Publications by authors named "Gilles Walch"

198 Publications

Lateralization in Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty.

J Clin Med 2021 Nov 18;10(22). Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Royal Perth Hospital, Perth 6000, Australia.

Indications for Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty (RSA) have been extended over the last 25 years, and RSA has become the most frequently implanted shoulder arthroplasty worldwide. The initial Grammont design with medialization of the joint center of rotation (JCOR), placement of the JCOR at the bone-implant interface, distalization and semi-constrained configuration has been associated with drawbacks such as reduced rotation and range of motion (ROM), notching, instability and loss of shoulder contour. This review summarizes new strategies to overcome these drawbacks and analyzes the use of glenoid-sided, humeral-sided or global bipolar lateralization, which are applied differently by surgeons and current implant manufacturers. Advantages and drawbacks are discussed. There is evidence that lateralization addresses the initial drawbacks of the Grammont design, improving stability, rates of notching, ROM and shoulder contour, but the ideal extent of lateralization of the glenoid and humerus remains unclear, as well as the maximal acceptable joint reaction force after reduction. Overstuffing and spine of scapula fractures are potential risks. CT-based 3D planning as well as artificial intelligence will help surgeons with planning and execution of appropriate lateralization in RSA. Long-term follow-up of lateralization with new implant designs and implantation strategies is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10225380DOI Listing
November 2021

Development and assessment of 3-dimensional computed tomography measures of proximal humeral bone density: a comparison to established 2-dimensional measures and intraoperative findings in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty.

JSES Int 2021 Nov 16;5(6):1008-1013. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Centre Orthopédique Santy, Lyon, France.

Background: The purpose of this study was to develop novel three-dimensional (3D) measures of bone density from computed tomography (CT) scans and to compare them with validated two-dimensional (2D) radiographic assessments of bone density. Patient demographic data were also analyzed to see if there were any predictors of bone density (age, sex, etiology).

Methods: The study group consisted of 290 consecutive patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty surgery (total anatomic, reverse, and hemiarthroplasty). All underwent preoperative CT imaging. Three 3D CT measurements (metaphysis cancellous, metaphysis cortical, and proximal diaphysis) were developed and automated into software. The developed 3D measurements were compared with validated 2D measures (Tingart and Gianotti Index). Patient demographic data were correlated with these measurements. The difference between the size of the final sounder and of the final stem was calculated as Delta.

Results: There was moderately strong correlation between Tingart and Gianotti measures (0.674,  < .001), as well as between 3D metaphysis cancellous measurements and Tingart (0.645,  < .001). Decreased bone density was highly correlated with female sex. Tingart (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82-0.91) and 3D metaphysis cancellous (AUC: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.72-0.84) had the highest correlation. These were significantly more than other measures of bone density ( < .01). Decreased bone density measured with Tingart also had moderate correlation with advanced age (AUC: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.6-0.73), but less so for etiology (AUC: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.55-0.69). The 3D metaphysis cancellous measure had lower correlation with age (AUC: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52-0.66) and etiology (AUC: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52-0.65). The highest correlation with Delta (the difference between the final sounder and the stem size) was with the 3D metaphysis cancellous measure (AUC: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.59-0.73), followed by Tingart (AUC: 0.647, 95% CI: 0.57-0.671). A multiple regression model to predict Delta demonstrated the stronger prediction using 3D metaphysis cancellous (analysis of variance F-ratio of 42.6,  < .001) than Tingart (35.9,  < .001).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that automated measures of bone density can be obtained from 3D CT scans. Of the three novel 3D measurements of bone density, the humeral metaphysis cancellous measurement was most correlated to the known 2D measures and most correlated to the intraoperative assessment of bone density (delta).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2021.07.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8569005PMC
November 2021

Pre-Operative Planning of Baseplate Position in Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty: Still No Consensus on Lateralization, Version and Inclination.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 Oct 12:103115. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Institut Locomoteur et du Sport, Hôpital Pasteur 2, 30 Voie Romaine, 06000 Nice, France.

Introduction: In the context of reverse shoulder arthroplasty, some parameters of glenoid baseplate placement follow established golden rules, while other parameters still have no consensus. The assessment of glenoid wear in the future location of the glenoid baseplate varies among surgeons. The objective of this study was to analyze the inter-observer reproducibility of glenoid baseplate 3D positioning during virtual pre-operative planning.

Method: Four shoulder surgeons planned the glenoid baseplate position of a reverse arthroplasty in the CT scans of 30 degenerative shoulders. The position of the glenoid guide pin entry point and the glenoid baseplate center was compared between surgeons. The baseplate's version and inclination were also analyzed.

Results: The 3D positioning of the pin entry point was achieved within ± 4 mm for nearly 100% of the shoulders. The superoinferior, anteroposterior and mediolateral positions of the baseplate center were achieved within ± 2 mm for 77.2%, 67.8% and 39.4% of the plans, respectively. The 3D orientation of the glenoid baseplate within ± 10° was inconsistent between the four surgeons (weak agreement, K = 0.31, p = 0.17).

Discussion: The placement of the glenoid guide pin was very consistent between surgeons. Conversely, there was little agreement on the lateralization, version and inclination criteria for positioning the glenoid baseplate between surgeons. These parameters need to be studied further in clinical practice to establish golden rules. Three-dimensional information from pre-operative planning is beneficial for assessing the glenoid deformity and for limiting its impact on the baseplate position achieved by different surgeons.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2021.103115DOI Listing
October 2021

Three-dimensional muscle loss assessment: a novel computed tomography-based quantitative method to evaluate rotator cuff muscle fatty infiltration.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

IMT Atlantique, LaTIM INSERM U1101, Brest, France.

Background: Rotator cuff fatty infiltration (FI) is one of the most important parameters to predict the outcome of certain shoulder conditions. The primary objective of this study was to define a new computed tomography (CT)-based quantitative 3-dimensional (3D) measure of muscle loss (3DML) based on the rationale of the 2-dimensional (2D) qualitative Goutallier score. The secondary objective of this study was to compare this new measurement method to traditional 2D qualitative assessment of FI according to Goutallier et al and to a 3D quantitative measurement of fatty infiltration (3DFI).

Materials And Methods: 102 CT scans from healthy shoulders (46) and shoulders with cuff tear arthropathy (21), irreparable rotator cuff tears (18), and primary osteoarthritis (17) were analyzed by 3 experienced shoulder surgeons for subjective grading of fatty infiltration according to Goutallier, and their rotator cuff muscles were manually segmented. Quantitative 3D measurements of fatty infiltration (3DFI) were completed. The volume of muscle fibers without intramuscular fat was then calculated for each rotator cuff muscle and normalized to the patient's scapular volume to account for the effect of body size (NV). 3D muscle mass (3DMM) was calculated by dividing the NV value of a given muscle by the mean expected volume in healthy shoulders. 3D muscle loss (3DML) was defined as 1 - (3DMM). The correlation between Goutallier grading, 3DFI, and 3DML was compared using a Spearman rank correlation.

