Publications by authors named "Gianluigi Reda"

50 Publications

Phase III, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of CC-486 (Oral Azacitidine) in Patients With Lower-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Mar 25:JCO2002619. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Marienhospital Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Purpose: Treatment options are limited for patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (LR-MDS). This phase III, placebo-controlled trial evaluated CC-486 (oral azacitidine), a hypomethylating agent, in patients with International Prognostic Scoring System LR-MDS and RBC transfusion-dependent anemia and thrombocytopenia.

Methods: Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to CC-486 300-mg or placebo for 21 days/28-day cycle. The primary end point was RBC transfusion independence (TI).

Results: Two hundred sixteen patients received CC-486 (n = 107) or placebo (n = 109). The median age was 74 years, median platelet count was 25 × 10/L, and absolute neutrophil count was 1.3 × 10/L. In the CC-486 and placebo arms, 31% and 11% of patients, respectively, achieved RBC-TI ( = .0002), with median durations of 11.1 and 5.0 months. Reductions of ≥ 4 RBC units were attained by 42.1% and 30.6% of patients, respectively, with median durations of 10.0 and 2.3 months, and more CC-486 patients had ≥ 1.5 g/dL hemoglobin increases from baseline (23.4% 4.6%). Platelet hematologic improvement rate was higher with CC-486 (24.3% 6.5%). Underpowered interim overall survival analysis showed no difference between CC-486 and placebo (median, 17.3 16.2 months; = .96). Low-grade GI events were the most common adverse events in both arms. In the CC-486 and placebo arms, 90% and 73% of patients experienced a grade 3-4 adverse event. Overall death rate was similar between arms, but there was an imbalance in deaths during the first 56 days (CC-486, n = 16; placebo, n = 6), most related to infections; the median pretreatment absolute neutrophil count for the 16 CC-486 patients was 0.57 × 10/L.

Conclusion: CC-486 significantly improved RBC-TI rate and induced durable bilineage improvements in patients with LR-MDS and high-risk disease features. More early deaths occurred in the CC-486 arm, most related to infections in patients with significant pretreatment neutropenia. Further evaluation of CC-486 in MDS is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02619DOI Listing
March 2021

Efficacy of idelalisib and rituximab in relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated outside of clinical trials. A report of the Gimema Working Group.

Hematol Oncol 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Medical Sciences, Hematology Section, University of Ferrara, Cona - Ferrara, Italy.

Because the efficacy of new drugs reported in trials may not translate into similar results when used in the real-life, we analyzed the efficacy of idelalisib and rituximab (IR) in 149 patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated at 34 GIMEMA centers. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 22.9 and 44.5 months, respectively; performance status (PS) ≥2 and ≥3 previous lines of therapy were associated with shorter PFS and overall survival (OS). 48% of patients were on treatment at 12 months; the experience of the centers (≥5 treated patients) and PS 0-1 were associated with a significantly longer treatment duration (p = 0.015 and p = 0.002, respectively). TP53 disruption had no prognostic significance. The overall response rate to subsequent treatment was 49.2%, with median OS of 15.5 months and not reached in patients who discontinued, respectively, for progression and for toxicity (p < 0.01). Treatment breaks ≥14 days were recorded in 96% of patients and adverse events mirrored those reported in trials. In conclusion, this real-life analysis showed that IR treatment duration was longer at experienced centers, that the ECOG PS and ≥3 lines of previous therapy are strong prognostic factor and that the overall outcome with this regimen was superimposable to that reported in a randomized trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2861DOI Listing
March 2021

Pre-existing and treatment-emergent autoimmune cytopenias in patients with CLL treated with targeted drugs.

Blood 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

University of Torino, Torino, Italy.

