Publications by authors named "Giorgia Porrello"

6 Publications

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Assessment of morphological CT imaging features for the prediction of risk stratification, mutations, and prognosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics (BiND), University of Palermo, Via del Vespro 129, 90127, Palermo, Italy.

Objectives: To investigate the correlation between CT imaging features and risk stratification of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), prediction of mutation status, and prognosis.

Methods: This retrospective dual-institution study included patients with pathologically proven GISTs meeting the following criteria: (i) preoperative contrast-enhanced CT performed between 2008 and 2019; (ii) no treatments before imaging; (iii) available pathological analysis. Tumor risk stratification was determined according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) 2008 criteria. Two readers evaluated the CT features, including enhancement patterns and tumor characteristics in a blinded fashion. The differences in distribution of CT features were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Survival analyses were performed by using the Cox proportional hazard model, Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank test.

Results: The final population included 88 patients (59 men and 29 women, mean age 60.5 ± 11.1 years) with 45 high-risk and 43 low-to-intermediate-risk GISTs (median size 6.3 cm). At multivariate analysis, lesion size ≥ 5 cm (OR: 10.52, p = 0.009) and enlarged feeding vessels (OR: 12.08, p = 0.040) were independently associated with the high-risk GISTs. Hyperenhancement was significantly more frequent in PDGFRα-mutated/wild-type GISTs compared to GISTs with KIT mutations (59.3% vs 23.0%, p = 0.004). Ill-defined margins were associated with shorter progression-free survival (HR 9.66) at multivariate analysis, while ill-defined margins and hemorrhage remained independently associated with shorter overall survival (HR 44.41 and HR 30.22). Inter-reader agreement ranged from fair to almost perfect (k: 0.32-0.93).

Conclusions: Morphologic contrast-enhanced CT features are significantly different depending on the risk status or mutations and may help to predict prognosis.

Key Points: • Lesions size ≥ 5 cm (OR: 10.52, p = 0.009) and enlarged feeding vessels (OR: 12.08, p = 0.040) are independent predictors of high-risk GISTs. • PDGFRα-mutated/wild-type GISTs demonstrate more frequently hyperenhancement compared to GISTs with KIT mutations (59.3% vs 23.0%, p = 0.004). • Ill-defined margins (hazard ratio 9.66) were associated with shorter progression-free survival at multivariate analysis, while ill-defined margins (hazard ratio 44.41) and intralesional hemorrhage (hazard ratio 30.22) were independently associated with shorter overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07961-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Benign and malignant mimickers of infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma: tips and tricks for differential diagnosis on CT and MRI.

Clin Imaging 2021 Feb 15;70:33-45. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics (BIND), University Hospital of Palermo, Via del Vespro 129, 90127 Palermo, Italy.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may have an infiltrative appearance in about 8-20% of cases. Infiltrative HCC can be a challenging diagnosis and it is associated with the worst overall survival among HCC patients. Infiltrative HCC is characterized by the spread of multiple minute nodules throughout the liver, without a dominant one, ultimately resulting into macrovascular invasion. On CT and MRI, infiltrative HCC appears as an ill-defined, large mass, with variable degree of enhancement, and satellite neoplastic nodules in up to 52% of patients. On MRI, it may show restriction on diffusion weighted imaging, hyperintensity on T2- and hypointensity on T1-weighted images, and, if hepatobiliary agent is used, hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase. Infiltrative HCC must be differentiated from other liver diseases, such as focal confluent fibrosis, steatosis, amyloidosis, vascular disorders of the liver, cholangiocarcinoma, and diffuse metastatic disease. In cirrhotic patients, the identification of vascular tumor invasion of the portal vein and its differentiation from bland thrombosis is of utmost importance for patient management. On contrast enhanced CT and MRI, portal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing thrombus within the portal vein, close to the main tumor and results into vein enlargement. The aim of this pictorial review is to show CT and MRI features that allow the diagnosis of infiltrative HCC and portal vein tumor thrombosis. A particular point of interest includes the tips and tricks for differential diagnosis with potential mimickers of infiltrative HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.10.011DOI Listing
February 2021

Focal liver lesions: interobserver and intraobserver agreement of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound-assisted volume measurements.

Ultrasonography 2020 Aug 19. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Section of Radiology - BiND, University Hospital "Paolo Giaccone", Palermo, Italy.

Purpose: This study was conducted to assess the interobserver and intraobserver agreement of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound (3D-CEUS) volume calculations of focal liver lesions (FLLs).