Results: Interobserver reliability for the traditional 2D Goutallier grading was moderate for the infraspinatus (ISP, 0.42) and fair for the supraspinatus (SSP, 0.38), subscapularis (SSC, 0.27) and teres minor (TM, 0.27). 2D Goutallier grading was found to be significantly and highly correlated with 3DFI (SSP, 0.79; ISP, 0.83; SSC, 0.69; TM, 0.45) and 3DML (SSP, 0.87; ISP, 0.85; SSC, 0.69; TM, 0.46) for all 4 rotator cuff muscles (P < .0001). This correlation was significantly higher for 3DML than for the 3DFI for SSP only (P = .01). The mean values of 3DFI and 3DML were 0.9% and 5.3% for Goutallier 0, 2.9% and 25.6% for Goutallier 1, 11.4% and 49.5% for Goutallier 2, 20.7% and 59.7% for Goutallier 3, and 29.3% and 70.2% for Goutallier 4, respectively.

Conclusion: The Goutallier score has been helping surgeons by using 2D CT scan slices. However, this grading is associated with suboptimal interobserver agreement. The new measures we propose provide a more consistent assessment that correlates well with Goutallier's principles. As 3DML measurements incorporate atrophy and fatty infiltration, they could become a very reliable index for assessing shoulder muscle function. Future algorithms capable of automatically calculating the 3DML of the cuff could help in the decision process for cuff repair and the choice of anatomic or reverse shoulder arthroplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.07.029DOI Listing
August 2021

CT-based volumetric assessment of rotator cuff muscle in shoulder arthroplasty preoperative planning.

Bone Jt Open 2021 Jul;2(7):552-561

Centre Orthopédique Santy, Lyon, France.

Aims: The aim of this study was to describe a quantitative 3D CT method to measure rotator cuff muscle volume, atrophy, and balance in healthy controls and in three pathological shoulder cohorts.

Methods: In all, 102 CT scans were included in the analysis: 46 healthy, 21 cuff tear arthropathy (CTA), 18 irreparable rotator cuff tear (IRCT), and 17 primary osteoarthritis (OA). The four rotator cuff muscles were manually segmented and their volume, including intramuscular fat, was calculated. The normalized volume (NV) of each muscle was calculated by dividing muscle volume to the patient's scapular bone volume. Muscle volume and percentage of muscle atrophy were compared between muscles and between cohorts.

Results: Rotator cuff muscle volume was significantly decreased in patients with OA, CTA, and IRCT compared to healthy patients (p < 0.0001). Atrophy was comparable for all muscles between CTA, IRCT, and OA patients, except for the supraspinatus, which was significantly more atrophied in CTA and IRCT (p = 0.002). In healthy shoulders, the anterior cuff represented 45% of the entire cuff, while the posterior cuff represented 40%. A similar partition between anterior and posterior cuff was also found in both CTA and IRCT patients. However, in OA patients, the relative volume of the anterior (42%) and posterior cuff (45%) were similar.

Conclusion: This study shows that rotator cuff muscle volume is significantly decreased in patients with OA, CTA, or IRCT compared to healthy patients, but that only minimal differences can be observed between the different pathological groups. This suggests that the influence of rotator cuff muscle volume and atrophy (including intramuscular fat) as an independent factor of outcome may be overestimated. Cite this article:  2021;2(7):552-561.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/2633-1462.27.BJO-2021-0081.R1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329519PMC
July 2021

Clinical and Radiological Results of Hemiarthroplasty and Total Shoulder Arthroplasty for Primary Avascular Necrosis of the Humeral Head in Patients Less Than 60 Years Old.

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 12;10(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Institut Locomoteur de l'Ouest, CHP St Grégoire, 35760 Saint Grégoire, France.

Background: Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and hemiarthroplasty (HA) have shown good clinical outcomes in primary avascular necrosis of the humeral head (PANHH) both in short and long terms. The purpose of this study was to assess the complications, the clinical and radiological outcomes of shoulder arthroplasty in young patients with PANHH.

Methods: One hundred and twenty-seven patients aged under 60 years old and suffering from PANHH were operated with arthroplasty. Patients were assessed clinically and radiographically before surgery with a minimum of 2 years of follow up (FU).

Results: HA was performed on 108 patients (85%). Two patients were revised for painful glenoid wear after 2 and 4 years. TSA was performed on 19 patients (15%). Five TSA had to be revised for glenoid loosening ( = 4) or instability ( = 1). Revision rate was 26% with TSA and 2% with HA. There were no significant differences between HA and TSA in terms of clinical outcomes.

Conclusions: With a mean FU of 8 years, HA and TSA improved clinical outcomes of patients with PANHH. HA revisions for painful glenoid wear were rare (2%). The revision rate was excessively high with TSA (26%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10143081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8305425PMC
July 2021

An update on reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: current indications, new designs, same old problems.

EFORT Open Rev 2021 Mar 1;6(3):189-201. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Albany Health Campus, Albany, Australia.

Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) was originally developed because of unsatisfactory results with anatomic shoulder arthroplasty options for the majority of degenerative shoulder conditions and fractures.After initial concerns about RTSA longevity, indications were extended to primary osteoarthritis with glenoid deficiency, massive cuff tears in younger patients, fracture, tumour and failed anatomic total shoulder replacement.Traditional RTSA by Grammont has undergone a number of iterations such as glenoid lateralization, reduced neck-shaft angle, modular, stemless components and onlay systems.The incidence of complications such as dislocation, notching and acromial fractures has also evolved.Computer navigation, 3D planning and patient-specific implantation have been in use for several years and mixed-reality guided implantation is currently being trialled.Controversies in RTSA include lateralization, stemless humeral components, subscapularis repair and treatment of acromial fractures. Cite this article: 2021;6:189-201. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200085.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/2058-5241.6.200085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025709PMC
March 2021

Identification of threshold pathoanatomic metrics in primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Oct 2;30(10):2270-2282. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Hôpital Privé Jean Mermoz-Generale De Santé (GDS) Ramsay, Lyon, France.

Background: An assessment of the pathoanatomic parameters of the arthritic glenohumeral joint (GHJ) has the potential to identify discriminating metrics to differentiate glenoid types in shoulders with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis (PGHOA). The aim was to identify the morphometric differences and threshold values between glenoid types including normal and arthritic glenoids with the various types in the Walch classification. We hypothesized that there would be clear morphometric discriminators between the various glenoid types and that specific numeric threshold values would allow identification of each glenoid type.

Methods: The computed tomography scans of 707 shoulders were analyzed: 585 obtained from shoulders with PGHOA and 122 from shoulders without glenohumeral pathology. Glenoid morphology was classified according to the Walch classification. All computed tomography scans were imported in a dedicated automatic 3D-software program that referenced measurements to the scapular body plane. Glenoid and humeral modeling was performed using the best-fit sphere method, and the root-mean-square error was calculated. The direction and orientation of the glenoid and humerus described glenohumeral relationships.

