Publications by authors named "Gilson Honvoh"

7 Publications

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Dietary alteration of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for headache reduction in adults with migraine: randomized controlled trial.

BMJ 2021 06 30;374:n1448. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Neurology, UNC School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Objective: To determine whether dietary interventions that increase n-3 fatty acids with and without reduction in n-6 linoleic acid can alter circulating lipid mediators implicated in headache pathogenesis, and decrease headache in adults with migraine.

Design: Three arm, parallel group, randomized, modified double blind, controlled trial.

Setting: Ambulatory, academic medical center in the United States over 16 weeks.

Participants: 182 participants (88% women, mean age 38 years) with migraines on 5-20 days per month (67% met criteria for chronic migraine).

Interventions: Three diets designed with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and linoleic acid altered as controlled variables: H3 diet (n=61)-increase EPA+DHA to 1.5 g/day and maintain linoleic acid at around 7% of energy; H3-L6 diet (n=61)-increase n-3 EPA+DHA to 1.5 g/day and decrease linoleic acid to ≤1.8% of energy; control diet (n=60)-maintain EPA+DHA at <150 mg/day and linoleic acid at around 7% of energy. All participants received foods accounting for two thirds of daily food energy and continued usual care.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary endpoints (week 16) were the antinociceptive mediator 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) in blood and the headache impact test (HIT-6), a six item questionnaire assessing headache impact on quality of life. Headache frequency was assessed daily with an electronic diary.

Results: In intention-to-treat analyses (n=182), the H3-L6 and H3 diets increased circulating 17-HDHA (log ng/mL) compared with the control diet (baseline-adjusted mean difference 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.2 to 0.9; 0.7, 0.4 to 1.1, respectively). The observed improvement in HIT-6 scores in the H3-L6 and H3 groups was not statistically significant (-1.6, -4.2 to 1.0, and -1.5, -4.2 to 1.2, respectively). Compared with the control diet, the H3-L6 and H3 diets decreased total headache hours per day (-1.7, -2.5 to -0.9, and -1.3, -2.1 to -0.5, respectively), moderate to severe headache hours per day (-0.8, -1.2 to -0.4, and -0.7, -1.1 to -0.3, respectively), and headache days per month (-4.0, -5.2 to -2.7, and -2.0, -3.3 to -0.7, respectively). The H3-L6 diet decreased headache days per month more than the H3 diet (-2.0, -3.2 to -0.8), suggesting additional benefit from lowering dietary linoleic acid. The H3-L6 and H3 diets altered n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and several of their nociceptive oxylipin derivatives in plasma, serum, erythrocytes or immune cells, but did not alter classic headache mediators calcitonin gene related peptide and prostaglandin E2.

Conclusions: The H3-L6 and H3 interventions altered bioactive mediators implicated in headache pathogenesis and decreased frequency and severity of headaches, but did not significantly improve quality of life.

Trial Registration: NCT02012790.
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June 2021

Disparities in Emergency Medical Services Time Intervals for Patients with Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome: Findings from the North Carolina Prehospital Medical Information System.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Aug 29;10(15):e019305. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Emergency Medicine School of Medicine University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill NC.

Background Timely emergency medical services (EMS) response, management, and transport of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) significantly reduce delays to emergency treatment and improve outcomes. We evaluated EMS response, scene, and transport times and adherence to proposed time benchmarks for patients with suspected ACS in North Carolina from 2011 to 2017. Methods and Results We conducted a population-based, retrospective study with the North Carolina Prehospital Medical Information System, a statewide electronic database of all EMS patient care reports. We analyzed 2011 to 2017 data on patient demographics, incident characteristics, EMS care, and county population density for EMS-suspected patients with ACS, defined as a complaint of chest pain or suspected cardiac event and documentation of myocardial ischemia on prehospital ECG or prehospital activation of the cardiac care team. Descriptive statistics for each EMS time interval were computed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to quantify relationships between meeting response and scene time benchmarks (11 and 15 minutes, respectively) and prespecified covariates. Among 4667 patients meeting eligibility criteria, median response time (8 minutes) was shorter than median scene (16 minutes) and transport (17 minutes) time. While scene times were comparable by population density, patients in rural (versus urban) counties experienced longer response and transport times. Overall, 62% of EMS encounters met the 11-minute response time benchmark and 49% met the 15-minute scene time benchmark. In adjusted regression analyses, EMS encounters of older and female patients and obtaining a 12-lead ECG and venous access were independently associated with lower adherence to the scene time benchmark. Conclusions Our statewide study identified urban-rural differences in response and transport times for suspected ACS as well as patient demographic and EMS care characteristics related to lower adherence to scene time benchmark. Strategies to reduce EMS scene times among patients with ACS need to be developed and evaluated.
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August 2021

Methodology for altering omega-3 EPA+DHA and omega-6 linoleic acid as controlled variables in a dietary trial.

