Publications by authors named "Gilda Eslami"

42 Publications

Molecular characteristic of treatment failure clinical isolates of .

PeerJ 2021 11;9:e10969. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Health Monitoring Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: Leishmaniasis is a prevalent tropical disease caused by more than 20 species (Protozoa, Kinetoplastida and Trypanosomatidae). Among different clinical forms of the disease, cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form, with an annual 0.6-1 million new cases reported worldwide. This disease's standard treatment is pentavalent antimonial (Sb) that have been used successfully since the first half of the 20th century as a first-line drug. However, treatment failure is an increasing problem that is persistently reported from endemic areas. It is important to define and standardize tests for drug resistance in cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sb must be reduced to its trivalent active form (Sb). This reduction occurs within the host macrophage, and the resultant Sbenters amastigotes via the aquaglyceroporin1 (AQP1) membrane carrier. Overexpression of AQP1 results in hypersensitivity of the parasites to Sb, but resistant phenotypes accompany reduced expression, inactivation mutations, or deletion of AQP1. Hence, in this study, a phylogenetic analysis using barcode gene II and kDNA minicircle and expression analysis of were performed in treatment failure isolates to assess the isolates' molecular characteristics and to verify possible association with drug response.

Methods: Samples in this study were collected from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis referred to the Diagnosis Laboratory Center in Isfahan Province, Iran, from October 2017 to December 2019. Among them, five isolates (code numbers 1-5) were categorized as treatment failures. The PCR amplification of barcode gene COXII and kDNA minicircle were done and subsequently analyzed using MEGA (10.0.5) to perform phylogenetics analysis of Treatment failures (TF) and Treatment response (TR) samples. Relative quantification of the AQP1 gene expression of TF and TR samples was assessed by real-time PCR.

Results: All samples were classified as . No amplification failure was observed in the cases of barcode gene II and kDNA minicircle amplification. Having excluded the sequences with complete homology using maximum parsimony with the Bootstrap 500 method, four major groups were detected to perform phylogenetic analysis using II. The phylogenetic analysis using the barcode target of minicircle showed that all five treatment failure isolates were grouped in a separate sub-clade.

Conclusions: We concluded that the barcode gene II and the minicircle kDNA were suitable for identification, differentiation and phylogenetic analysis in treatment failure clinical isolates of . Also, gene expression analyses showed that treatment failure isolates had less expression than TR isolates. The isolate with TF and overexpression of the gene of other molecular mechanisms such as overexpression of ATP-binding cassette may be involved in the TR, such as overexpression of ATP-binding cassette which requires further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956003PMC
March 2021

Distribution of Pilus island and antibiotic resistance genes in obtained from vagina of pregnant women in Yazd, Iran.

Iran J Microbiol 2020 Oct;12(5):411-416

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mojibiyan Hospital, Yazd, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Due to the important role of , Group B streptococci (GBS), in production of invasive disease in neonates, investigation regarding the pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance factors is necessary in selecting the appropriate therapeutic agents. Beside capsule, the pilus has been currently recognized as an important factor in enhancing the pathogenicity of GBS. Resistance of GBS to selected antibiotics is noticeably increasing which is mainly due to the anomalous use of these drugs for treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pili genes followed by antibiotic susceptibility of GBS, previously serotyped, isolated from pregnant women in the city of Yazd, Iran.

Materials And Methods: Fifty seven GBS from pregnant women were subjected to multiplex PCR for determination of PI-1, PI-2a and PI-2b pilus-islands and simultaneously, the phenotype of antibiotic resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamycin and levofloxacin was determined. Antibiotic resistance genes ( were further diagnosed using PCR and multiplex PCR.

Results: PI-1+PI-2a with 71.9%; followed by PI-2a (21.1%) and PI-2b (7%) were observed. PI-1+PI-2a in serotype III was (73.2%), serotype II, Ia, Ib and V were 12.2%, 9.8%, 2.4% and 2.4% respectively. GBS penicillin sensitive was 89.5% and 96.5% resistance to tetracycline. The frequency of resistance genes were as follows: (93%), (33.3%), (8.8%), (80.7%) and (0).

Conclusion: Majority of GBS contained PI-1+PI-2a. Hence presence of this pilus stabilizes the colonization, therefore designing a program for diagnosing and treatment of infected pregnant women seems to be necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijm.v12i5.4601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867704PMC
October 2020

Toxoplasma gondii in Sheep and Goats from Central Iran.

BMC Res Notes 2021 Feb 4;14(1):46. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Research Center for Food Hygiene and Safety, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Objective: Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, infects humans by consuming infected raw or undercooked meat and foods harboring mature oocysts. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of T. gondii in sheep and goats coming from central Iran. After completing the questionnaire, about one gram of liver or diaphragm tissue was taken as a sample from 90 sheep and 90 goats slaughtered in Yazd Province and stored at - 20 ºC. DNA extraction was done, and then T. gondii was detected using nested PCR.