Results: Among shoulders with PGHOA, 90% of the glenoids and 85% of the humeral heads were directed posteriorly in reference to the scapular body plane. Several discriminatory pathoanatomic parameters were identified: GHJ narrowing < 3 mm was a discriminatory metric for type A glenoids. Posterior humeral subluxation > 70% discriminated type B1 from normal GHJs. The root-mean-square error was a discriminatory metric to distinguish type B2 from type A, type B3, and normal GHJs. Type B3 glenoids differed from type A2 by greater retroversion (>13°) and subluxation (>71%). The type C glenoid retroversion inferior limit was 21°, whereas normal glenoids never presented with retroversion > 16°.

Conclusion: Pathoanatomic metrics with the identified threshold values can be used to discriminate glenoid types in shoulders with PGHOA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.03.140DOI Listing
October 2021

Risk factors for instability after reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

Shoulder Elbow 2021 Feb 27;13(1):51-57. Epub 2019 Jul 27.

Centre Orthopaedique Santy, Hopital Privé Jean Mermoz Ramsay-GDS, Lyon, France.

Background: This study aims to identify risk factors related to postoperative instability after reverse shoulder arthroplasty and evaluate the modalities and results of treatments in a large series of patients, with medium to long-term follow-up.

Methods: Retrospective multicenter series of 1035 consecutive Grammont type reverse shoulder arthroplasties implanted between 1992 and 2010. 19.9% had a reverse shoulder arthroplasty with bony lateralization on the glenoid side. Patients were reviewed and radiographed with minimum five years' follow-up.

Results: At a mean follow-up of eight years, the overall rate of postoperative instability was 3.0%. Instability was more frequent in case of reverse shoulder arthroplasty for revision surgery, in younger patients, in case of scapular notching, and tuberosity resorption. Lateralized reverse shoulder arthroplasties were associated with a lower instability rate. A reoperation to restore stability was needed in 70% of cases. The improvement in Constant Score was lower in patients with unstable reverse shoulder arthroplasties when compared to stable reverse shoulder arthroplasties.

Conclusions: Younger patients are at higher risk for instability after Grammont type reverse shoulder arthroplasty implantation. Conversely, lateralized reverse shoulder arthroplasties resulted protective. When conservative treatment had failed, shoulder stability can be obtained with reoperation or prosthetic revision (needed in 70% of the cases), but to the price of lower functional results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758573219864266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905521PMC
February 2021

Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in rheumatoid arthritis: survival and outcomes.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Oct 3;30(10):2312-2324. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

ICR-Institut de Chirurgie Réparatrice Locomoteur & Sport, Nice, France. Electronic address:

Background: Despite its potential biomechanical advantages, reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is still considered to be particularly high risk in rheumatoid patients who are osteoporotic and immunodeficient. Our purpose was to report prosthesis survival, complications, and outcomes of RSA in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at minimum 5-year follow-up.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective multicenter study including 65 consecutive primary RSAs performed in 59 patients with RA between 1991 and 2010. We excluded rheumatoid patients with previous failed anatomic shoulder arthroplasty. Age at surgery averaged 69 years (range, 46-86 years). A structural bone grafting was performed in 18 cases (45%), using the humeral head in 15 cases (BIO-RSA technique), the iliac crest in 2 cases (Norris technique), and an allograft in 1 case. The mean follow-up was 92 months (range, 60-147 months) or until revision surgery.

Results: Revision-free survivorship, using Kaplan-Meier curves, was 96% at 7 years. Two patients had revision surgeries for infections, with associated glenoid loosening in 1 case. No humeral loosening was recorded. The mean adjusted Constant score improved from 36% ± 23% preoperatively to 90% ± 26% postoperatively, and mean Subjective Shoulder Value improved from 21% ± 13% to 85% ± 12%, respectively (P < .001). Active anterior elevation increased from 65° ± 43° to 132° ± 27°, active external rotation increased from 10° ± 26° to 22° ± 27°, and internal rotation improved from buttocks to waist (P < .001). Stable fixation of the baseplate was achieved in all cases (including the 6 patients with end-stage RA), and we did not observe bone graft nonunion or resorption. Preoperative radiologic pattern (centered, ascending, or destructive), presence of acromial fractures or tilt (4 cases, 10%), and scapular notching (55%) on final radiographs were not found to influence outcomes or complication rate. Patients with absent/atrophied teres minor had lower functional results. Overall, 95% of the patients were satisfied with the procedure.

Conclusion: RSA is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of RA patients, with a low risk of complications and low rate of revision, regardless of the radiologic presentation and stage of the disease. Rheumatoid patients undergoing primary RSA, with or without glenoid bone grafting, can expect a revision-free survival rate of 96% at 7-year follow-up. RSA offers the benefit of solving 2 key problems encountered in rheumatoid shoulders: glenoid bone destruction and rotator cuff deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.01.033DOI Listing
October 2021

Humeral head subluxation in Walch type B shoulders varies across imaging modalities.

JSES Int 2021 Jan 10;5(1):98-101. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Roth|McFarlane Hand & Upper Limb Centre, St. Joseph's Healthcare London, London, ON, Canada.

Background: The Walch type B pattern of glenohumeral osteoarthritis is characterized by posterior humeral head subluxation (PHHS). At present, it is unknown whether the percentage of subluxation measured on axillary radiographs is consistent with measurements on 2-dimensional (2D) axial or 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this study was to evaluate PHHS across imaging modalities (radiographs, 2D CT, and 3D CT).

Methods: A cohort of 30 patients with Walch type B shoulders underwent radiography and standardized CT scans. The cohort comprised 10 type B1, 10 type B2, and 10 type B3 glenoids. PHHS was measured using the scapulohumeral subluxation method on axillary radiographs and 2D CT. On 3D CT, PHHS was measured volumetrically. PHHS was statistically compared between imaging modalities, with ≤ .05 considered significant.

Results: The mean PHHS value for the entire group was 69% ± 24% on radiographs, 65% ± 23% with 2D CT, and 74% ± 24% with 3D volumetric CT. PHHS as measured on complete axillary radiographs was not significantly different than that measured on 2D CT ( = .941). Additionally, PHHS on 3D volumetric CT was 9.5% greater than that on 2D CT ( < .001). There were no significant differences in PHHS between the type B1, B2, and B3 groups with 2D or 3D CT measurement techniques ( > .102).

Conclusion: Significant differences in PHHS were found between measurement techniques ( < .035). A 9.5% difference in PHHS between 2D and 3D CT can be mostly accounted for by the linear (2D) vs. volumetric (3D) measurement techniques (a linear 80% PHHS value is mathematically equivalent to a volumetric PHHS value of 89.6%). Surgeons should be aware that subluxation values and therefore thresholds vary across different imaging modalities and measurement techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2020.08.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846694PMC
January 2021

Evaluation and Management of Glenohumeral Instability With Associated Bone Loss: An Expert Consensus Statement Using the Modified Delphi Technique.

Arthroscopy 2021 06 13;37(6):1719-1728. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

Purpose: To establish an international expert consensus, using the modified Delphi technique, on the evaluation and management of glenohumeral instability with associated bone loss.