Clin Nutr 2021 06 12;40(6):3859-3867. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background & Aims: Increasing dietary intake of n-3 EPA+DHA and lowering dietary n-6 LA is under investigation as a therapeutic diet for improving chronic pain syndromes as well as other health outcomes. Herein we describe the diet methodology used to modulate intake of n-3 and n-6 PUFA in a free living migraine headache population and report on nutrient intake, BMI and diet acceptability achieved at week 16 of the intensive diet intervention and week 22 follow-up time-point.

Methods: A total of 178 participants were randomized and began one of three diet interventions: 1) a high n-3 PUFA, average n-6 PUFA (H3) diet targeting 1500 mg EPA+DHA/day and 7% of energy (en%) from n-6 linoleic acid (LA), 2) a high-n-3 PUFA, low-n-6 PUFA (H3L6) targeting 1500 mg EPA+DHA/day and <1.8 en% n-6 LA or 3) a Control diet with typical American intakes of both EPA+DHA (<150 mg/day) and 7 en% from n-6 LA. Methods used to achieve diet change to week 16 include diet education, diet counseling, supply of specially prepared foods, self-monitoring and access to online diet materials. Only study oils and website materials were provided for the follow-up week 16 to week 22 periods. Diet adherence was assessed by multiple 24 h recalls administered throughout the trial. Diet acceptability was assessed in a subset of participants at 4 time points by questionnaire.

Results: At week 16 H3 and H3L6 diet groups significantly increased median n-3 EPA+DHA intake from 48 mg/2000 kcals at baseline to 1484 mg/2000 kcals (p < 0.0001) and from 44 mg/2000 kcals to 1341 mg/2000 kcals (p < 0.0001), respectively. In the Control group, EPA+DHA intake remained below the typical American intake with baseline median at 60 mg/2000 kcals and 80 mg/2000 kcals (p = 0.6) at week 16. As desired, LA intake was maintained in the H3 and Control group with baseline median of 6.5 en% to 7.1 en% (p = 0.4) at week 16 and from 6.5 en% to 6.8 en% (p = 1.0) at week 16, respectively. In the H3L6 group, n-6 LA decreased from 6.3 en% at baseline to 3.2 en% (p < 0.0001) at week 16. There were no significant changes in BMI or diet acceptability throughout the trial or between diet groups.

Conclusions: We find this diet method to be acceptable to research participants and successful in altering dietary n-3 EPA+DHA with and without concurrent decreases in n-6 LA. If n-6 LA of less than 3 en% is desired, additional techniques to limit LA may need to be employed.
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June 2021

Comparing prospective headache diary and retrospective four-week headache questionnaire over 20 weeks: Secondary data analysis from a randomized controlled trial.

Cephalalgia 2020 11 16;40(13):1523-1531. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Program on Integrative Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Headache diaries and recall questionnaires are frequently used to assess headache frequency and severity in clinical and research settings.

Methods: Using 20 weeks of data from an intervention trial with 182 participants, we evaluated concordance between an electronic headache diary administered on a daily basis and designed to capture the presence and severity of headaches on an hourly basis (the headache diary) and a recall questionnaire, with retrospective estimation of the number of headache days assessed on a monthly basis. We further examined whether the duration or severity of headaches assessed by the electronic diary impacted concordance between these two measures.

Results: Over the course of four 28-day periods, people with migraine participating in a dietary intervention reported an average of 13.7 and 11.1 headache days in the headache diary and recall questionnaire, respectively.

Conclusion: Over time, the concordance between headache days reported in these two measures tended to increase; however, the recall questionnaire headache estimates were lower than the diary measures in all four periods. When analysis was restricted to headaches lasting 8 hours or more, the number of headache days was more closely aligned with days reported in the recall questionnaire, indicating that the accuracy of recall estimates is likely to be influenced by headache duration. Restriction of analyses to moderate-to-severe headaches did not change results as much as headache duration. The findings indicate that recall questionnaires administered on a monthly basis may underestimate headache frequency and therefore should not be used interchangeably with headache diaries.: NCT02012790.
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November 2020

Instrumental variable approach to estimating the scalar-on-function regression model with measurement error with application to energy expenditure assessment in childhood obesity.

