Publications by authors named "Gina M Sizemore"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ablation of the Brca1-Palb2 Interaction Phenocopies Fanconi Anemia in Mice.

Cancer Res 2020 10 30;80(19):4172-4184. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Heterozygous mutations in the gene predispose women to breast and ovarian cancer, while biallelic BRCA1 mutations are a cause of Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare genetic disorder characterized by developmental abnormalities, early-onset bone marrow failure, increased risk of cancers, and hypersensitivity to DNA-crosslinking agents. BRCA1 is critical for homologous recombination of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Through its coiled-coil domain, BRCA1 interacts with an essential partner, PALB2, recruiting BRCA2 and RAD51 to sites of DNA damage. Missense mutations within the coiled-coil domain of BRCA1 (e.g., L1407P) that affect the interaction with PALB2 have been reported in familial breast cancer. We hypothesized that if PALB2 regulates or mediates BRCA1 tumor suppressor function, ablation of the BRCA1-PALB2 interaction may also elicit genomic instability and tumor susceptibility. We generated mice defective for the Brca1-Palb2 interaction (Brca1 L1363P in mice) and established MEF cells from these mice. MEF exhibited hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and failed to recruit Rad51 to DSB. mice were viable but exhibited various FA symptoms including growth retardation, hyperpigmentation, skeletal abnormalities, and male/female infertility. Furthermore, all mice exhibited macrocytosis and died due to bone marrow failure or lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia with activating Notch1 mutations. These phenotypes closely recapitulate clinical features observed in patients with FA. Collectively, this model effectively demonstrates the significance of the BRCA1-PALB2 interaction in genome integrity and provides an FA model to investigate hematopoietic stem cells for mechanisms underlying progressive failure of hematopoiesis and associated development of leukemia/lymphoma, and other FA phenotypes. SIGNIFICANCE: A new Brca1 mouse model for Fanconi anemia (FA) complementation group S provides a system in which to study phenotypes observed in human FA patients including bone marrow failure..
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-0486DOI Listing
October 2020

Modeling Brain Metastases Through Intracranial Injection and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

J Vis Exp 2020 06 7(160). Epub 2020 Jun 7.

The Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University; Department of Radiation Oncology, The Ohio State University;

Metastatic spread of cancer is an unfortunate consequence of disease progression, aggressive cancer subtypes, and/or late diagnosis. Brain metastases are particularly devastating, difficult to treat, and confer a poor prognosis. While the precise incidence of brain metastases in the United States remains hard to estimate, it is likely to increase as extracranial therapies continue to become more efficacious in treating cancer. Thus, it is necessary to identify and develop novel therapeutic approaches to treat metastasis at this site. To this end, intracranial injection of cancer cells has become a well-established method in which to model brain metastasis. Previously, the inability to directly measure tumor growth has been a technical hindrance to this model; however, increasing availability and quality of small animal imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are vastly improving the ability to monitor tumor growth over time and infer changes within the brain during the experimental period. Herein, intracranial injection of murine mammary tumor cells into immunocompetent mice followed by MRI is demonstrated. The presented injection approach utilizes isoflurane anesthesia and a stereotactic setup with a digitally controlled, automated drill and needle injection to enhance precision, and reduce technical error. MRI is measured over time using a 9.4 Tesla instrument in The Ohio State University James Comprehensive Cancer Center Small Animal Imaging Shared Resource. Tumor volume measurements are demonstrated at each time point through use of ImageJ. Overall, this intracranial injection approach allows for precise injection, day-to-day monitoring, and accurate tumor volume measurements, which combined greatly enhance the utility of this model system to test novel hypotheses on the drivers of brain metastases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/61272DOI Listing
June 2020

Stromal Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-β Signaling Promotes Breast Cancer Metastasis in the Brain.

Cancer Res 2021 Feb 23;81(3):606-618. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

The Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFRβ) is a receptor tyrosine kinase found in cells of mesenchymal origin such as fibroblasts and pericytes. Activation of this receptor is dependent on paracrine ligand induction, and its preferred ligand PDGFB is released by neighboring epithelial and endothelial cells. While expression of both PDGFRβ and PDGFB has been noted in patient breast tumors for decades, how PDGFB-to-PDGFRβ tumor-stroma signaling mediates breast cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis remains unclear. Here we demonstrate this paracrine signaling pathway that mediates both primary tumor growth and metastasis, specifically, metastasis to the brain. Elevated levels of PDGFB accelerated orthotopic tumor growth and intracranial growth of mammary tumor cells, while mesenchymal-specific expression of an activating mutant PDGFRβ (PDGFRβ) exerted proproliferative signals on adjacent mammary tumor cells. Stromal expression of PDGFRβ also promoted brain metastases of mammary tumor cells expressing high PDGFB when injected intravenously. In the brain, expression of PDGFRβ was observed within a subset of astrocytes, and aged mice expressing PDGFRβ exhibited reactive gliosis. Importantly, the PDGFR-specific inhibitor crenolanib significantly reduced intracranial growth of mammary tumor cells. In a tissue microarray comprised of 363 primary human breast tumors, high PDGFB protein expression was prognostic for brain metastases, but not metastases to other sites. Our results advocate the use of mice expressing PDGFRβ in their stromal cells as a preclinical model of breast cancer-associated brain metastases and support continued investigation into the clinical prognostic and therapeutic use of PDGFB-to-PDGFRβ signaling in women with breast cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: These studies reveal a previously unknown role for PDGFB-to-PDGFRβ paracrine signaling in the promotion of breast cancer brain metastases and support the prognostic and therapeutic clinical utility of this pathway for patients..
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-3731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581545PMC
February 2021

Abrupt involution induces inflammation, estrogenic signaling, and hyperplasia linking lack of breastfeeding with increased risk of breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res 2019 07 17;21(1):80. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

The Comprehensive Cancer Center, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, 460 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Background: A large collaborative analysis of data from 47 epidemiological studies concluded that longer duration of breastfeeding reduces the risk of developing breast cancer. Despite the strong epidemiological evidence, the molecular mechanisms linking prolonged breastfeeding to decreased risk of breast cancer remain poorly understood.

Methods: We modeled two types of breastfeeding behaviors in wild type FVB/N mice: (1) normal or gradual involution of breast tissue following prolonged breastfeeding and (2) forced or abrupt involution following short-term breastfeeding. To accomplish this, pups were gradually weaned between 28 and 31 days (gradual involution) or abruptly at 7 days postpartum (abrupt involution). Mammary glands were examined for histological changes, proliferation, and inflammatory markers by immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to quantify mammary epithelial subpopulations. Gene set enrichment analysis was used to analyze gene expression data from mouse mammary luminal progenitor cells. Similar analysis was done using gene expression data generated from human breast samples obtained from parous women enrolled on a tissue collection study, OSU-2011C0094, and were undergoing reduction mammoplasty without history of breast cancer.

Results: Mammary glands from mice that underwent abrupt involution exhibited denser stroma, altered collagen composition, higher inflammation and proliferation, increased estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor expression compared to those that underwent gradual involution. Importantly, when aged to 4 months postpartum, mice that were in the abrupt involution cohort developed ductal hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia. Abrupt involution also resulted in a significant expansion of the luminal progenitor cell compartment associated with enrichment of Notch and estrogen signaling pathway genes. Breast tissues obtained from healthy women who breastfed for < 6 months vs ≥ 6 months showed significant enrichment of Notch signaling pathway genes, along with a trend for enrichment for luminal progenitor gene signature similar to what is observed in BRCA1 mutation carriers and basal-like breast tumors.

Conclusions: We report here for the first time that forced or abrupt involution of the mammary glands following pregnancy and lack of breastfeeding results in expansion of luminal progenitor cells, higher inflammation, proliferation, and ductal hyperplasia, a known risk factor for developing breast cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-019-1163-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6637535PMC
July 2019

Stromal PTEN Regulates Extracellular Matrix Organization in the Mammary Gland.

Neoplasia 2019 01 12;21(1):132-145. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210; The James Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210. Electronic address:

The organization of the extracellular matrix has a profound impact on cancer development and progression. The matrix becomes aligned throughout tumor progression, providing "highways" for tumor cell invasion. Aligned matrix is associated with breast density and is a negative prognostic factor in several cancers; however, the underlying mechanisms regulating this reorganization remain poorly understood. Deletion of the tumor suppressor Pten in the stroma was previously shown to promote extracellular matrix expansion and tumor progression. However, it was unknown if PTEN also regulated matrix organization. To address this question, a murine model with fibroblast-specific Pten deletion was used to examine how PTEN regulates matrix remodeling. Using second harmonic generation microscopy, Pten deletion was found to promote collagen alignment parallel to the mammary duct in the normal gland and further remodeling perpendicular to the tumor edge in tumor-bearing mice. Increased alignment was observed with Pten deletion in vitro using fibroblast-derived matrices. PTEN loss was associated with fibroblast activation and increased cellular contractility, as determined by traction force microscopy. Inhibition of contractility abrogated the increased matrix alignment observed with PTEN loss. Murine mammary adenocarcinoma cells cultured on aligned matrices derived from Pten fibroblasts migrated faster than on matrices from wild-type fibroblasts. Combined, these data demonstrate that PTEN loss in fibroblasts promotes extracellular matrix deposition and alignment independently from cancer cell presence, and this reorganization regulates cancer cell behavior. Importantly, stromal PTEN negatively correlated with collagen alignment and high mammographic density in human breast tissue, suggesting parallel function for PTEN in patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neo.2018.10.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6293034PMC
January 2019