Methods: A working group of 6 individuals generated a list of statements related to history and physical examination, imaging and specialized diagnostic tests, bone loss quantification and classification, treatment outcomes and complications, and rehabilitation for the management of glenohumeral instability associated with bone loss to form the basis of an initial survey for rating by a group of experts. The expert group (composed of 22 high-volume glenohumeral instability experts) was surveyed on 3 occasions to establish a consensus on the statements. Items with over 70% agreement and less than 10% disagreement achieved consensus.

Results: After a total of 3 rounds, 31 statements achieved consensus. Eighty-six percent of the experts agreed that a history of multiple dislocations and failed soft-tissue surgery should raise suspicion about the possibility of an associated bone deficit. Ninety-five percent of the experts agreed that 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate diagnostic method to evaluate and quantify bone loss. Eighty-six percent of the experts agreed that any of the available methods to measure glenoid bone deficiency is adequate; however, 91% of the experts thought that an en face view of the glenoid using 3D CT provides the most accurate method. Ninety-five percent of the experts agreed that Hill-Sachs lesions are poorly quantified and classified by current imaging systems. Ninety percent of the experts agreed that in cases with a glenoid bone deficit greater than 20%, glenoid bone graft reconstruction should be performed and any of the available options is valid. There was no consensus among experts on how Hill-Sachs injuries should be managed or on how postoperative rehabilitation should be carried out.

Conclusions: The essential statements on which the experts reached consensus included the following: A history of multiple dislocations and failed soft-tissue surgery should make surgeons consider the possibility of an associated bone deficit. Three-dimensional CT is the most accurate diagnostic method to evaluate and quantify bone loss. Although any of the available methods to measure glenoid bone deficiency is adequate, an en face view of the glenoid using 3D CT provides the most accurate method. Hill-Sachs lesions are poorly quantified and classified by current imaging systems. Finally, in cases with a glenoid bone deficit greater than 20%, glenoid bone graft reconstruction should be performed.

Level Of Evidence: Level V, consensus statement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2020.12.237DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinical and radiologic outcomes of eccentric glenosphere versus concentric glenosphere in reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Aug 1;30(8):1899-1906. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Centre Orthopédique Santy, FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Groupe Ramsay-Générale de Santé, Hôpital Privé Jean Mermoz, Lyon, France.

Background: The use of an eccentric glenosphere (EG) has been proposed as a way to prevent scapular notching in reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the use of an EG decreases scapular notching compared with matched standard concentric glenosphere (CG) controls.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed. This study included 49 RSAs with an EG and 49 paired RSAs with a CG with a minimum 60 months of both clinical and radiographic follow-up. Clinical and radiologic outcomes of the EG and CG groups were compared at inclusion and at the last follow-up using the paired Student t test for quantitative data and the χ test for qualitative data. Scapular notching was graded according to the Sirveaux classification. Statistical significance was set at P < .05.

Results: Notching was observed 2.7 times (95% confidence interval, 1.0-6.8 times) more often in the CG group (P = .037). The difference in notching severity between the groups was not statistically relevant; however, there was a trend toward more severe notching in the CG group (P = .059). Compared with a CG, an EG did not increase the percentage of radiolucent lines around the screws (3% vs. 1.5%, P = .62), around the post (3% vs. 1.5%, P = .62), or below the baseplate (15% vs. 7.5%, P = .18).

Conclusion: EGs are associated with less notching than CGs. This finding confirms that RSA with an EG is an effective procedure without specific complications at a minimum follow-up of 5 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.10.032DOI Listing
August 2021

The Characteristics of the Favard E4 Glenoid Morphology in Cuff Tear Arthropathy: A CT Study.

J Clin Med 2020 Nov 18;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 18.

IULS (Institut Universitaire Locomoteur du Sport), Hôpital Pasteur 2 University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, 06000 Nice, France.

Background: Cuff tear arthropathy (CTA) is characterized by superior migration of the humeral head with superior erosion of the glenoid. Rarely, humeral head migration can be anteroinferior with associated anterior erosion of the glenoid, a pattern described by Favard as the type E4 glenoid. The purpose of this retrospective imaging study was to analyze the 2D and 3D characteristics of the E4 glenoid.

Methods: A shoulder arthroplasty database of 258 cuff tear arthropathies was examined to identify patients with an E4 type deformity. This resulted in a study cohort of 15 females and 2 males with an average age of 75 years. All patients had radiographs and CT scans available for analysis. CT-scan DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) data were uploaded to a validated three-dimensional (3D) imaging software. Muscle fatty infiltration, glenoid measurements (anteversion, inclination), and humeral head subluxation according to the scapular plane were determined.

Results: The mean anteversion and inclination of the E4 cohort were 32° ± 14° and -5° ± 2, respectively. The mean anterior subluxation was 19% ± 16%. All cases had severe grade 3 or 4 fatty infiltration of the infraspinatus, whereas only 65% had grade 3 or 4 subscapularis fatty infiltration. A significant correlation existed between glenoid anteversion and humeral head subluxation ( < 0.001), but no correlation was found with muscle fatty infiltration. The CT analysis demonstrated an acquired erosive biconcave morphology in 11 patients (65%) and monoconcavity in 6 patients (35%).

Conclusion: The E4 type glenoid deformity in cuff tear arthropathy is characterized by an anterior erosion and anteversion associated with anterior subluxation of the humeral head.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699291PMC
November 2020

SECEC Grammont Award 2017: the prejudicial effect of greater tuberosity osteotomy or excision in reverse shoulder arthroplasty for fracture sequelae.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Dec 9;29(12):2446-2458. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

iULS-University Institute for Locomotion & Sport, Pasteur 2 Hospital, Nice, France.

Hypothesis: The aim was to evaluate risk factors for complications, revision, and mid- to long-term outcomes after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) implanted for proximal humeral fracture sequelae (PHFS).

Methods: The radiographs of 98 patients (mean age, 68 years) who underwent RSA for the treatment of PHFS were reviewed at a minimum 5-year follow-up. PHFS were divided into 4 types according to the Boileau classification: type 1 (46 cases), type 2 (6 cases), type 3 (12 cases), and type 4 (34 cases). The tuberosities underwent osteotomy in 28 cases and excision in 12 (all type 3 or 4 PHFS). The mean follow-up period was 8.4 years (range, 5-14 years).

Results: The functional results and rate of RSA survival without revision (85% vs. 100% at 10 years, P = .007) were significantly lower for types 3 and 4 vs. types 1 and 2. Overall, our findings showed that RSA for PHFS is not the panacea that surgeons once believed: At a mean follow-up of 8.5 years (range, 5-14 years), 59% of the patients in our series had fair or poor results. Patients who underwent tuberosity osteotomy or excision had lower functional results (adjusted Constant score, 69% vs. 88%; P < .001), more postoperative complications (32% vs. 9%, P = .003), and a higher revision rate (15% vs. 2%, P = .017). Patients who underwent tuberosity osteotomy or excision at the time of RSA were at risk of postoperative prosthetic instability and humeral stem loosening. The absence of the greater tuberosity at last radiographic follow-up was predictive of higher rates of complications and revisions, as well as a poorer final outcome. Previous fracture fixation was associated with a higher rate of complete tuberosity resorption (56% vs. 33%, P = .026) and with higher rates of postoperative complications (27% vs. 13%, P = .099) and reinterventions (17% vs. 2%, P = .018).