Results: This study indicated that the prevalence of T. gondii in all slaughtered animals was 11.6% (21 of 180), including 14.4% (13/90) in sheep and 8.8% (8/90) in goats. The infection rates in liver and diaphragm samples were 12.2% (11/90) and 11.1% (10/90), respectively (p = 0.8163). The infection rate in animals older than one was 16.3% (15/92), and it was 6.8% (6/88) in animals under one year of age. Therefore, no significant differences were found (p = 0.475). Infection rates were 19.5% (18/92) in males and 3.4% (3/88) in females (p = 0.0007). In conclusion, the infection rates of toxoplasmosis in livestock in this area are almost high, and therefore, it is necessary to design appropriate prevention programs to control the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-021-05465-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7863493PMC
February 2021

Safety assessment of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 13;11(1):1126. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Research Center for Food Hygiene and Safety, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Shohadaye Gomnam Blvd., Yazd, 8916188638, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Rice is considered one of the most important staple food crops. Genetically modified (GM) Bt rice, harbored cry1Ab gene expressing the insect-resistance protein has been developed to resistance to the insects. In this study, we assessed the safety of the GM Bt rice on Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 days. Totally, 120 rats in both sexes were used for three different diets, including 50% GM Bt rice, feeding with 50% rice, and standard feeding. Each 40 SD rats including 20 males and 20 females were considered as each diet. The clinical variables such as body weight and food consumption were measured and a range of clinical tests was examined, including hematology, serum chemistry parameters, urinalysis profile, thyroid, and sex hormone levels. Pathological assessments were also done. The results showed that the mean weekly feed utilization (%) had no significant difference among the studied groups. Also, blood biochemistry, hematological parameters, urine analysis, and hormonal levels had no significant differences among the groups. However, alanine aminotransferase was less in males versus female feeding with GM Bt rice. No histopathological changes were observed among the groups. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that GM Bt rice had no obvious adverse effects on rats' health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-80958-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807014PMC
January 2021

Genetics research at the "Centenary of human population genetics" conference and SBB-2019.

BMC Genet 2020 10 22;21(Suppl 1):109. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12863-020-00906-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7580810PMC
October 2020

Isolation and Molecular Identification of spp. Agents in Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Yazd Province, Endemic Region of Central Iran.

Iran J Public Health 2020 May;49(5):975-980

Department of Social Medicine, School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a major health problem in many parts of Iran. Many methods have been introduced for detection and identification of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. The purpose of this study was isolation and molecular identification of spp. agents in patients with CL from endemic region of central Iran. In this study, one of the main loci of central Iran named Yazd will be assessed CL identification using PCR-RFLP.

Methods: For this cross-sectional study, sampling was done from 372 suspicious patients with CL who referred to Health Centers of Yazd Province from 2016 to 2017. After collection samples of patients, DNA extraction was done from samples on slides. Genus detection was done using specific primers by PCR. RFLP analysis was done for species identification.

Results: Out of 372 samples, 159 samples were positive using PCR based method. Out of 159 samples, 87 (54.7%) and 72 (45.3%) were identified using RFLP analysis. The number of lesions in each patient was different but 119 (74.8%) patients showed the number of 1-3 lesions, and more lesions (more than 10 lesions) was showed in 4 (2.5%) person.

Conclusion: The CL found in Yazd province resulted from and as the agents of rural and urban types, respectively. The prevalence of L. major and was almost the same This indicated that control programs could be designed for treatment and vector and reservoir control.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7475624PMC
May 2020

Mutations in gene of Mex AB-OprM efflux pump in carbapenem resistant isolated from burn wounds in Yazd, Iran.

Iran J Microbiol 2020 Feb;12(1):32-36

Department of English Language, School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services Yazd, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Burn wound infections have emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients due to prolonged hospital stay. , is the second cause of bacterial burn wound infections. Resistance mechanisms among are intrinsic or acquired. Intrinsic resistance mechanisms among isolates are inducible AmpC cephalosporinase, decrease of specific porin OprD, and overexpression of RND efflux pump. The aim of this study was detection of mutations in gene in carbapenem resistant isolated from burn wounds.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 180 burn-wound specimens were collected. Suspected lactose-negative colonies were identified by conventional biochemical methods. Kirby-Bauer and Etest methods were used for susceptibility testing. PCR and sequencing techniques were used for the detection of mutation.

Results: Out of 180 specimens received in the laboratory, 54 of isolates were isolated and identified as (30%). Of these isolates 20 (37%) were resistant to at least two carbapenems simultaneously. From these carbapenem resistant isolates, 19 (95%), 14 (70%), 14 (70%), 19 (95%) and 16 (80%) were resistant to imipenem, cefepime, piperacillin, ceftizoxime and gentamicin, respectively. Only 1 (2%) isolate was sensitive to all carbapenems and did not has mutation in gene, 20 (37%) isolates were resistant to at least two carbapenems, and had mutations in gene (Gly71▸Glu and Ser209▸Arg).

Conclusion: As the results showed, mutation in efflux pump was observed in carbapenem resistant isolate and this confirmed that the indiscriminate use of antibiotics for treatment or prophylaxis can increase mutation in efflux pump.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7163040PMC
February 2020

Relationship of Leishmania RNA Virus (LRV) and treatment failure in clinical isolates of Leishmania major.