PTEN expression by an oncolytic herpesvirus directs T-cell mediated tumor clearance.

Nat Commun 2018 11 27;9(1):5006. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, 77030, TX, USA.

Engineered oncolytic viruses are used clinically to destroy cancer cells and have the ability to boost anticancer immunity. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 loss is common across a broad range of malignancies, and is implicated in immune escape. The N-terminally extended isoform, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 alpha (PTENα), regulates cellular functions including protein kinase B signaling and mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate production. Here we constructed HSV-P10, a replicating, PTENα expressing oncolytic herpesvirus, and demonstrate that it inhibits PI3K/AKT signaling, increases cellular adenosine triphosphate secretion, and reduces programmed death-ligand 1 expression in infected tumor cells, thus priming an adaptive immune response and overcoming tumor immune escape. A single dose of HSV-P10 resulted in long term survivors in mice bearing intracranial tumors, priming anticancer T-cell immunity leading to tumor rejection. This implicates HSV-P10 as an oncolytic and immune stimulating therapeutic for anticancer therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07344-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6258708PMC
November 2018

Disruption of stromal hedgehog signaling initiates RNF5-mediated proteasomal degradation of PTEN and accelerates pancreatic tumor growth.

Life Sci Alliance 2018 Oct 26;1(5):e201800190. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Hollings Cancer Center and Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

The contribution of the tumor microenvironment to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) development is currently unclear. We therefore examined the consequences of disrupting paracrine Hedgehog (HH) signaling in PDAC stroma. Herein, we show that ablation of the key HH signaling gene () in stromal fibroblasts led to increased proliferation of pancreatic tumor cells. Furthermore, deletion resulted in proteasomal degradation of the tumor suppressor PTEN and activation of oncogenic protein kinase B (AKT) in fibroblasts. An unbiased proteomic screen identified RNF5 as a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for degradation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in -null fibroblasts. () knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSKβ), the kinase that marks PTEN for ubiquitination, rescued PTEN levels and reversed the oncogenic phenotype, identifying a new node of PTEN regulation. In PDAC patients, low stromal PTEN correlated with reduced overall survival. Mechanistically, PTEN loss decreased hydraulic permeability of the extracellular matrix, which was reversed by hyaluronidase treatment. These results define non-cell autonomous tumor-promoting mechanisms activated by disruption of the HH/PTEN axis and identifies new targets for restoring stromal tumor-suppressive functions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.26508/lsa.201800190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6238420PMC
October 2018

Pyruvate kinase M2 regulates homologous recombination-mediated DNA double-strand break repair.

Cell Res 2018 11 8;28(11):1090-1102. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, 72205, USA.

Resistance to genotoxic therapies is a primary cause of treatment failure and tumor recurrence. The underlying mechanisms that activate the DNA damage response (DDR) and allow cancer cells to escape the lethal effects of genotoxic therapies remain unclear. Here, we uncover an unexpected mechanism through which pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), the highly expressed PK isoform in cancer cells and a master regulator of cancer metabolic reprogramming, integrates with the DDR to directly promote DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. In response to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress, ATM phosphorylates PKM2 at T328 resulting in its nuclear accumulation. pT328-PKM2 is required and sufficient to promote homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA DSB repair through phosphorylation of CtBP-interacting protein (CtIP) on T126 to increase CtIP's recruitment at DSBs and resection of DNA ends. Disruption of the ATM-PKM2-CtIP axis sensitizes cancer cells to a variety of DNA-damaging agents and PARP1 inhibition. Furthermore, increased nuclear pT328-PKM2 level is associated with significantly worse survival in glioblastoma patients. Combined, these data advocate the use of PKM2-targeting strategies as a means to not only disrupt cancer metabolism but also inhibit an important mechanism of resistance to genotoxic therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-018-0086-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6218445PMC
November 2018

Stromal PTEN determines mammary epithelial response to radiotherapy.