Conclusion: The functional results and rates of complications and revision depend on the type of fracture sequelae and tuberosity management. Patients with more severe (type 3 and 4) fracture sequelae who undergo tuberosity osteotomy or excision are at risk of having a poorer functional result and higher rates of complications and revision with lower survival. Previous fracture fixation is also a prejudicial factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.03.010DOI Listing
December 2020

Adjusting Implant Size and Position Can Improve Internal Rotation After Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty in a Three-dimensional Computational Model.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 01;479(1):198-204

E. G. Huish, L. Neyton, G. Walch, Ramsay Générale de Santé, Hôpital Privé Jean Mermoz, Centre Orthopédique Santy, Lyon, France.

Background: Efforts during reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) have typically focused on maximizing ROM in elevation and external rotation and avoiding scapular notching. Improving internal rotation (IR) is often overlooked, despite its importance for functional outcomes in terms of patient self-care and hygiene. Although determinants of IR are multifactorial, it is unable to surpass limits of bony impingement of the implant. Identifying implant configurations that can reduce bony impingement in a computer model will help surgeons during preoperative planning and also direct implant design and clinical research going forward.

Questions/purposes: In a CT-modeling study, we asked: What reverse total shoulder arthroplasty implant position improves the range of impingement free internal rotation without compromising other motions (external rotation and extension)?

Methods: CT images stored in a deidentified teaching database from 25 consecutive patients with Walch A1 glenoids underwent three-dimensional templating for RSA. Each template used the same implant and configuration, which consisted of an onlay humeral design and a 36-mm standard glenosphere. The resulting constructs were virtually taken through ROM until bony impingement was found. Variations were made in the RSA parameters of baseplate lateralization, glenosphere size, glenosphere overhang, humeral version, and humeral neck-shaft angle. Simulated ROM was repeated after each parameter was changed individually and then again after combining multiple changes into a single configuration. The impingement-free IR was calculated and compared between groups. We also evaluated the effect on other ROM including external rotation and extension to ensure that configurations with improvements in IR were not associated with losses in other areas.

Results: Combining lateralization, inferiorization, varus neck-shaft angle, increased glenosphere size, and increased humeral anteversion resulted in a greater improvement in internal rotation than any single parameter change did (median baseline IR: 85° [interquartile range 73° to 90°]; combined changes: 119° [IQR 113° to 121°], median difference: 37° [IQR 32° to 43°]; p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Increased glenosphere overhang, varus neck-shaft angle, and humeral anteversion improved internal rotation in a computational model, while glenoid lateralization alone did not. Combining these techniques led to the greatest improvement in IR.

Clinical Relevance: This computer model study showed that various implant changes including inferiorization, varus neck-shaft angle, increased glenosphere size, and increased humeral anteversion can be combined to increase impingement-free IR. Surgeons can employ these currently available implant configurations to improve IR when planning and performing RSA. These findings support the need for further clinical studies validating the effect of implant configuration on resultant IR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899712PMC
January 2021

Locked 90°-double plating of scapular spine fracture after reverse shoulder arthroplasty with union and good outcome despite plate adjacent acromion fracture.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Sep 10;13(9). Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Centre Orthopédique Santy, Lyon, France.

We report the case of a 74-year-old woman who sustained a scapular spine (SS) fracture after a fall 4 weeks after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with locked 90°-double plating resulted in union of the SS fracture with a good outcome (subjective shoulder value: 80%; Constant score 67; 1 year) despite of an adjacent lateral acromion fracture 3 weeks after ORIF. This is the second description in the literature of a successful double plate ORIF with union of an SS fracture after RSA. SS fractures are known to lead to poor RSA outcomes with a high mal-union rate and non-union rate. We describe the positioning of the plates and technical steps for successful ORIF to avoid complications, discuss the aftercare and report the outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-234727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484859PMC
September 2020

Three-dimensional geometry of the normal shoulder: a software analysis.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Dec 9;29(12):e468-e477. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Hôpital Privé Jean-Mermoz-GDS Ramsay, Lyon, France.

Background: Three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the normal glenohumeral bone anatomy and relations is poorly documented. Our aims were (1) to determine the 3D geometry of the normal glenohumeral joint (GHJ) with reference to the scapular body plane and (2) to identify spatial correlations between the orientation and direction of the humeral head and the glenoid.

Methods: Computed tomographies (CTs) of the normal, noninjured GHJ were collected from patients who had undergone CTs in the setting of (1) polytrauma, (2) traumatic head injury, (3) chronic acromioclavicular joint dislocations, and (4) unilateral trauma with a contralateral normal shoulder. We performed 3D segmentation and measurements with a fully automatic software (Glenosys; Imascap). Measurements were made in reference to the scapular body plane and its transverse axis. Geometric measurements included version, inclination, direction, orientation, best-fit sphere radius (BFSR), humeral subluxation, critical shoulder angle, reverse shoulder angle, glenoid area, and glenohumeral distance. Statistical correlations were sought between glenoid and humeral 3D measurements (Pearson correlation).

Results: A total of 122 normal GHJs (64 men, 58 women, age: 52 ± 17 years) were studied. The glenoid BFSR was always larger than the humerus BFSR (constant factor of 1.5, standard deviation = 0.2). The mean glenoid version and inclination were -6° ± 4° and 7° ± 5°, respectively. Men and women were found to have significantly different values for inclination (6° vs. 9°, P = .02), but not for version. Humeral subluxation was 59% ± 7%, with a linear correlation with glenoid retroversion (r = -0.70, P < .001) regardless of age. There was a significant and linear correlation between glenoid and humeral orientation and direction (r = 0.72 and r = 0.70, P < .001).

Conclusion: The 3D geometry of the glenoid and humeral head present distinct limits in normal shoulders that can be set as references in daily practice: version and inclination are -6° and 7°, respectively, and humeral posterior subluxation is 59%; interindividual variations, regardless of the size, are relative to the scapular plane. There exists a strong correlation between the position of the humeral head and the glenoid orientation and direction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.03.042DOI Listing
December 2020

Glenoid subchondral bone density in osteoarthritis: A comparative study of asymmetric and symmetric erosion patterns.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2020 Oct 15;106(6):1127-1134. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Hôpital Privé J Mermoz Ramsay-GDS-Centre orthopédique Santy, 69008 Lyon, France.

Background: Recent studies have shown variations in glenoid bone density in asymmetric wear patterns but have yet to analyze non-arthritic or concentrically worn glenoids.

Questions/purposes: The purpose of this study is to characterize and compare subchondral glenoid bone densities in both non-arthritic and A1, A2, B1, B2 and B3 osteoarthritic glenoids, as well as to assess uniformity in symmetric and asymmetric erosion wear patterns.