BMC Res Notes 2020 Mar 4;13(1):126. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Leishmaniasis is caused by different Leishmania spp. Treatment failure (TF) of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a serious issue that may be due to various reasons, previous studies suggested Leishmania RNA virus (LRV) as a potential cause of TF. Two variant groups of LRV1 and LRV2 are reported. In this study, the presence of LRV1/LRV2 was compared in TF with treatment response (TR) isolates of L. major. Clinical isolates of 15 TF and 15 TR were collected from CL patients referred to the Health Centers of Isfahan. Genomic DNA was extracted to identify Leishmania spp. using ITS1-PCR-RFLP. Identification of LRV1/LRV2 was performed using SYBR Green Real-Time PCR. The statistical analysis to test relationship between the treatment response with Glucantime and the presence of LRV were performed using SPSS 16.0 with Fisher's Exact test. P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: ITS1-PCR-RFLP results showed that every isolate was identified as L. major. The results showed no LRV1 in any of the samples but 7 TR isolates and 2 TF isolates showed positive for LRV2. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the presence of LRV2 and response to Glucantime (p-value = 0.1086). Therefore, other mechanisms might be responsible for TF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-04973-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7074996PMC
March 2020

Molecular Analysis of Gene in Non-Healing Clinical Isolates Obtained from Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis from Central of Iran.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2019 Jun 24;13(2):145-152. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Research Center for Food Safety and Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, Iran.

Background: Regarding the antimonial-resistant of spp., understanding of related mechanism is necessary. One of the most important involved molecules is aquaglyceropin1 (AQP1). The aim of this study was molecular analysis of gene from antimonial-resistant clinical isolates and its expression.

Methods: Overall, 150 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis referring to the reference laboratories of Yazd and Varzaneh,, located 105km southeast of Isfahan and 240km away from Yazd, were assessed from Jun 2015 to Dec 2017. After sampling, staining was done and evaluated for Leishman by microscope. Samples were collected in RNAlater solution for gene expression analysis in non-healing isolates. DNA extraction was performed from each slide with Leishman body. All patients with . isolates detected by ITS1-PCR-RFLP were followed for finding the resistant isolates, consequence of molecular characterization of using PCR-RFLP. Gene expression of from all resistant isolates was assessed in comparison with the one in a sensitive isolate. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. The significance level was considered ≤0.05.

Results: Five isolates were detected as antimonial resistant. Molecular detection and identification were appeared that all were . The molecular characterization of showed G562A mutation. Gene expression of in resistant isolates showed 1.67 fold higher than the sensitive isolate.

Conclusion: We reported a new point mutation of G562A in gene involved in molecular mechanism in resistant isolates.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6885144PMC
June 2019

Molecular Characterization of Aquaglyceroporine: A Novel Mutation in from (MRHO/IR/75/ER).

Iran J Parasitol 2019 Jul-Sep;14(3):465-471

Research Center for Food Hygiene and Safety, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: The first line treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis is pentavalent antimony such as sodium stibogluconate (pentostam) and meglumine antimonite (glucantime). One of the most important ways to uptake the drug is by a trans-membrane protein, called aquaglyceroporin encoded by (). In this study, molecular characterization of was reported.

Methods: (MRHO/IR/75/ER) promastigotes were cultured, and then DNA extraction and RNA extraction were done and followed by cDNA synthesis. Amplicons resulted from PCR and RT-PCR using specific primers were purified and sequenced. Molecular characterization was done by bioinformatically software such as BLST, ClustalW2, and RMSD.

Results: Amplicons resulted from PCR and RT-PCR showed equal size in length. BLASTn analysis showed a point nucleotide change in gene that encoded 282-amino-acid long protein with a mutation at position 154 including replacement of alanine by threonine. The observed mutation in the interested gene was assessed using the above-mentioned software. The mentioned gene was submitted at GenBank, NCBI with accession number of KU514052.

Conclusion: The functional prediction of the protein encoded from showed that the mentioned mutation could not affect the three-dimension structure, but it may modify the drug uptake potential of this important channel. Based on from role, it seems to be an appropriate candidate for drug development. According to search through internet, this is the first report of from (MRHO/IR/75/ER).
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6815870PMC
November 2019

- and - expression in clinical no response-antimonial isolates.

J Parasit Dis 2019 Mar 20;43(1):39-45. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

4Laboratory of Technologies of Information and Communication and Electrical Engineering (LaTICE), University of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major disease in many parts of the world. Since no vaccine has been developed, treatment is the best way to control it. In most areas, antimonial resistance whose mechanisms have not been completely understood has been reported. The main aim of this study is gene expression assessing of - and - in clinical isolates. The patients with CL from central and north Iran were considered for this study. The samples were transferred in RNAlater solution and stored in - 20 °C. RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis were performed. The gene expression analysis was done with SYBR Green real-time PCR using ∆∆CT. Written informed consent forms were filled out by patients, and then, information forms were filled out based on the Helsinki Declaration. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS (16.0; SPSS Inc, Chicago) using independent test, Shapiro-Wilk, and Pearson's and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. The gene expression of and had no relation with sex and age. The gene expression was high in sensitive isolates obtained from north of the country. The gene expression was significant in sensitive and no response-antimonial isolates from the north, but no significant differences were detected in sensitive and resistant isolates from central Iran. Differential gene expression of and in various clinical resistances isolates in different geographical areas shows multifactorial ways of developing resistance in different isolates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-018-1052-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423244PMC
March 2019

Plant biology research at BGRS-2018.