Nat Commun 2018 07 17;9(1):2783. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA.

The importance of the tumor-associated stroma in cancer progression is clear. However, it remains uncertain whether early events in the stroma are capable of initiating breast tumorigenesis. Here, we show that in the mammary glands of non-tumor bearing mice, stromal-specific phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) deletion invokes radiation-induced genomic instability in neighboring epithelium. In these animals, a single dose of whole-body radiation causes focal mammary lobuloalveolar hyperplasia through paracrine epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, and EGFR inhibition abrogates these cellular changes. By analyzing human tissue, we discover that stromal PTEN is lost in a subset of normal breast samples obtained from reduction mammoplasty, and is predictive of recurrence in breast cancer patients. Combined, these data indicate that diagnostic or therapeutic chest radiation may predispose patients with decreased stromal PTEN expression to secondary breast cancer, and that prophylactic EGFR inhibition may reduce this risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05266-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6050339PMC
July 2018

Synthetic Lethality of PARP Inhibition and Ionizing Radiation is p53-dependent.

Mol Cancer Res 2018 07 28;16(7):1092-1102. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas.

PARP inhibitors (PARPi) are potentially effective therapeutic agents capable of inducing synthetic lethality in tumors with deficiencies in homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA repair such as those carrying BRCA1 mutations. However, BRCA mutations are rare, the majority of tumors are proficient in HR repair, and thus most tumors are resistant to PARPi. Previously, we observed that ionizing radiation (IR) initiates cytoplasmic translocation of BRCA1 leading to suppression of HR-mediated DNA repair and induction of synthetic PARPi lethality in wild-type BRCA1 and HR-proficient tumor cells. The tumor suppressor p53 was identified as a key factor that regulates DNA damage-induced BRCA1 cytoplasmic sequestration following IR. However, the role of p53 in IR-induced PARPi sensitization remains unclear. This study elucidates the role of p53 in IR-induced PARPi cytotoxicity in HR-proficient cancer cells and suggests p53 status may help define a patient population that might benefit from this treatment strategy. Sensitization to PARPi following IR was determined and utilizing human breast and glioma tumor cells carrying wild-type BRCA1 and p53, and in associated cells in which p53 function was modified by knockdown or mutation. In breast and glioma cells with proficient HR repair, IR-induced BRCA1 cytoplasmic sequestration, HR repair inhibition, and subsequent PARPi sensitization and was dependent upon functional p53. Implications: p53 status determines PARP inhibitor sensitization by ionizing radiation in multiple BRCA1 and HR-proficient tumor types and may predict which patients are most likely to benefit from combination therapy. .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-18-0106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6713455PMC
July 2018

Stromal PDGFR-α Activation Enhances Matrix Stiffness, Impedes Mammary Ductal Development, and Accelerates Tumor Growth.

Neoplasia 2017 Jun 11;19(6):496-508. Epub 2017 May 11.

The Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA; Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address:

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical for mammary ductal development and differentiation, but how mammary fibroblasts regulate ECM remodeling remains to be elucidated. Herein, we used a mouse genetic model to activate platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRα) specifically in the stroma. Hyperactivation of PDGFRα in the mammary stroma severely hindered pubertal mammary ductal morphogenesis, but did not interrupt the lobuloalveolar differentiation program. Increased stromal PDGFRα signaling induced mammary fat pad fibrosis with a corresponding increase in interstitial hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen deposition. Mammary fibroblasts with PDGFRα hyperactivation also decreased hydraulic permeability of a collagen substrate in an in vitro microfluidic device assay, which was mitigated by inhibition of either PDGFRα or HA. Fibrosis seen in this model significantly increased the overall stiffness of the mammary gland as measured by atomic force microscopy. Further, mammary tumor cells injected orthotopically in the fat pads of mice with stromal activation of PDGFRα grew larger tumors compared to controls. Taken together, our data establish that aberrant stromal PDGFRα signaling disrupts ECM homeostasis during mammary gland development, resulting in increased mammary stiffness and increased potential for tumor growth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neo.2017.04.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5440288PMC
June 2017

The ETS family of oncogenic transcription factors in solid tumours.

Nat Rev Cancer 2017 06 28;17(6):337-351. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

The Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University.