Methods: In all, 150 computerized tomography (CT) scans containing equal numbers of non-arthritic (N), A1, A2, B1, B2 and B3 glenoids were segmented semi-automatically. Each reconstructed glenoid was divided first into anterior and posterior quadrants, and then further subdivided into four quadrants. Volumes of interest (VOI) were defined at depths of 0-2.5mm (Zone A), 2.5-5mm (Zone B) and 5-7.5mm (Zone C). Average bone densities were measured at each VOI depth and in each quadrant.

Results: Osteoarthritic glenoids had higher mean bone densities than N glenoids. Mean bone densities were uniform amongst all quadrants for N glenoids, but not for osteoarthritic glenoids. In A1 glenoids, the antero-superior quadrant was less dense in Zone C. A2 glenoids had increased bone density measured posteriorly in Zones B and C. In B1 and B2 glenoids, Zones B and C demonstrated increased bone densities of posterior quadrants compared to anterior quadrants. B3 glenoids presented similar results as A1 and A2 glenoids. Cystic changes were more pronounced in anterior quadrants of A2, B1, B2 and B3 glenoids.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that osteoarthritic glenoids have greater bone density than non-arthritic glenoids, independent of depth of interest. It also confirms that N glenoids have uniform erosion wear patterns and that B1 and B2 glenoids have irregular wear patterns. It is the first study to reveal that A1, A2 and B3 glenoids, though geometrically symmetrical, have irregular bony densities similar to B2 glenoids. These findings have clinical implications for reaming the glenoid and implant fixation.

Level Of Evidence: Basic Science, Anatomy, Imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2020.06.004DOI Listing
October 2020

Is preoperative planning effective for intraoperative glenoid implant size and type selection during anatomic and reverse shoulder arthroplasty?

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Oct 25;29(10):2123-2127. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

The Roth|McFarlane Hand and Upper Limb Centre, St Joseph's Hospital, London, ON, Canada.

Introduction: Preoperative 3D planning programs for anatomic (TSA) and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) allow the analysis of glenohumeral joint pathoanatomy and templating for implant size selection and placement. The aim of this multicenter study was to compare the preoperative glenoid implant type and size planned to the final glenoid implant type and size used intraoperatively.

Methods: Two hundred patients (100 TSA and 100 RSA) with a mean age of 72 years who had undergone preoperative planning and subsequent shoulder arthroplasty (100 TSA and 100 RSA) were included. All preoperative plans were saved and were analyzed for arthroplasty type (TSA vs. RSA), implant type (augment vs. nonaugment), and size (ie, polyethylene size, polyethylene radius of curvature, glenoid baseplate diameter, baseplate post length, and baseplate lateralization). The preoperative plan was available during surgery and was compared to the final implants inserted by the surgeon.

Results: There were no intraoperative conversions of TSA to RSA or vice versa. In patients planned for a TSA, complete concordance between the preoperative plan and final implant selection was 85%. A complete mismatch for TSA glenoid size, backside radius of curvature, and augmentation occurred in 2%. For RSA, complete concordance was found in 90% of cases. A complete mismatch for implant type, size, post length, and glenosphere size occurred in 3%.

Conclusion: A high concordance was found between preoperative 3D planning implant selection and the glenoid component inserted at surgery for TSA and RSA. This high concordance may assist with surgical preparedness, implant stocks, and possibly future implant production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.01.098DOI Listing
October 2020

Short stem humeral components in reverse shoulder arthroplasty: stem alignment influences the neck-shaft angle.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Feb 27;141(2):183-188. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

OCM (Orthopädische Chirurgie München) Clinic, Steinerstraße 6, 81369, München, Germany.

Introduction: Shorter humeral reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) stems may reduce stress shielding, however, potentially carry the risk of varus/valgus malalignment. This radiographic study's purpose was to measure the incidence of stem malalignment and thus the realized neck-shaft angle (NSA). The hypothesis was that malalignment of the stem is a frequent postoperative radiographic finding.

Methods: Radiographs of an uncemented curved short stem RTSA with a 145° NSA were reviewed. The study group included 124 cases at a mean age of 74 (range 48-91) years. The humeral stem axis was measured and defined as neutral if the value fell within ± 5° of the longitudinal humeral axis. Angular values > 5° were defined as malaligned in valgus or varus. The filling ratio of the implant within the humeral shaft was measured at the level of the metaphysis (FR) and diaphysis (FR).

Results: The average humeral stem axis angle was 4 ± 3° valgus, corresponding to a true mean NSA of 149 ± 3°. Stem axis was neutral in 73% (n = 90) of implants. Of the 34 malaligned implants, 82% (n = 28) were in valgus (NSA = 153 ± 2°) and 18% (n = 6) in varus (NSA = 139 ± 1°). The average FR and FR were 0.68 ± 0.11 and 0.72 ± 0.11, respectively. A low positive association was found between stem diameter and filling ratios (r = 0.39; p < 0.001); indicating smaller stem sizes were more likely to be misaligned.

Conclusion: Uncemented short stem implants may decrease stress shielding; however, approximately one quarter were implanted > 5° malaligned. The majority of malaligned components (86%) were implanted in valgus, corresponding to an NSA of > 150°. As such, surgeons must be aware that shorter and smaller stems may lead to axial malalignment influencing the true SA.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-020-03424-4DOI Listing
February 2021

Pre-operative factors affecting the indications for anatomical and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in primary osteoarthritis and outcome comparison in patients aged seventy years and older.

Int Orthop 2020 06 4;44(6):1131-1141. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Orthopaedic and Trauma Unit, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Background: We evaluated the pre-operative factors affecting anatomical and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA and RTSA) indications in primary osteoarthritis and compared outcomes in patients aged 70 years and older.

Methods: Fifty-eight patients received a TSA with an all-polyethylene glenoid component (APGC) or an RTSA with/without glenoid lateralization and the same curved short-stem humeral component. Active anterior and lateral elevation (AAE, ALE), internal and external rotation (IR, ER), pain, and the Constant-Murley score (CS) were recorded pre and post-operatively. Pre-operative rotator cuff (RC) fatty infiltration (FI) and modified Walch glenoid morphology were assessed. Humeral and glenoid component radiological outcomes were recorded.

Results: RTSA were older than TSA patients (p = 0.006), had lower pre-operative AAE (p < 0.001), ALE (p < 0.001), IR (p = 0.002), pain (p = 0.008) and CS (p < 0.001), and greater supraspinatus FI (p < 0.001). At a mean of 28.8 months, both implants yielded significantly different post-operative scores and similar complication rates. Both groups achieved similar post-operative AAE, ER, and IR; ALE was higher in TSA (p = 0.006); and AAE and ALE delta scores were higher in RTSA (p = 0.045 and p = 0.033, respectively). Radiolucent line rates were higher around the TSA APGC than the RTSA baseplate (p = 0.001). High-grade RC FI adversely affected mobility improvement. Humeral cortical thinning was significantly higher in TSA (p = 0.001).

Conclusion: RTSA patients were older, had poorer pre-operative active mobility, and had greater RC FI than TSA. Both devices provided good mid-term clinical and ROM improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-020-04501-4DOI Listing
June 2020

Patient-specific planning in shoulder arthroplasty.