BMC Plant Biol 2019 Feb 15;19(Suppl 1):56. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-019-1634-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6393955PMC
February 2019

Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive Red 198 Azo dye by a new Enterococcus faecalis-Klebsiella variicola bacterial consortium isolated from textile wastewater sludge.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2019 Feb 9;35(3):38. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Environmental Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

The present study investigated biodegradation and removal of Reactive Red 198 (RR198) dye from aqueous environments using a new bacterial consortium isolated from textile wastewater sludge on laboratory scale via batch study. Two bacterial species, Enterococcus faecalis (EF) and Klebsiella variicola (KV), were identified after isolation, through biochemical assays, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To determine their ability to biodegrade RR198 dye, physicochemical parameters, including bacterial concentration, time, pH, and temperature, were tested; the results showed that the best conditions included a bacterial concentration of 3.5 mL × 10 cells/mL and incubation time of 72 h. Under such conditions, the removal efficiency of RR198 dye at an initial concentration of 10-25 mg/L was more than 98%; however, for concentrations of 50, 75, and 100 mg/L, removal efficiency was reduced to 55.62%, 25.82%, and 15.42%, respectively (p = 0.005). The highest removal efficiency occurred at pH 8.0, reaching 99.26% after 72 h of incubation. With increasing the incubation temperature from 25 °C to 37 °C, removal efficiency increased from 71.71 to 99.26% after 72 h of incubation, and increasing the temperature from 37 to 45 °C, the removal efficiency was reduced (p ≤ 0.001). Therefore, the EF-KV bacterial consortium can be used for efficient removal of RR198 dye from textile effluent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-019-2608-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Prevalence of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons among multidrug-resistant in Yazd, Iran.

Iran J Microbiol 2018 Oct;10(5):300-306

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Paramedicine Abarkouh, Genetic and Environmental Adventures Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Antibiotic resistance in is an increasing health problem. Integrons are associated with a variety of gene cassettes, which confer resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. This study aimed at screening the presence of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons in in Yazd, Iran.

Materials And Methods: This study was carried out on strains from March 2016 to March 2017. Clinical specimens were initially identified by the standard biochemical methods and their resistance patterns to antibiotics were studied using the disc diffusion method. PCR was carried out for the detection of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons using , and gene primers, respectively.

Results: Antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that 75% of isolates were detected as multi-drug resistant (MDR), and lowest resistance was observed in ciprofloxacin (48.6%) and most resistance was in gentamicin (63.2%). Moreover, PCR results showed that 22 (15.3%) and 119 (82.6%) of isolates carried and genes, but gene was not found.

Conclusion: Since it is customary to observe Class I integrons in isolated from clinical samples, they are often responsible for antibiotic resistance gene transfer, which calls for evaluation of integrons as contributing factors in antibiotic resistance.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6340001PMC
October 2018

Gene expression of RNAP II, JBP1 and JBP2 in Leishmania major exposed to antimonials, amphotericin B and paromomycin

Ann Parasitol 2018;64(3):181-187

Laboratory of Technologies of Information and Communication and Electrical Engineering (LaTICE), University of Tunis, 5 Avenue Taha Hussein, B.P. 56, Bab Menara, Tunis, Tunisia

Cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL) is treated with pentavalent antimony (SbV) as a first-line drug, while amphotericin B and paromomycin are potential alternatives in antimonial- resistant isolates. However, the mechanisms of drug resistance remain unclear. The present study analyses the gene expression of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and J-binding protein 1 (JBP1), and J-binding protein 2 (JBP2) in Leishmania major after exposure to drugs in vitro. L. major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) promastigotes were exposed to various concentrations of glucantime, paromomycin and amphotericin B for 72 hours. The RNA was then extracted and used for cDNA synthesis. The expressions of JBP1, JBP2 and RNAP II were analysed using SYBR Green real-time PCR. No change in JBP2 or RNAP II expression was associated with amphotericin B, but JBP1 expression decreased with increasing drug concentration. Paromomycin had no effect on JBP2 expression, but a 13.5-fold increase in JBP1 was observed at 100 μg/ml, and a decrease in RNAP II expression at 25 and 50 μg/ml. Exposure to glucantime resulted in 1.4-fold lower JBP1 expression at 5 μg/ml, and 333.33- to 500-fold lower RNAP II at concentrations of 5 to 15 μg/ml. As Base J synthesis requires both JBP1 and JBP2, RNAP II (encoding RNA polymerase II) could reduce expression. However, RNAP II was not expressed in all groups, indicating that the genes associated with drug resistance may be regulated in other ways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17420/ap6403.149DOI Listing
February 2019

Novel High-Fat Diet Formulation and Streptozotocin Treatment for Induction of Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes in Rats.