Autoimmune cytopenias (AIC) affect 5-9% of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Targeted drugs - ibrutinib, idelalisib and venetoclax - have a prominent role in the treatment of CLL, but their impact on CLL-associated AIC is largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics and outcome of pre-existing AIC, and described the incidence, quality and management of treatment-emergent AIC during therapy with targeted drugs in patients with CLL. We collected data from 572 patients treated with ibrutinib (9% in combination with an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody), 143 treated with idelalisib-rituximab and 100 treated with venetoclax (12% in combination with an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody). A history of pre-existing AIC was reported in 104/815 patients (13%). Interestingly, 80% of patients whose AIC was not resolved at the time of targeted drug start experienced an improvement or a resolution during therapy. Treatment-emergent AIC occurred in 1% of patients during ibrutinib therapy, in 0.9% during idelalisib and in 7% during venetoclax, with an estimated incidence rate of 5, 6 and 69 episodes per 1000 patients per year of exposure in the three treatment groups, respectively. The vast majority of patients who developed treatment-emergent AIC carried unfavorable biological features such as an unmutated IGHV, and a del(17p) and/or TP53 mutation. Notably, despite AIC, 83% of patients were able to continue the targeted drug, in some cases in combination with additional immunosuppressive agents. Overall, treatment with ibrutinib, idelalisib and venetoclax appears to have a beneficial impact on CLL-associated AIC, inducing an improvement or even a resolution of pre-existing AIC in most cases and eliciting treatment-emergent AIC in a negligible portion of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008201DOI Listing
March 2021

Safety and efficacy of obinutuzumab alone or with chemotherapy in previously untreated or relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients: Final analysis of the Phase IIIb GREEN study.

Br J Haematol 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Division of Hematology, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

The manageable toxicity profile of obinutuzumab (GA101; G) alone or with chemotherapy in first-line (1L; fit and non-fit) and relapsed/refractory (R/R) patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was established in the primary analysis of the Phase IIIb GREEN trial (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01905943). The final analysis (cut-off, 31 January 2019) is reported here. Patients received G (1000 mg) alone (G-mono; fit and non-fit patients) or with chemotherapy [fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (FC; fit patients); chlorambucil (non-fit patients); bendamustine (any patient)]. Study endpoints were safety (primary) and efficacy (secondary). Subgroup analyses were performed on prognostic biomarkers in 1L CLL. Overall, 630 patients received 1L and 341 received R/R CLL treatment. At the final analysis, no new safety signals were observed [Grade ≥ 3 adverse events (AEs): 1L 82·7%, R/R 84·5%; serious AEs: 1L 58·1%, R/R 62·5%]. Neutropenia (1L 50·5%, R/R 53·4%) and thrombocytopenia (1L 14·6%, R/R 19·1%) were the most common Grade 3-5 AEs. G-mono-, G-bendamustine and G-FC-treated patients with unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain trended towards shorter progression-free survival. Achievement of minimal residual disease negativity was greatest in 1L patients treated with G-FC. In this final analysis of the GREEN trial, the safety profile of G was consistent with current risk management strategies. Biomarker analyses supported efficacy in the specific subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17326DOI Listing
February 2021

CD34-Positive Blast Count and p53 Expression in Bone Marrow Biopsies of Patients with Low-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Potential Predictive Tools of Response to Erythropoietin Stimulating Agents.

Pathobiology 2021 Feb 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Division of Pathology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: The first-line therapy for patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) commonly consists of erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESAs), with a response rate ranging from 34 to 62%. For nonresponder patients, outside clinical trials, blood transfusions are the most frequent therapeutic option, with detrimental effect on the quality of life and with risks of iron-overload. Since no studies have been yet conducted on this topic, we investigated the potential predictive role of bone marrow (BM) histological evaluation in patients treated with ESAs.

Materials And Methods: We performed a morphological and immunohistochemical retrospective analysis of BM biopsies of 96 patients with low-risk MDSs subsequently treated with ESAs.

Results: In our series, substantial morphological overlap was found between responder and nonresponder patients. On the contrary, patients with a percentage of CD34-positive blasts >3% or with p53 protein expression <1% responded with a significantly higher frequency to ESAs.

