considerable risk of morbidity and mortality among HSCT recipients, and available antiviral agents have proven to be of limited effectiveness. Therefore, an optimal management of viral infection represents a key point in HSCT strategies. On the other hand, viruses bear the potential of shaping immunologic recovery after HSCT, possibly interfering with control of the underlying disease and graft--host disease (GvHD), and eventually with HSCT outcome. Moreover, preliminary data are available about the possible role of some virome components as markers of immunologic recovery after HSCT. Lastly, HSCT may exert an immunotherapeutic effect against some viral infections, notably HIV and HTLV-1, and has been considered as an eradicating approach in these indications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.569381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854690PMC
May 2021

Donor Lymphocyte Infusions After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Acute Leukemia: A Survey From the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto Midollo Osseo (GITMO).

Front Oncol 2020 15;10:572918. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Ematologia, Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

We conducted a retrospective multicenter study including pediatric and adult patients with acute leukemia (AL) who received donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015, in order to determine the efficacy and toxicity of the immune treatment. Two hundred fifty-two patients, median age 45.1 years (1.6-73.4), were enrolled from 34 Italian transplant centers. The underlying disease was acute myeloid leukemia in 180 cases (71%). Donors were HLA identical or 1 locus mismatched sibling (40%), unrelated (40%), or haploidentical (20%). The first DLI was administered at a median time of 258 days (55-3,784) after HCT. The main indication for DLI was leukemia relapse (73%), followed by mixed chimerism (17%), and pre-emptive/prophylactic use (10%). Ninety-six patients (38%) received one single infusion, whereas 65 (26%), 42 (17%), and 49 patients (19%) received 2, 3, or ≥4 infusions, respectively, with a median of 31 days between two subsequent DLIs. Forty percent of evaluable patients received no treatment before the first DLI, whereas radiotherapy, conventional chemotherapy or targeted treatments were administered in 3, 39, and 18%, respectively. In informative patients, a few severe adverse events were reported: grade III-IV graft versus host disease (GVHD) (3%), grade III-IV hematological toxicity (11%), and DLI-related mortality (9%). Forty-six patients (18%) received a second HCT after a median of 232 days (32-1,390) from the first DLI. With a median follow-up of 461 days (2-3,255) after the first DLI, 1-, 3-, and 5- year overall survival (OS) of the whole group from start of DLI treatment was 55, 39, and 33%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, older recipient age, and transplants from haploidentical donors significantly reduced OS, whereas DLI for mixed chimerism or as pre-emptive/prophylactic treatment compared to DLI for AL relapse and a schedule including more than one DLI significantly prolonged OS. This GITMO survey confirms that DLI administration in absence of overt hematological relapse and multiple infusions are associated with a favorable outcome in AL patients. DLI from haploidentical donors had a poor outcome and may represent an area of further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.572918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7593406PMC
October 2020

Prospective evaluation of metabolic syndrome and its features in a single-center series of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients.

Ann Hematol 2018 Dec 27;97(12):2471-2478. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

U.O.C. Oncoematologia, Servizio Trapianti di Midollo, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Available studies on metabolic syndrome (MS) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are retrospective with heterogeneous inclusion criteria, and little is known about the early post-transplant phase. In our prospective study, clinical and laboratory data were collected in 100 HSCT recipients, 48 allogeneic and 52 autologous, at baseline, at + 30, + 100 and + 360 days. At baseline, MS was observed in 24 patients, significantly associated with insulin resistance and leptin on multivariate analysis. At + 30, the diagnosis of MS was confirmed in 43 patients, significantly related to insulin resistance and allogeneic transplants. If the whole series was considered, patients with MS had significantly higher mortality from any cause. The baseline presence of any MS feature was a predictor of + 30 MS. Isolated occurrences of MS features were related to hyperleptinemia and hyperinsulinemia, except in the case of low HDL cholesterol, linked to adiponectin and resistin. Our data confirm that patients undergoing HSCT have a high prevalence of MS, with hyperleptinemia playing a major role. The early peak of new MS cases is primarily attributable to insulin resistance, notably but not exclusively immunosuppression-induced; the subsequent long-term increase in MS cases may be an effect of persistent adipokine imbalance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-018-3452-0DOI Listing
December 2018

Busulfan plus cyclophosphamide versus busulfan plus fludarabine as a preparative regimen for allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia: an open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2015 Nov 28;16(15):1525-1536. Epub 2015 Sep 28.

Hematology, Azienda Ospedaliera S Croce e Carle, Cuneo, Italy.

Background: The standard busulfan-cyclophosphamide myeloablative conditioning regimen is associated with substantial non-relapse mortality in patients older than 40 years with acute myeloid leukaemia who are undergoing allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. Because the combination of busulfan plus fludarabine has been proposed to reduce non-relapse mortality, we aimed to compare this treatment with busulfan plus cyclophosphamide as a preparative regimen in these patients.

Methods: We did an open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trial for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia at 25 hospital transplant centres in Italy and one in Israel. Eligible patients were aged 40-65 years, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status less than 3, and were in complete remission. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive intravenous busulfan plus cyclophosphamide or busulfan plus fludarabine. Treatment allocations were not masked to investigators or patients. Randomisation was done centrally via a dedicated web-based system using remote data entry, with patients stratified by donor type and complete remission status. Patients allocated to busulfan plus cyclophosphamide received intravenous busulfan 0·8 mg/kg four times per day during 2 h infusions for four consecutive days (16 doses from days -9 through -6; total dose 12·8 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide at 60 mg/kg per day for two consecutive days (on days -4 and -3; total dose 120 mg/kg). Patients allocated to busulfan plus fludarabine received the same dose of intravenous busulfan (from days -6 through -3) and fludarabine at 40 mg/m(2) per day for four consecutive days (from days -6 through -3; total dose 160 mg/m(2)). The primary endpoint was 1-year non-relapse mortality, which was assessed on an intention-to-treat basis; safety outcomes were assessed in the per-protocol population. This trial has been completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01191957.