Adv Biomed Res 2018 2;7:107. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: The previously established methods for type 2 diabetes (T2D) have mainly concentrated on overt diabetes model development. Here, our intention was to create an animal model passing through distinct phases such as obesity with insulin resistance, prediabetes, and gradual progress to the overt diabetes stage. A high-fat high-carbohydrate diet formulation was prescribed combined with multiple low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) injections after obesity establishment.

Materials And Methods: Sixteen male Wistar rats were separated randomly into two groups and fed a normal diet for 1 week after which the body weight and biochemical indices of each rat were measured and recorded. Subsequently, one group ( = 8) switched to the high-fat high-carbohydrate diet formulated by us for 10 weeks, whereas the other group ( = 8) continued with the normal diet. Body weight and biochemical indices of the rats in the high-fat diet (HFD) group were measured at the end of 10 weeks, and each rat received 30 mg/kg intraperitoneal STZ injections with 1-week intervals in two steps and was continued on a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet. The differences between the groups were analyzed using the Student's -test or one-way analysis of variance and by multiple comparisons.

Results: A significant change in weight, fasting blood glucose, and triglyceride was observed in rats fed with a HFD after 10 weeks. The HFD rats showed typical characteristics of T2D mellitus (T2DM) such as insulin resistance and hyperglycemia following 30 mg/kg STZ.

Conclusions: The novel high-fat high-carbohydrate formulation we used, along with multiple low doses of STZ, can mimic peculiar characteristics of T2DM development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_8_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6050973PMC
July 2018

Evaluating the Frequency of , , , and Genes in Aminoglycosides Resistant Isolates Obtained from Hospitalized Patients in Yazd, Iran.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2018 Apr-Jun;10(2):115-119

Department of Public Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: is an opportunistic pathogen that could be resistant to many antimicrobial agents. Resistance genes can be carried among gram-negative bacteria by integrons. Enzymatic inactivation is the most important mechanism of resistance to aminoglycosides. In this study, the frequencies of two important resistance gene a and and genes coding integrase I and II, in isolates resistant to aminoglycosides were evaluated.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, an attempt was made to assess the antibiotic susceptibility of 130 isolates obtained from different samples of patients hospitalized in training hospitals of Yazd evaluated by disk diffusion method. The frequencies of a, , and genes were determined by PCR method. Data were analyzed by chi-square method using SPSS software (Ver. 16).

Results: our results showed that resistance to gentamicin, tobramycin, kanamycin, and amikacin were 34.6, 33.8, 43.8, and 14.6%, respectively. The frequencies of a, , and genes were 44.6, 27.7, 90, and 0%, respectively.

Conclusion: This study showed there are high frequencies of genes coding aminoglycosides resistance in isolates. Hence, it is very important to monitor and inhibit the spread of antibiotic resistance genes.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5960057PMC
June 2018

WITHDRAWN: Monitoring the prevalence of genetically modified (GM) maize in Iran food products.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

Environmental and Food Hygiene Laboratories (LIAA) of Department of Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies "G.F. Ingrassia", Hygiene and Public Health, University of Catania, Italy; Student Research Committee, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.01.010DOI Listing
January 2018

The role of nymph in transmission of enteric bacterial pathogens to internal organs in sheep.

J Parasit Dis 2017 Sep 10;41(3):754-760. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

Department of Health Technology Assessment, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

is a worldwide zoonotic parasite belong to phylum Athropoda. When the eggs are swallowed by intermediate host, the larvae are released in intestine and reach the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and occasionally liver, lungs, heart, kidneys, spleen, and other body organs by the blood and lymph circulation. There are a few evidences showing transmission of microorganisms by migrating The aim of this study was to determine the role of nymph in transmission of enteric bacterial pathogens to internal organs of sheep. For this purpose 11 parasite positive and 11 parasite negative MLNs to were obtained from the native slaughtered sheep and were examined microbiologically in terms of bacterial contamination. The average total bacterial count and count in the parasite positive samples were respectively 6.7 and 3.3 times higher than parasite negative ones ( < 0.05). However no significant differences were found for and intestinal enterococci between parasite positive/negative samples. This indicates that nymphs play as vehicles for bacteria and so contaminate offal. nymphs transfer some bacterial agents to internal organs and enhance post mortem spoilage of the infected organs. It is also able to transfer some bacterial pathogens to internal organs which could potentially be the etiology of severe infectious or even zoonotic diseases. Especially in some regions where the consumption of raw or semi-cooked lymph nodes and other visceral organs are common.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-017-0884-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5555929PMC
September 2017

Comparison of Three Different DNA Extraction Methods for as a Food Born Pathogen.

Iran J Parasitol 2017 Apr-Jun;12(2):236-242

Dept. of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: One of the most important items in molecular characterization of food-borne pathogens is high quality genomic DNA. In this study, we investigated three protocols and compared their simplicity, duration and costs for extracting genomic DNA from .

Methods: The larvae were collected from the sheep's visceral organs from the Yazd Slaughterhouse during May 2013. DNA extraction was done in three different methods, including commercial DNA extraction kit, Phenol Chloroform Isoamylalcohol (PCI), and salting out. Extracted DNA in each method was assessed for quantity and quality using spectrophotometery and agarose gel electrophoresis, respectively.