Conclusions: Our study reinforces the role of BM biopsy as diagnostic tool in MDSs, being also able to supply information related to response to ESAs and to its loss over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512700DOI Listing
February 2021

FZD6 triggers Wnt-signalling driven by WNT10B expression and highlights new targets in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Hematol Oncol 2021 Jan 26. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Wnt/Fzd signaling has been implicated in hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and in acute leukemia establishment. In our previous work, we described a recurrent rearrangement involving the WNT10B locus (WNT10B ), characterized by the expression of WNT10B transcript variant, in acute myeloid leukemia. To determine the occurrence of WNT10B in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), we retrospectively analyzed an Italian cohort of patients (n = 20) and detected a high incidence (13/20) of WNT10B expression. To address genes involved in WNT10B molecular response, we have designed a Wnt-targeted RNA sequencing panel. Identifying Wnt agonists and antagonists, it results that the expression of FZD6, LRP5, and PROM1 genes stands out in WNT10B positive patients compared to negative ones. Using MOLT4 and MUTZ-2 as leukemic cell models, which are characterized by the expression of WNT10B , we have observed that WNT10B drives major Wnt activation to the FZD6 receptor complex through receipt of ligand. Additionally, short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs)-mediated gene silencing and small molecule-mediated inhibition of WNTs secretion have been observed to interfere with the WNT10B/FZD6 interaction. We have therefore identified that WNT10B knockdown, or pharmacological interference by the LGK974 porcupine (PORCN) inhibitor, reduces WNT10B/FZD6 protein complex formation and significantly impairs intracellular effectors and leukemic expansion. These results describe the molecular circuit induced by WNT10B and suggest WNT10B/FZD6 as a new target in the T-ALL treatment strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2840DOI Listing
January 2021

Acquired hemophilia A and delta storage pool deficiency in a patient with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Platelets 2021 Jan 11:1-3. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico , Milan, Italy.

B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases may be associated with acquired hemostasis disorders, such as acquired hemophilia A (AHA) caused by autoantibodies that neutralize factor VIII activity, and δ-storage pool deficiency, an abnormality of platelet function due to defective dense granules and impaired secretion. We describe the case of a 67-year-old man in whom these two acquired bleeding disorders were concomitantly present as the first clinical manifestation of an indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Immunosuppressive therapy with prednisone was initially started to eradicate anti-FVIII antibodies, subsequently boosted with cyclophosphamide and rituximab, these medications being also chosen to treat the associated indolent lymphoma. Bleeding symptoms were first tackled with limited benefit by using rFVIIa and then rescued using recombinant porcine FVIII. After a 6 month's follow-up lymphoma and AHA were in remission and platelet function was improved. This case underlines the need of multiple and complex diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to rare acquired bleeding disorders associated with lymphoproliferative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537104.2020.1869928DOI Listing
January 2021

Comparison of ibrutinib and idelalisib plus rituximab in real-life relapsed/resistant chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases.

Eur J Haematol 2021 Apr 28;106(4):493-499. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Biothecnology Research Unit, AO of Cosenza, Cosenza, Italy.

Objectives: To compare the capacity of ibrutinib (IB) and idelalisib-rituximab (IDELA-R) of prolonging overall survival (OS) as in CLL patients, previously treated with chemotherapy only.

Methods: A real-life cohort of 675 cases has been identified and investigated in the database of the groups participating in the study.

Results: At an unadjusted univariate analysis, a significant death risk reduction was observed favoring IB (IDELA-R vs IB HR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.36-0.71) although with some limitations due to the non-randomized and retrospective nature of the study and to the lower number of patients in the IDELA-R group (112 cases) related to the current prescribing practice. To overcome the potential problem of confounding by indication, we adjusted the association between the type of therapy and mortality for all variables significantly associated with OS at Cox univariate analysis. Furthermore, those variables, differently distributed between the two study groups, were introduced into the multivariate Cox model to improve the effectiveness of the analysis. By introducing all these variables into the multiple Cox regression model, we confirmed the protective effect of IB vs IDELA-R (HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45-0.98, P = .04) independent of potential confounders.