Stat Med 2019 09 20;38(20):3764-3781. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Department of Statistics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

Wearable device technology allows continuous monitoring of biological markers and thereby enables study of time-dependent relationships. For example, in this paper, we are interested in the impact of daily energy expenditure over a period of time on subsequent progression toward obesity among children. Data from these devices appear as either sparsely or densely observed functional data and methods of functional regression are often used for their statistical analyses. We study the scalar-on-function regression model with imprecisely measured values of the predictor function. In this setting, we have a scalar-valued response and a function-valued covariate that are both collected at a single time period. We propose a generalized method of moments-based approach for estimation, while an instrumental variable belonging in the same time space as the imprecisely measured covariate is used for model identification. Additionally, no distributional assumptions regarding the measurement errors are assumed, while complex covariance structures are allowed for the measurement errors in the implementation of our proposed methods. We demonstrate that our proposed estimator is L consistent and enjoys the optimal rate of convergence for univariate nonparametric functions. In a simulation study, we illustrate that ignoring measurement error leads to biased estimations of the functional coefficient. The simulation studies also confirm our ability to consistently estimate the function-valued coefficient when compared to approaches that ignore potential measurement errors. Our proposed methods are applied to our motivating example to assess the impact of baseline levels of energy expenditure on body mass index among elementary school-aged children.
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September 2019

Availability of Hospital Resources and Specialty Services for Stroke Care in North Carolina.

South Med J 2019 06;112(6):331-337

From the Department of Emergency Medicine, the Department of Biostatistics, EMS Performance Improvement Center, Department of Neurology, and the Davis Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Objectives: Effective regionalization of acute stroke care requires assessment and coordination of limited hospital resources. We described the availability of stroke-specific hospital resources (neurology specialty physicians and neuro-intensive care unit [neuro-ICU] bed capacity) for North Carolina overall and by region and population density. We also assessed daily trends in hospital bed availability.

Methods: This statewide descriptive study was conducted with data from the State Medical Asset Resource Tracking Tool (SMARTT), a Web-based system used by North Carolina to track available medical resources within the state. The SMARTT system was queried for stroke-specific physician and bed resources at each North Carolina hospital during a 1-year period (June 2015-May 2016), including daily availability of neuro-ICU beds. We compared hospital resources by geographic region and population density (metropolitan, urban, and rural).

Results: Data from 108 acute care hospitals located in 75 of 100 counties in North Carolina were included in the analysis. Fifty-seven percent of hospitals had no neurology specialty physicians. Western and eastern North Carolina had the lowest prevalence of these physicians. Most hospitals (88%) had general ICUs, whereas only 17 hospitals (16%) had neuro-ICUs. Neuro-ICUs were concentrated in metropolitan areas and in central North Carolina. On average, there were 276 general ICU and 27 neuro-ICU beds available statewide each day. Daily neuro-ICU bed availability was lowest in eastern and southeastern regions and during the week compared with weekends.

Conclusions: In North Carolina, stroke-specific hospital subspecialists and resources are not distributed evenly across the state. Daily bed availability, particularly in neuro-ICUs, is lacking in rural areas and noncentral regions and appears to decrease on weekdays. Regionalization of stroke care needs to consider the geographic distribution and daily variability of hospital resources.
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June 2019

Polyphenol-rich Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Ameliorate Functional Constipation Symptoms in Humans beyond Equivalent Amount of Fiber.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2018 06 29;62(12):e1701034. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.

Scope: Chronic constipation is a common gastrointestinal condition associated with intestinal inflammation and considerably impaired quality of life, affecting about 20% of Americans. Dietary fiber and laxatives aid in its treatment but do not fully address all symptoms, such as intestinal inflammation. Mango (Mangifera indica L.), a fiber- and polyphenol-rich fruit may provide anti-inflammatory effects in constipation.

Methods And Results: The 4 week consumption of mango fruit (300 g) or the equivalent amount of fiber is investigated in otherwise healthy human volunteers with chronic constipation who are randomly assigned to either group. Blood and fecal samples and digestive wellness questionnaires are collected at the beginning and end of the study. Results show that mango consumption significantly improve constipation status (stool frequency, consistency, and shape) and increase gastrin levels and fecal concentrations of short chain fatty acid (valeric acid) while lowering endotoxin and interleukin 6 concentrations in plasma.

Conclusion: In this pilot study, the consumption of mango improves symptoms and associated biomarkers of constipation beyond an equivalent amount of fiber. Larger follow-up studies would need to investigate biomarkers for intestinal inflammation in more detail.
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June 2018