Results: The less duration was regarding to commercial DNA extraction kit and then salting out protocol. The cost benefit one was salting out and then PCI method. The best quantity was regarding to PCI with 72.20±29.20 ng/μl, and purity of OD260/OD280 in 1.76±0.947. Agarose gel electrophoresis for assessing the quality found all the same.

Conclusion: Salting out is introduced as the best method for DNA extraction from as a food-borne pathogen with the least costand appropriate purity. Although, the best purity was regarding to PCI but PCI is not safe as salting out. In addition, the duration of salting out was less than PCI. The least duration was seen in commercial DNA extraction kit, but it is expensive and therefore is not recommended for developing countries where consumption of offal is common.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5527034PMC
August 2017

gene expression in antimony resistance and susceptible isolates.

J Vector Borne Dis 2016 Oct-Dec;53(4):370-374

Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background & Objectives: The mechanism of antimony resistance in Leishmania has been studied extensively, in connection with decreased influx and/or increased eflux of the drug. Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) protein has been shown to mediate the uptake of trivalent antimony. This study was aimed to find the expression level of AQP1 gene in resistant versus non-resistant clinical isolates of Leishmania major in Iranian patients.

Methods: Clinical isolates were obtained from 16 considered patients referred to Navab Safavi Clinical Center, Isfahan, Iran from October 2014 to December 2015. After diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis using microscopic observation, biopsy was performed from lesion(s) of each patient and stored inside RNAlater solution at -20΀C. Written informed consent was obtained from all the patients to participate in the study before recording their information and sampling based on Helsinki declaration. Each patient was treated with Glucantime and followed for three months. All sensitive and resistance isolates were considered and compared with AQP1 gene expression using real time PCR that was analyzed with delta-delta Ct.

Results: Out of 16 clinical isolates, four patients were resistant and 12 were non-resistant. The AQP1 gene expression in resistant isolates was significantly higher than the one in response failure isolates (p = 0.001).

Interpretation & Conclusion: The significant over expression (0.5 fold) of AQP1 gene in resistant versus non- resistant isolates suggests different mechanism of drug resistance such as mutations. Mutations may change the physiological function of the Aquaporin 1 protein that might affect its expression level.
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April 2017

Peginterferon Alfa-2a/Ribavirin treatment efficacy in chronic hepatitis C patients is related to natural killer group 2D gene rs1049174 GC polymorphism.

Virusdisease 2016 Dec 28;27(4):369-374. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Natural killer group 2D (NKG2D), as an activating receptor, plays pivotal role in viral infectious diseases. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NKG2D gene have characterized that the rs1049174G/C SNP of NKG2D is in the spotlight of notice because of its role in activating of human T cells. This study aimed to investigate rs1049174G/C genetic polymorphism in Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) patients. The study compromised 107 CHC patients with genotype 1a and 1b. All recruited patients were under treatment with Peginterferon Alfa-2a/Ribavirin according to standard protocol. After completing treatment, 67 patients showed sustained virologic response (SVR) and the rest of patients did not respond to the treatment and considered as non-responder (NR). Genotyping of NKG2D rs1049174G/C SNP was performed using PCR-RFLP method in SVR and NR patients. The NKG2D rs1049174 genotypes frequency for GG, GC and CC were 45, 41 and 14 % respectively. Genotypes distribution were significantly different between SVR and NR groups ( = 0.005). So that the patients with the homozygous GG genotype demonstrated a higher response to Peginterferon Alfa-2a/Ribavirin therapy against HCV infection (OR = 6.0, 95 %CI 1.71-21.08,  = 0.005). In conclusion, the rs1049174 GG genotype of NKG2D receptor is an effective factor in successfully treatment of CHC patients by Peginterferon Alfa-2a/Ribavirin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13337-016-0349-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5142600PMC
December 2016

The Effect of L and Hydroalcoholic Extract on the Expression Levels of Genes Involved in Quorum Sensing.

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2016 Oct 14;9(10):e33879. Epub 2016 Sep 14.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran.

Background: Quorum sensing is a microbial cell-to-cell communication process. Quorum sensing bacteria produce and release extracellular messenger molecules called autoinducers. Gram-positive and Gram-negative, homoserine lactones, and oligopeptides are autoinducers used to communicate and regulate gene expression.

Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the impact of subinhibitory concentrations of l oleo-gum resin and fruit on the expression of and genes of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) strains.

Methods: This analytical study was performed using standard strains of MRSA (ATCC 33591) and MSSA (ATCC 29213). Suspensions of MRSA and MSSA bacteria were incubated at 37°C for 7 and 16 hours in the presence of ethanol extracts from and . The expression of the and genes was then assessed using the real-time PCR protocol and SYBR Green Master Mix. The data analysis was carried out using the 2 method.

Results: The gene expression (RNAIII) of MRSA after 7 and 16 hours of exposure to the sMIC of the extract showed a fold change of -1 and 0.08, respectively, in comparison with controls. After 7 and 16 hours of exposure to the sMIC of the extract, the fold change was -0.23 and -0.27, respectively. After exposure to the sMIC of the extract for 16 hours, the fold change in the expression of the (TSST-1) MSSA gene was 0.37 lower than that of the control sample.