Methods: Thirty-nine patients (15 men and 24 women; mean age, 55.4 years) with 39 FLLs (mean size, 3.1±1.8 cm; size range, 1 to 8 cm) prospectively underwent 3D-CEUS. Four readers calculated the volume of each lesion in an independent and blinded fashion in two separate sessions by means of a semi-automatic, commercially available proprietary software. The differences in lesion volumes (cm3) among sessions and readers were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Bland-Altman analysis was also performed. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. The statistical significance level was set at P<0.05.

Results: Among readers, there were no statistically significant differences in the first (P=0.953) and second (P=0.592) reading sessions for volume calculations of the 39 FLLs, with almost perfect inter-reader agreement (ICC values of 0.996; 95% CI, 0.992 to 0.998 and 0.994; 95% CI, 0.990 to 0.997, respectively). For each of the four readers, there were no significant differences in volume calculations between the two sessions (P=0.503-0.927), and the intrareader agreement was almost perfect for each reader (R1: ICC, 0.995; 95% CI, 0.991 to 0.998; R2: ICC, 0.995; 95% CI, 0.988 to 0.997; R3: ICC, 0.996; 95% CI, 0.992 to 0.998; R4: ICC, 0.985; 95% CI, 0.971 to 0.992).

Conclusion: 3D-CEUS volume calculations provided consistent measurements across different readers with almost perfect intrareader agreement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14366/usg.20025DOI Listing
August 2020

Hepatocellular carcinoma with macrovascular invasion: multimodality imaging features for the diagnosis.

Diagn Interv Radiol 2020 11;26(6):531-540

Department of Radiology - BiND, University Hospital "Paolo Giaccone", Palermo, Italy;Department of Radiology, Fondazione Istituto Giuseppe Giglio, Cefalù (Palermo), Italy.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is frequently associated with macrovascular invasion of the portal vein or hepatic veins in advanced stages. The accurate diagnosis of macrovascular invasion and the differentiation from bland non-tumoral thrombus has significant clinical and management implications, since it narrows the therapeutic options and it represents a mandatory contraindication for liver resection or transplantation. The imaging diagnosis remains particularly challenging since the imaging features of HCC with macrovascular invasion may be subtle, especially in lesions showing infiltrative appearance. However, each radiologic imaging modality may provide findings suggesting the presence of tumor thrombus rather than bland thrombus. The purpose of this paper is to review the current guidelines and imaging appearance of HCC with macrovascular invasion. Knowledge of the most common imaging features of HCC with macrovascular invasion may improve the diagnostic confidence of tumor thrombus in clinical practice and help to guide patients' management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/dir.2020.19569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664740PMC
November 2020

Abdominal splenosis and its differential diagnoses: What the radiologist needs to know.

Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2021 Mar-Apr;50(2):229-235. Epub 2020 May 19.

Dipartimento di Biomedicina, Neuroscienze e Diagnostica avanzata (BIND), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Splenosis is a benign acquired condition characterized by the presence of heterotopic viable splenic tissue in other organs or within cavities such as peritoneum, retroperitoneum, or thorax after splenic trauma or surgery. Abdominal splenosis is often an incidental finding and computed tomography and magnetic resonance usually allow a confident diagnosis. The typical enhancement that parallels the spleen is a useful hallmark of splenosis. Splenic implants lack contrast uptake in the hepatobiliary phase and show high signal at high b-values on diffusion-weighted images. In some cases splenosis may mimic malignant and benign conditions in the peritoneum as well as in hollow and parenchymal abdominal organs and further investigations - including scintigraphy with Tc99m-labelled heat-denatured red blood cells or biopsy - are sometimes required in challenging cases. This pictorial essay reviews the imaging presentation and potential differential diagnosis of splenosis according to the site of implantation. A prompt and accurate radiological diagnosis of splenosis can avoid unnecessary biopsy or surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/j.cpradiol.2020.04.012DOI Listing
May 2020

Uncommon imaging evolutions of focal liver lesions in cirrhosis.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2019 09;44(9):3069-3077

Dipartimento di Biomedicina, Neuroscienze e Diagnostica avanzata (BIND), University Hospital of Palermo, Via del Vespro 129, 90127, Palermo, Italy.

Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe and illustrate uncommon imaging evolutions of benign (i.e., cyst, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules, and hepatic angiomyolipoma) and malignant (i.e., HCC and non HCC malignancies) lesions in a cirrhotic liver. The content highlights relevant pathogenesis and imaging clues for proper differential diagnosis. Revision of prior imaging and knowledge of these scenarios may help the abdominal radiologist to reach a noninvasive diagnosis and direct the patient to the most appropriate clinical management.

Conclusion: Uncommon imaging evolutions of focal liver lesions in cirrhosis may represent a challenge for the abdominal radiologist, with atypical changes in size, and internal vascularization changes that may lead to misdiagnoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-019-02101-4DOI Listing
September 2019