Findings: Between Jan 3, 2008, and Dec 20, 2012, we enrolled and randomly assigned 252 patients to receive busulfan plus cyclophosphamide (n=125) or busulfan plus fludarabine (n=127). Median follow-up was 27·5 months (IQR 9·8-44·3). 1-year non-relapse mortality was 17·2% (95% CI 11·6-25·4) in the busulfan plus cyclophosphamide group and 7·9% (4·3-14·3) in the busulfan plus fludarabine group (Gray's test p=0·026). The most frequently reported grade 3 or higher adverse events were gastrointestinal events (28 [23%] of 121 patients in the busulfan plus cyclophosphamide group and 26 [21%] of 124 patients in the busulfan plus fludarabine group) and infections (21 [17%] patients in the busulfan plus cyclophosphamide group and 13 [10%] patients in the busulfan plus fludarabine group had at least one such event).

Interpretation: In older patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, the myeloablative busulfan plus fludarabine conditioning regimen is associated with lower transplant-related mortality than busulfan plus cyclophosphamide, but retains potent antileukaemic activity. Accordingly, this regimen should be regarded as standard of care during the planning of allogeneic transplants for such patients.

Funding: Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00200-4DOI Listing
November 2015

Severe fludarabine neurotoxicity after reduced intensity conditioning regimen to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a case report.

Clin Case Rep 2015 Jul 11;3(7):650-5. Epub 2015 Jun 11.

Hematology and BMT Unit, IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico Milan, Italy ; Faculty of Medicine, University of Milan Milan, Italy.

We present a case of severe, irreversible neurotoxicity in a 55-year-old-patient with myelofibrosis undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation following a reduced intensity conditioning including fludarabine. The patient developed progressive sensory-motor, visual and consciousness disturbances, eventually leading to death. MRI imaging pattern was unique and attributable to fludarabine neurotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4527817PMC
July 2015

Metabolic syndrome in patients with hematological diseases.

Expert Rev Hematol 2012 Aug;5(4):439-58

Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico - U.O. Ematologia 1 - CTMO, University of Milan, Via Francesco Sforza 35, 20122 Milan, Italy.

The term metabolic syndrome (MS) defines a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, formerly known as syndrome X. There is some debate about the diagnostic criteria; but the most widely accepted framework is that defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, which requires the simultaneous occurrence of at least three of abdominal obesity, arterial hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertrigliceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The prevalence of MS increases with age and varies depending on genetic factors. An abnormally high prevalence has been observed in patients with heterogeneous conditions, such as solid organ transplant recipients, AIDS patients and long-term cancer survivors. As some of the pathogenetic factors possibly involved include cyclosporine A, corticosteroids and cancer chemoradiotherapy, it is possible that MS may also be a complication in hematological patients. Some of the characteristics of MS have been reported with a certain frequency in thalassemia patients, and are mainly attributed to iron overload. Impaired hemostasis is a feature of MS rather than a factor predisposing to its development. In oncohematology, an abnormally high prevalence of MS features has been observed in survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In addition to corticosteroid- and cancer therapy-related hypogonadism, hypothyroidism and defective growth hormone incretion are other factors related to the development of MS. Moreover, the highest frequency of MS is observed in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. Pediatric patients and allogeneic HSCT recipients have been the subject of foremost investigations; but adult patients and autologous HSCT recipients have also been studied more recently. A wide range of factors may contribute to the development of MS in HSCT recipients. Unfortunately, the real entity of the problem is far from clear because of the retrospective design of the studies, the limited size of their populations and their heterogeneous selection criteria, thus making it difficult to determine whether MS is a transient and possibly reversible phenomenon or a true late effect of the procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/ehm.12.35DOI Listing
August 2012

In vitro anti-leukaemia activity of sphingosine kinase inhibitor.

Br J Haematol 2009 Feb 19;144(3):350-7. Epub 2008 Nov 19.

Laboratory of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, San Paolo University Hospital and University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Compelling evidence indicates the role of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) deregulation in the processes of carcinogenesis and acquisition of drug resistance, providing the rationale for an effective anti-cancer therapy. However, no highly selective inhibitors of SPHK1 are available for in vitro and in vivo studies, except for the newly discovered 'SK inhibitor' (SKI). The present study showed that, in a panel of myeloid leukaemia cell lines, basal level of SPHK1 correlated with the degree of kinase inhibition by SKI. Exposure to SKI caused variable anti-proliferative, cytotoxic effects in all cell lines. In particular, SKI induced an early, significant inhibition of SPHK1 activity, impaired cell cycle progression and triggered apoptosis in K562 cells. Moreover, SKI acted synergistically with imatinib mesylate (IM) to inhibit cell growth and survival. Finally, the inhibitor affected the clonogenic potential and viability of primary cells from chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients, including one harbouring the IM-insensitive Abl kinase domain mutation T315I. Due to the fact that the phenomenon of resistance to IM remains a major issue in the treatment of patients with CML, the identification of alternative targets and new drugs may be of clinical relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2008.07474.xDOI Listing
February 2009
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