Conclusions: The results indicate that sMICs of ethanol extracts from and can be used to control the expression of virulence genes in pathogenic bacteria, such as MRSA and MSSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.33879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5136442PMC
October 2016

Genetic polymorphism of 8 Y-STR loci in native population of Isfahan province in central part of Iran.

Ann Hum Biol 2017 Mar 13;44(2):175-179. Epub 2016 Jul 13.

a Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology , School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are genetic markers with practical applications in human identification and population studies.

Aim: Here we present the allelic and haplotype frequencies of 8 Y-STR loci most commonly used in forensic medicine in 103 unrelated native males of Isfahan province, central part of Iran.

Subjects And Methods: The cases were selected on the basis of strict criteria to assure pure native populations of Isfahan origin. DNA extracted from peripheral blood samples and PCR amplified for each marker. Y-specific STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393 were included in this study.

Results: The most common alleles for each locus were: DYS19, allele 12; DYS385, allele 12; DYS389I, allele 13; DYS389II, allele 29; DYS390, allele 24; DYS391, allele 10; DYS392, allele 11; and DYS393, allele 13. Gene diversity value was calculated from the allelic frequency for each locus. The average gene diversity was 0.6518. A total of 101 haplotypes were observed in eight Y-specific STR loci, the haplotype diversity was raised to 0.986.

Conclusion: The results revealed that a set of eight Y-specific STR loci were able to discriminate most of the male individuals in the population studied. A search through the Y Haplotype Reference Database demonstrated 21 matched haplotypes to 160,693 haplotypes, exclusively with Eurasian-European, Eurasian, and Eurasian-Indo Iranian populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2016.1200671DOI Listing
March 2017

MMP9 Promoter Polymorphism (-1562 C/T) Does not Affect the Serum Levels of Soluble MICB and MICA in Breast Cancer.

Iran J Immunol 2016 Mar;13(1):45-53

Department of Immunology, International Campus, Shahid Sadoughi University Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran, e-mail:

Background: The role of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in tumor invasion and progression is prominent. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of MMP9 (-1562 C/T) increases the transcription and expression of this gene. On the other hand, MHC class I chain-related protein A and B (MICA/B) in soluble forms may impair tumor immunogenicity by reducing Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) densities on NK cells and MMP9 enzyme activity has a prominent role in shedding of MICA/B.

Objectives: To investigate the association between MMP9 (-1562 C/T) polymorphism and serum MICA/B level in breast cancer patients.

Methods: In this case-control study, 105 patients with breast cancer and 100 healthy age-matched women were selected from Yazd hospitals, Iran. The polymorphism of MMP9 (-1562 C/T) was determined by PCR-RFLP. Concentration of MICB and MICA in the sera of breast cancer patients and healthy women were measured using ELISA method.

Results: The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes and T allele of the MMP9 (-1562 C/T) did not show significant differences between breast cancer patients and healthy donors (p>0.05). On the other hand, the mean serum levels of MICB and MICA were significantly elevated in patients compared with healthy individuals (p<0.05). In patients with MMP9CC genotype, the mean serum MICB concentration was significantly higher than those patients with CT polymorphism (p<0.05). Although the mean of blood MICA concentration in patients with the CT genotype was higher than those patients with CC genotype, the difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: The T allele of the MMP9 (-1562 C/T) does not show a correlation with serum levels of MICA and MICB in breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/IJIv13i1A6DOI Listing
March 2016

Relative Expression of Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 7 mRNA in Peripheral Blood of Patients With Hepatitis C.

Hepat Mon 2015 Nov 28;15(11):e30427. Epub 2015 Nov 28.

Gastrology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen affecting an estimated 120 - 170 million individuals in the world. Toll-Like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and stimulate immune responses.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the mRNA expression level of TLR2 and TLR7 in HCV-infected patients in comparison with normal controls.

Patients And Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients with HCV infection and nineteen sex and age-matched healthy controls were studied in a case-controlled research.

Results: Our results showed that the expressions of TLR7 in HCV infected samples were significantly increased in comparison those of the controls (P = 0.02), while the expression of TLR2 was similar between the case and the control group (P = 0.8). There were no associations between the expression levels of TLR2 and TLR7 with HCV viral load and HCV genotypes. Also, there was no association between viral load and genotypes of the virus.

Conclusions: Our findings showed that HCV infection could lead to increased expression level of TLR7 mRNA in peripheral blood cells of HCV infected samples. The viral load and genotypes of HCV did not affect the mRNA expression levels of TLR2 and TLR7.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.30427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4719121PMC
November 2015

The association between single nucleotide polymorphism in interleukin-27 gene and recurrent pregnancy loss in Iranian women.

Iran J Reprod Med 2015 Apr;13(4):209-14

Research and Clinical Center for Infertility, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) has been defined as two or more miscarriages before 20(th) week of gestation. It seems that IL-27 may reduce inflammatory responses and affect the survival of the embryo during human pregnancy. IL-27 polymorphisms may influence RPL by altering the levels or the activity of gene product.

Objective: We studied for the first time the association of IL-27 -964 A>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with RPL in Iranian women.