Bone Joint J 2020 Mar;102-B(3):365-370

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Aims: Patient-specific instrumentation has been shown to increase a surgeon's precision and accuracy in placing the glenoid component in shoulder arthroplasty. There is, however, little available information about the use of patient-specific planning (PSP) tools for this operation. It is not known how these tools alter the decision-making patterns of shoulder surgeons. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PSP, when compared with the use of plain radiographs or select static CT images, influences the understanding of glenoid pathology and surgical planning.

Methods: A case-based survey presented surgeons with a patient's history, physical examination, and, sequentially, radiographs, select static CT images, and PSP with a 3D imaging program. For each imaging modality, the surgeons were asked to identify the Walch classification of the glenoid and to propose the surgical treatment. The participating surgeons were grouped according to the annual volume of shoulder arthroplasties that they undertook, and responses were compared with the recommendations of two experts.

Results: A total of 59 surgeons completed the survey. For all surgeons, the use of the PSP significantly increased agreement with the experts in glenoid classification (x = 8.54; p = 0.014) and surgical planning (x = 37.91; p < 0.001). The additional information provided by the PSP also showed a significantly higher impact on surgical decision-making for surgeons who undertake fewer than ten shoulder arthroplasties annually (p = 0.017).

Conclusions: The information provided by PSP has the greatest impact on the surgical decision-making of low volume surgeons (those who perform fewer than ten shoulder arthroplasties annually), and PSP brings all surgeons in to closer agreement with the recommendations of experts for glenoid classification and surgical planning. Cite this article: 2020;102-B(3):365-370.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.102B3.BJJ-2019-1153.R1DOI Listing
March 2020

Type E2 glenoid bone loss orientation and management with augmented implants.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Jul 12;29(7):1460-1469. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Roth|McFarlane Hand and Upper Limb Centre, St Joseph's Hospital, London, ON, Canada; Department of Surgery, Western University, London, ON, Canada; Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, London Health Sciences Center, London, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: The purpose of this study was 2-fold: (1) to quantify type E2 bone loss orientation and its association with rotator cuff fatty infiltration and (2) to examine reverse baseplate designs used to manage type E2 glenoids.

Methods: Computed tomography scans of 40 patients with type E2 glenoids were examined for pathoanatomic features and erosion orientation. The rotator cuff fatty infiltration grade was compared with the erosion orientation angle. To compare reconstructive options in light of the pathoanatomic findings, virtual implantation of 4 glenoid baseplate designs (standard, half wedge, full wedge, and patient-matched) was conducted to determine the volume of bone removal for seating and impingement-free range of motion.

Results: The mean type E2 erosion orientation angle was 47° ± 17° from the 0° superoinferior glenoid axis, resulting in the average erosion being located in the posterosuperior quadrant directed toward the 10:30 clock-face position. The type E2 neoglenoid, on average, involved 67% of the total glenoid surface (total surface area, 946 ± 209 mm; neoglenoid surface area, 636 ± 247 mm). The patient-matched baseplate design resulted in significantly (P ≤ .01) less bone removal (200 ± 297 mm) for implantation, followed by the full-wedge design (1228 ± 753 mm), half-wedge design (1763 ± 969 mm), and standard (non-augmented) design (4009 ± 1210 mm). We noted a marked difference in erosion orientation toward a more superior direction as the subscapularis fatty infiltration grade increased from grade 3 to grade 4 (P < .001).

Conclusion: The average type E2 erosion orientation was directed toward the 10:30 clock-face position in the posterosuperior glenoid quadrant. This orientation resulted in the patient-matched glenoid augmentation requiring the least amount of bone removal for seating, followed by the full-wedge, half-wedge, and standard designs. Implant selection also substantially affected computationally derived range of motion in external rotation, flexion, extension, and adduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2019.11.009DOI Listing
July 2020

Midterm clinical and radiologic results of reverse shoulder arthroplasty with an eccentric glenosphere.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 May 3;29(5):976-981. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Ramsay Générale de Santé, Hôpital privé Jean Mermoz, Centre Orthopédique Santy, Lyon, France.

Background: An eccentric glenosphere (EG) has been proposed as a way of preventing scapular notching after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). Our aim was to report the midterm clinical and radiographic results of EG after RSA. A number of the patients described here were included in a previous study with short-term follow-up. The current retrospective study gave us the opportunity to follow many of these patients for a longer period of time.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted. Statistical significance was set at P < .001. Forty-nine RSAs with an EG and at least 60 months of follow-up were included. Range of motion (ROM), Constant scores (CSs), and Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV) were assessed. Scapular notching was graded according to the Sirveaux classification.

Results: At the last follow-up, the mean improvement in active elevation (ROM) was 46° and the mean CS increased by nearly 31 points (both groups P < .001). The final SSV was 70%. Twenty-one patients (43%) had scapular notching, but in two-thirds of patients it was low-grade.

Conclusion: The use of an EG provided excellent clinical outcomes that persisted with midterm follow-up. The rate of notching was lower than in other studies with EGs, but further studies are required to confirm this. An EG was safe and there were no issues with baseplate loosening or failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2019.09.044DOI Listing
May 2020

Effect of humeral stem and glenosphere designs on range of motion and muscle length in reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

Int Orthop 2020 03 3;44(3):519-530. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Centre Orthopédique Santy, Hôpital Privé Jean Mermoz Ramsay GDS, Lyon, France.

Purpose: To determine how different combinations of humeral stem and glenosphere designs for reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) influence range of motion (ROM) and muscle elongation.

Methods: A computed tomography scan of a non-pathologic shoulder was used to simulate all shoulder motions, and thereby compare the ROM and rotator cuff muscle lengths of the native shoulder versus 30 combinations of humeral components (1 inlay straight stem with 155° inclination and five onlay curved stems with 135°, 145° or 155° inclinations, using concentric, medialized or lateralized trays) and glenospheres (standard, large, lateralized, inferior eccentric and bony increased-offset (BIO-RSA)).

Results: Only five of the 30 combinations restored ≥ 50% of the native ROM in all directions: the 145° onlay stem (concentric tray) combined with lateralized or inferior eccentric glenospheres and the 145° stem (lateralized tray) combined with either a large, lateralized or inferior eccentric glenosphere. Lengthening of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus, observed for all configurations, was greatest using onlay stems (7-30%) and BIO-RSA glenospheres (13-31%). Subscapularis lengthening was observed for onlay stems combined with BIO-RSA glenospheres (5-9%), while excessive subscapularis shortening was observed for the inlay stem combined with all glenospheres except the BIO-RSA design (> 15%).

Conclusions: The authors suggest implanting 145° onlay stems, with concentric or lateralized trays, together with lateralized or inferior eccentric glenospheres.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-019-04463-2DOI Listing
March 2020

Does the degree of osteoarthritis influence the clinical outcome after anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty?