Findings over the past decade have identified aberrant activation of the ETS transcription factor family throughout all stages of tumorigenesis. Specifically in solid tumours, gene rearrangement and amplification, feed-forward growth factor signalling loops, formation of gain-of-function co-regulatory complexes and novel cis-acting mutations in ETS target gene promoters can result in increased ETS activity. In turn, pro-oncogenic ETS signalling enhances tumorigenesis through a broad mechanistic toolbox that includes lineage specification and self-renewal, DNA damage and genome instability, epigenetics and metabolism. This Review discusses these different mechanisms of ETS activation and subsequent oncogenic implications, as well as the clinical utility of ETS factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrc.2017.20DOI Listing
June 2017

Genetic ablation of Smoothened in pancreatic fibroblasts increases acinar-ductal metaplasia.

Genes Dev 2016 09 15;30(17):1943-55. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; Cancer Biology and Genetics Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA;

The contribution of the microenvironment to pancreatic acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), a preneoplastic transition in oncogenic Kras-driven pancreatic cancer progression, is currently unclear. Here we show that disruption of paracrine Hedgehog signaling via genetic ablation of Smoothened (Smo) in stromal fibroblasts in a Kras(G12D) mouse model increased ADM. Smo-deleted fibroblasts had higher expression of transforming growth factor-α (Tgfa) mRNA and secreted higher levels of TGFα, leading to activation of EGFR signaling in acinar cells and increased ADM. The mechanism involved activation of AKT and noncanonical activation of the GLI family transcription factor GLI2. GLI2 was phosphorylated at Ser230 in an AKT-dependent fashion and directly regulated Tgfa expression in fibroblasts lacking Smo Additionally, Smo-deleted fibroblasts stimulated the growth of Kras(G12D)/Tp53(R172H) pancreatic tumor cells in vivo and in vitro. These results define a non-cell-autonomous mechanism modulating Kras(G12D)-driven ADM that is balanced by cross-talk between Hedgehog/SMO and AKT/GLI2 pathways in stromal fibroblasts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.283499.116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5066238PMC
September 2016

GABA(A) receptor pi (GABRP) stimulates basal-like breast cancer cell migration through activation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2).

J Biol Chem 2014 Aug 10;289(35):24102-13. Epub 2014 Jul 10.

From the Departments of Pharmacology and Genetics and Division of General Medical Sciences-Oncology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease comprised of distinct subtypes predictive of patient outcome. Tumors of the basal-like subtype have a poor prognosis due to inherent aggressiveness and the lack of targeted therapeutics. Basal-like tumors typically lack estrogen receptor-α, progesterone receptor and HER2/ERBB2, or in other words they are triple negative (TN). Continued evaluation of basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) biology is essential to identify novel therapeutic targets. Expression of the pi subunit of the GABA(A) receptor (GABRP) is associated with the BLBC/TN subtype, and herein, we reveal its expression also correlates with metastases to the brain and poorer patient outcome. GABRP expression in breast cancer cell lines also demonstrates a significant correlation with the basal-like subtype suggesting that GABRP functions in the initiation and/or progression of basal-like tumors. To address this postulate, we stably silenced GABRP in two BLBC cell lines, HCC1187 and HCC70 cells. Decreased GABRP reduces in vitro tumorigenic potential and migration concurrent with alterations in the cytoskeleton, specifically diminished cellular protrusions and expression of the BLBC-associated cytokeratins, KRT5, KRT6B, KRT14, and KRT17. Silencing GABRP also decreases phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in both cell lines and selective inhibition of ERK1/2 similarly decreases the basal-like cytokeratins as well as migration. Combined, these data reveal a GABRP-ERK1/2-cytokeratin axis that maintains the migratory phenotype of basal-like breast cancer. GABRP is a component of a cell surface receptor, thus, these findings suggest that targeting this new signaling axis may have therapeutic potential in BLBC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.593582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4148843PMC
August 2014

Hypomethylation of the MMP7 promoter and increased expression of MMP7 distinguishes the basal-like breast cancer subtype from other triple-negative tumors.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2014 Jul 22;146(1):25-40. Epub 2014 May 22.

Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 10900 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH, 44106-4965, USA.