Materials And Methods: A case-controlled study was performed on two groups consisting of 150 healthy women with at least one delivery (control group) and 150 women with two or more primary RPLs history (RPL group). The -964 A>G SNP in IL-27 gene was determined by PCR-RFLP technique. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared using (2) tests between two groups.

Results: There was no difference between the two groups regarding age of women (29±4.4 [control] vs. 30.84±5.2 years [case]). In the RPL group, the genotype frequencies of -964 A>G polymorphism were AG (49.3%), AA (40%), and GG (10.7%), and in the control group, they were AG (43.3%), AA (48.7%), and GG (8%). There was no significant difference between the genotypes of AA, AG, and GG in two groups (p=0.23). As the frequency of allele A was 64.7% in the RPL group and 70.3% in the control group, the difference in frequency of allele A in -964 A>G between two groups was not significant (p=0.19).

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that SNP of -964 A>G in IL-27 gene is not a risk factor for RPL in Iranian women.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4475769PMC
April 2015

Molecular identification of Leishmania tropica infections in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from an endemic central of Iran.

Trop Biomed 2014 Dec;31(4):592-9

Center for Research and Training in Skin Disease and Leprosy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The most common form of the disease is cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) which is a public health and social problem in many countries especially Iran. In endemic areas where other diseases with similar clinical symptoms occur, definitive diagnosis of CL is very important. The detection and identification of Leishmania in infected patients is crucial for achieving a correct treatment and prognosis. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study in terms of geographical distribution and molecular identification of Leishmania tropica isolates in central of Iran. This study was performed between 2010 and 2011, during which 218 CL suspected patients referred to Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd, Iran for confirmation were examined. After microscopic analysis, DNA extraction was performed for identification. The molecular target region was ITS1 gene. Results showed that out of 218 isolates, 102 (46.8%) samples were positive for Leishman body using molecular assay. After PCR-RFLP, analysis identified 50 (49.01%) samples as L. major and 52 (50.98%) as L. tropica. Two samples showed a different pattern that were reported as unknown. Among L. tropica, six different isolates were identified in this endemic area. Finally, this study showed heterozygosity among L. tropica isolates in this endemic area such as some other studies from the world. This heterozygosity among the strains may suggest a sexual recombination or genetic exchange between strains.
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December 2014

Differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes after short term culture in alkaline medium.

Int J Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Res 2014 Oct;8(4):12-9

English Language Department, School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the undifferentiated multipotential cell sources of human body. MSCs have the capacity to form a variety of cell types, especially chondrocytes and osteocytes. Learning about responses of MSCs to external milieu and chemical factors such as pH could recommend new approaches for preparation of suitable scaffolds for bone and cartilage tissue engineering. In present study, the effect of alkaline medium on chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of rat MSCs was evaluated.

Methods: MSCs were harvested from bone marrow of animals and then the response of passage1 and 2 of MSCs (P1 MSCs & P2 MSCs) to the culture in alkaline medium (pH: 8) was evaluated. Cytochemical and immunocytochemical staining were performed to distinguish chondrocytes and osteocytes. Real-time PCR was performed to evaluate the type II collagen and osteopontin mRNA levels.

Results: Staining for type II collagen, a chondrocytic specific marker, revealed that after one-week culture in alkaline medium, a considerable amount of P1 MSCs had shown chondrocytic morphology. By prolonging the culture period up to 4 weeks, osteogenic cells with expanded matrix and mineralized areas around them were appeared. Results of real-time PCR showed that P1 MSCs after one week culture in alkaline medium expressed highest rate of type II collagen and osteopontin mRNA among all groups.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that alkaline medium is a potent chondrogenic differentiation inducer for MSCs in their first passage.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4345293PMC
October 2014

Effects of biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus casei on gtfB, gtfC, and ftf gene expression level in S. mutans by real-time RT-PCR.

Adv Biomed Res 2014 29;3:231. Epub 2014 Nov 29.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: The Streptococci are the pioneer strains in plaque formation and Streptococcus mutans are the main etiological agent of dental plaque and caries. In general, biofilm formation is a step-wise process, which begins by adhesion of planktonic cells to the surfaces. Evidences show that expression of glucosyltransferase B and C (gtfB and gtfC) and fructosyltransferase (ftf) genes play critical role in initial adhesion of S. mutans to the tooth surface which results in formation of dental plaques and consequently caries and other periodontal disease.

Materials And Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biosurfactants produced by a probiotic strain; Lactobacillus casei (ATCC39392) on gene expression profile of gftB/C and tft of S. mutans (ATCC35668) using quantitative real-time PCR.

Results: The application of the prepared biosurfactant caused dramatic down regulation of all the three genes under study. The reduction in gene expression was statistically highly significant (for gtfB, P > 0.0002; for gtfC, P > 0.0063, and for ftf, P > 0.0057).

Conclusion: Considerable downregulation of all three genes in the presence of the prepared biosurfactant comparing to untreated controls is indicative of successful inhibition of influential genes in bacterial adhesion phenomena. In view of the importance of glucosyltransferase gene products for S.mutans attachment to the tooth surface which is the initial important step in biofilm production and dental caries, further research in this field may lead to an applicable alternative for successful with least adverse side effects in dental caries prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.145729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260286PMC
December 2014