Conclusions: Although our analysis presents some constraints, that is, the unavailability of additional potential confounders, and the retrospective nature of the study, this observation may be of help for the daily clinical practice, particularly in the absence of randomized trials comparing the two schedules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13573DOI Listing
April 2021

Increase of immunoglobulin A during ibrutinib therapy reduces infection rate in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.

Hematol Oncol 2021 Feb 22;39(1):141-144. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Hematology Unit, IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico of Milan, Milan, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2814DOI Listing
February 2021

Monoclonal gammopathy and serum immunoglobulin levels as prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Br J Haematol 2020 09 26;190(6):901-908. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Department of Hematology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

The relationship between chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and qualitative/quantitative gammaglobulin abnormalities is well established. Nevertheless, in order to better understand this kind of connection, we examined 1505 patients with CLL and divided them into four subgroups on the basis of immunoglobulin (Ig) aberrations at diagnosis. A total of 73 (4·8%), 149 (10%), 200 (13·2%) and 1083 (72%) patients were identified with IgM monoclonal gammopathy (IgM/CLL), IgG monoclonal gammopathy (IgG/CLL), hypogammaglobulinaemia (hypo-γ) and normal Ig levels (γ-normal) respectively. IgM paraprotein was significantly associated with a more advanced Binet/Rai stage and del(17p)/TP53 mutation, while IgG abnormalities correlated with a higher occurrence of trisomy 12. Patients with any type of Ig abnormality had shorter treatment-free survival (TFS) but no significant impact affecting overall survival (OS) compared to those with normal Ig levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16975DOI Listing
September 2020

COVID-19 severity and mortality in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a joint study by ERIC, the European Research Initiative on CLL, and CLL Campus.

Leukemia 2020 09 9;34(9):2354-2363. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele and IRCC Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease of the elderly, characterized by immunodeficiency. Hence, patients with CLL might be considered more susceptible to severe complications from COVID-19. We undertook this retrospective international multicenter study to characterize the course of COVID-19 in patients with CLL and identify potential predictors of outcome. Of 190 patients with CLL and confirmed COVID-19 diagnosed between 28/03/2020 and 22/05/2020, 151 (79%) presented with severe COVID-19 (need of oxygen and/or intensive care admission). Severe COVID-19 was associated with more advanced age (≥65 years) (odds ratio 3.72 [95% CI 1.79-7.71]). Only 60 patients (39.7%) with severe COVID-19 were receiving or had recent (≤12 months) treatment for CLL at the time of COVID-19 versus 30/39 (76.9%) patients with mild disease. Hospitalization rate for severe COVID-19 was lower (p < 0.05) for patients on ibrutinib versus those on other regimens or off treatment. Of 151 patients with severe disease, 55 (36.4%) succumbed versus only 1/38 (2.6%) with mild disease; age and comorbidities did not impact on mortality. In CLL, (1) COVID-19 severity increases with age; (2) antileukemic treatment (particularly BTK inhibitors) appears to exert a protective effect; (3) age and comorbidities did not impact on mortality, alluding to a relevant role of CLL and immunodeficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0959-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347048PMC
September 2020

Atypical primary cutaneous cryptococcosis during ibrutinib therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Ann Hematol 2019 Dec 18;98(12):2847-2849. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

UOC Medicina Generale - Emostasi e Trombosi, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-019-03837-1DOI Listing
December 2019

Elevated Lactate Dehydrogenase Has Prognostic Relevance in Treatment-Naïve Patients Affected by Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia with Trisomy 12.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Jun 26;11(7). Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Institute of Hematology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, 00168 Roma, Italy.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) patients with +12 have been reported to have specific clinical and biologic features. We performed an analysis of the association between demographic; clinical; laboratory; biologic features and outcome in CLL patients with +12 to identify parameters predictive of disease progression; time to treatment; and survival. The study included 487 treatment-naive CLL patients with +12 from 15 academic centers; diagnosed between January 2000 and July 2016; and 816 treatment-naïve patients with absence of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) abnormalities. A cohort of 250 patients with +12 CLL followed at a single US institution was used for external validation. In patients with +12; parameters associated with worse prognosis in the multivariate model were high Lactate DeHydrogenase (LDH) and β-2-microglobulin and unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene (IGHV). CLL patients with +12 and high LDH levels showed a shorter Progression-Free-Survival (PFS) (30 months vs. 65 months; p < 0.001), Treatment-Free-Survival (TFS) (33 months vs. 69 months; p < 0.001), Overall Survival (OS) (131 months vs. 181 months; p < 0.001) and greater CLL-related mortality (29% vs. 11% at 10 years; p < 0.001) when compared with +12 CLL patients with normal LDH levels. The same differences were observed in the validation cohort. These data suggest that serum LDH levels can predict PFS; TFS; OS and CLL-specific survival in CLL patients with +12.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6678692PMC
June 2019