Identification of novel targets for the treatment of basal-like breast cancer is essential for improved outcomes in patients with this disease. This study investigates the association of MMP7 expression and MMP7 promoter methylation with subtype and outcome in breast cancer patient cohorts. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on a breast cancer tissue microarray and validated in independent histological samples. MMP7 expression significantly correlated with patient age, tumor size, triple-negative (TN) status, and recurrence. Analysis of publically available datasets confirmed MMP7 gene expression as a prognostic marker of breast cancer metastasis, particularly metastasis to the brain and lungs. Methylation of the MMP7 promoter was assessed by methylation-specific PCR in a panel of breast cancer cell lines and patient tumor samples. Hypomethylation of the MMP7 promoter significantly correlated with TN status in DNA from patient tumor samples, and this association was confirmed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Evaluation of a panel of breast cancer cell lines and data from the Curtis and TCGA breast carcinoma datasets revealed that elevated MMP7 expression and MMP7 promoter hypomethylation are specific biomarkers of the basal-like molecular subtype which shares considerable, but not complete, overlap with the clinical TN subtype. Importantly, MMP7 expression was identified as an independent predictor of pathological complete response in a large breast cancer patient cohort. Combined, these data suggest that MMP7 expression and MMP7 promoter methylation may be useful as prognostic biomarkers. Furthermore, MMP7 expression and promoter methylation analysis may be effective mechanisms to distinguish basal-like breast cancers from other triple-negative subtypes. Finally, these data implicate MMP7 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of basal-like breast cancers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-014-2989-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4716673PMC
July 2014

Protein kinase C Beta in the tumor microenvironment promotes mammary tumorigenesis.

Front Oncol 2014 23;4:87. Epub 2014 Apr 23.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University , Columbus, OH , USA ; Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University , Columbus, OH , USA.

Protein kinase C beta (PKCβ) expression in breast cancer is associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype, yet the mechanism for how PKCβ is pro-tumorigenic in this disease is still unclear. Interestingly, while it is known that PKCβ mediates angiogenesis, immunity, fibroblast function and adipogenesis, all components of the mammary tumor microenvironment (TME), no study to date has investigated whether stromal PKCβ is functionally relevant in breast cancer. Herein, we evaluate mouse mammary tumor virus-polyoma middle T-antigen (MMTV-PyMT) induced mammary tumorigenesis in the presence and absence of PKCβ. We utilize two model systems: one where PKCβ is deleted in both the epithelial and stromal compartments to test the global requirement for PKCβ on tumor formation, and second, where PKCβ is deleted only in the stromal compartment to test its role in the TME. MMTV-PyMT mice globally lacking PKCβ live longer and develop smaller tumors with decreased proliferation and decreased macrophage infiltration. Similarly, when PKCβ is null exclusively in the stroma, PyMT-driven B6 cells form smaller tumors with diminished collagen deposition. These experiments reveal for the first time a tumor promoting role for stromal PKCβ in MMTV-PyMT tumorigenesis. In corroboration with these results, PKCβ mRNA (Prkcb) is increased in fibroblasts isolated from MMTV-PyMT tumors. These data were confirmed in a breast cancer patient cohort. Combined these data suggest the continued investigation of PKCβ in the mammary TME is necessary to elucidate how to effectively target this signaling pathway in breast cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2014.00087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4006052PMC
May 2014

FOXC1 is enriched in the mammary luminal progenitor population, but is not necessary for mouse mammary ductal morphogenesis.

Biol Reprod 2013 Jul 11;89(1):10. Epub 2013 Jul 11.

Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

Expression of FOXC1, a forkhead box transcription factor, correlates with the human basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) subtype, and functional analyses have revealed its importance for in vitro invasiveness of BLBC cells. Women diagnosed with this breast tumor subtype have a poorer outcome because of the lack of targeted therapies; thus, continued investigation of factors driving these tumors is critical to uncover novel therapeutic targets. Several processes that dictate normal mammary morphogenesis parallel cancer progression, and enforced expression of FOXC1 can induce a progenitor state in more-differentiated mammary epithelial cells. Consequently, evaluating how FOXC1 functions in the normal gland is critical to further understand BLBC biology. Although FOXC1 is well known to control normal development of a number of tissues, its role in the mammary gland has not yet been investigated. Herein, we describe FOXC1 expression patterning in the normal breast, where it is localized to the basal/myoepithelium, suggesting that FOXC1 would be required for normal development. However, mammary glands lacking Foxc1 have no overt defect in ductal outgrowth, alveologenesis, or lineage specification. Of significant interest, we found that expression of FOXC1 is enriched in the normal luminal progenitor population, which is the postulated cell of origin of BLBC. These results indicate that FOXC1 is unnecessary for mammary morphogenesis and that its role in BLBC likely involves processes that are unrelated to cell lineage specification.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.113.108001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322436PMC
July 2013