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2020 Nov 2;140(11):1587-1594. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Clinic for Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Schlierbacher Landstrasse 200a, 69118, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: The degree of preoperative osteoarthritis has been shown to influence the postoperative outcome and the patients' satisfaction rate in hip and knee joint replacement surgery. However, no corresponding information is available for total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). We therefore set out to evaluate the influence of preoperatively measured end-stage osteoarthritis on the postoperative clinical outcome of TSA.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 103 anatomic total shoulder replacements (96 patients) was performed. Patients were evaluated radiologically with X-rays in two planes and clinically using the Constant and Murley score (CS) and the self-reported satisfaction with the result. The degree of osteoarthritis was radiographically analyzed with the aid of the classifications according to Kellgren/Lawrence, Gerber, Guyette, and Allain and according to whether complete narrowing of the glenohumeral joint was present or not [bone-on-bone contact (BOB) or no bone-on-bone contact (No BOB)].

Results: The clinical results of TSA did not differ significantly among the various stages of osteoarthritis in any of the classifications (p > 0.05). The CS was significantly higher postoperatively for both the BOB and the No BOB group (p < 0.0001). Patients with BOB had a significantly lower CS preoperatively than patients with No BOB (p = 0.0172). In addition, the preoperative pain level was significantly higher in patients with BOB (p = 0.014). Postoperatively, no significant difference in CS (p = 0.6738) was found between the BOB group and the No BOB group. The mean improvement in CS was not statistically significant (p = 0.2218).

Conclusion: In contrast to hip and knee joint replacement procedures, a milder grade of osteoarthritis does not adversely influence the functional result or subjective satisfaction rate after TSA. The degree of osteoarthritis on conventional X-rays has no bearing on the postoperative clinical outcome. Therefore, the decision on when to carry out anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty should depend on the patient's pain level and loss of quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-019-03328-yDOI Listing
November 2020

Clinical and radiographic outcomes of the open Latarjet procedure in skeletally immature patients.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Jun 4;29(6):1206-1213. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Centre Orthopédique Santy, Hôpital Privé Jean Mermoz Ramsay GDS, Lyon, France.

Introduction: Recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability has been studied in the young population and limited evidence is available for adolescent patients. Our study is a retrospective review of patients aged <17 years who underwent open Latarjet procedure.

Methods: Forty-five patients were available for review. Clinical outcomes were assessed by range of movements, stability, Walch-Duplay score (WDS), Rowe score (RS), Constant-Murley score (CMS), Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV), and return to sport. Radiographs were reviewed for osteoarthritis and complications.

Results: The median age of patients was 15.7 years (13-17), and 56% had hyperlaxity. The median follow-up time was 6.6 years (3-26). The median postoperative movements showed recovered elevation (175°), external rotation (60°), and internal rotation (T9 level). Seventy-five percent of patients returned to the same level of sport, and 98% were satisfied. Clinical outcomes showed WDS, RS, and CMS scores of 85, 95, and 84 points, respectively, and an SSV of 95%. Twenty percent of patients described mild postoperative pain, and 1 had persistent stiffness. Other complications included 24% subjective apprehension, 4% redislocation, 4% wound problems, and 2% infection. Nine percent of cases had postoperative arthritis. The overall reoperation rate was 11%: 1 open washout for infection and 4 arthroscopic screw removal due to persistent pain. We found that hyperlaxity, female sex, and large or deep Hill-Sachs lesions were frequently associated with persistent apprehension at the last follow-up.

Conclusions: The open Latarjet procedure provides a low rate of recurrent instability with acceptable complication rates in the long term for skeletally immature patients. It is an effective, safe treatment option without any significant glenoid growth disturbance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2019.09.039DOI Listing
June 2020

Clinical and structural outcome 20 years after repair of massive rotator cuff tears.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Mar 6;29(3):521-526. Epub 2019 Oct 6.

Universitätsklinik Balgrist, Zürich, Switzerland.

Background: Short- and mid-term outcomes after massive cuff tear repair are well reported, but there is no documentation of the clinical and structural outcomes at 20 years of follow-up. The hypothesis of the present study was that at 20 years, deterioration of the shoulder would have occurred and led to a substantial number of reoperations.

Methods: The authors retrospectively recalled all 127 patients operated for massive rotator cuff tears in 1994 at 6 different centers. At the 20-year follow-up, 26 patients died and 35 were lost to follow-up. Thirteen (10.2%) had been reoperated. This left 53 patients for personal clinical assessment. Forty-nine consented to standardized radiographic evaluation for assessment of osteoarthritis, 36 patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging, allowing assessment of tendon healing, atrophy, and fatty infiltration (FI) of the cuff muscles.

Results: The final Constant-Murley score (CS) was 68 ± 17.7 (range, 8-91) vs. 44 ± 15.3 (range, 13-74) preoperatively (P < .05). The final Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV) was 73% ± 23% (range, 0-100). Retears (Sugaya IV and V) were found in 17 cases (47%). Nine patients (17%) had cuff tear arthropathy (Hamada stage 4). The CS and SSV for the shoulders with FI stages III or IV were significantly inferior (53 ± 19 points and 65% ± 14% respectively) than for those with FI stages 0-II (respectively, 71.6 ± 6 points and 73% ± 4%) (P < .05).

Conclusions: Twenty years after surgical repair of massive rotator cuff tears, the functional scores remain satisfactory, and the rate of revision is low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2019.07.031DOI Listing
March 2020

Revision of failed shoulder arthroplasty: epidemiology, etiology, and surgical options.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Mar 6;29(3):541-549. Epub 2019 Oct 6.

IULS (Institut Universitaire Locomoteur et du Sport), Hôpital Pasteur 2, Université Côte d'Azur, Nice, France. Electronic address:

Background: Our aim was to analyze the epidemiology, etiologies, and revision options for failed shoulder arthroplasty from 2 tertiary centers.

Methods: From 1993 to 2013, 542 failed arthroplasties were revised in 540 patients (65% women): 224 hemiarthroplasties (HAs, 41%), 237 anatomic total shoulder arthroplasties (TSAs, 44%) and 81 reverse total arthroplasties (RSAs, 15%). Data about patients, pathology, and reintervention procedures, as well as intraoperative data, were analyzed from our 2 local registries that prospectively captured all the revision procedures. Patients had an average follow-up period of 8.7 years.

Results: The revision rate was 12.7% for HAs, 6.7% for TSAs, and 3.9% for RSAs. HAs were revised earlier (33 ± 40 months) than RSAs (47 ± 150 months) and TSAs (69 ± 61 months). Glenoid failure was a major cause of reintervention: erosion in HAs (29%) or loosening in TSAs (37%) and RSAs (24%). Instability was another major cause of reintervention: 32% in RSAs, 20% in TSAs, and 13% in HAs. Humeral implant loosening led to revision in 10% of RSAs, 6% of HAs, and 6% of TSAs. Multiple reinterventions were required in 21% of patients, mainly for instability (26%) and/or infection (25%). The final implant was an RSA in 48%, especially when associated with cuff insufficiency, instability, and/or bone loss. Final reimplantation was possible in 90% of cases, with the remaining 10% treated with a resection or spacer.

Conclusion: Glenoid failure and instability are the most common causes of revision. Soft-tissue insufficiency and/or infection results in multiple revisions. Surgeons must recognize all complications so that they can be addressed at the first revision operation and avoid further reinterventions. RSA was the most common final revision implant.
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March 2020
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