Bone Marrow Fibrosis and Early Hematological Response as Predictors of Poor Outcome in Azacitidine Treated High Risk-Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Semin Hematol 2018 10 21;55(4):202-208. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Hematology department, Hematology Unit, IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico and University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Azacitidine (AZA) treatment is effective treatment for patients with myeloid disorders, and factors predictive of treatment outcome are under investigation. Little is known about the effect of bone marrow fibrosis on response to AZA therapy. We, retrospectively, evaluated clinical predictors of overall survival (OS) and overall response rate (ORR) for patients treated with AZA in a real-life cohort. We evaluated 94 consecutive patients treated with AZA outside of clinical trials (75mg/m/day for 7 days every 28 days; 5 + 2 + 2 schedule), from June 2009 to February 2016. Ninety-three patients were evaluated for response. After a median of 6 cycles, ORR-complete response (CR; including marrow CR) + partial response (PR) + hematological improvement (HI)-was 41.9% (CR = 18.3%; PR = 11.8%; HI = 11.8%). Stable disease was observed in 21.5%, and failure in 36.5%. Pre-AZA bone marrow blast percentage, International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) or IPSS-R category, and time from diagnosis to AZA had no effect on response. Median OS from start of therapy was 18.5 months, and was significantly related to higher IPSS category (P = .01), poor cytogenetics according to the IPSS (P = .01), poor and very poor cytogenetics according to the IPSS-R (P = .02), and lower ORR (P = .006). Patients with MF-0 pre-AZA demonstrated significantly higher ORR, (CR + PR + HI) and stable disease, and lower failure rates than those with any grade of fibrosis. Indeed, cases with pre-AZA fibrosis > MF-1 had shorter OS (P = .005). Achievement of HI before 4 cycles of treatment negatively impacted OS (P = .009).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.seminhematol.2018.02.005DOI Listing
October 2018

Predictors of atrial fibrillation in ibrutinib-treated CLL patients: a prospective study.

J Hematol Oncol 2018 06 11;11(1):79. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

UOC Ematologia, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico di Milano, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Francesco Sforza 35, 20135, Milan, Italy.

Background: Ibrutinib is an oral irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, indicated for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The drug is generally well tolerated; however, not infrequent side effects are reported, with the major two being bleeding and ibrutinib-related atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation pathogenesis in this setting is not completely clear, and no prospective studies have evaluated the impact of previous cardiologic history and baseline characteristics.

Methods: We prospectively performed cardiologic assessment in 43 CLL patients before starting ibrutinib therapy. Cardiologic workup included comorbidity collection and electrocardiographic and echocardiographic baseline evaluation.

Results: After a median observation of 8 months, seven patients developed atrial fibrillation (16.3%). Cases developing atrial fibrillation were all elderly males (p = 0.04), and mostly with a history of previous arterial hypertension (p = 0.009). Atrial fibrillation occurrence also correlated with the presence of one or more pre-existent cardiologic comorbidities (p = 0.03), with a higher atrial fibrillation risk score (calculated with comorbidities and cardiologic risk factor evaluation p < 0.001), and with higher left atrial diameter (p = 0.02) and area (p = 0.03) by echocardiography. The occurrence of atrial fibrillation was managed after an integrated cardio-oncologic evaluation: anticoagulation was started in 4 (57.1%) patients and beta-blockers or amiodarone in 5 (71.4%). One patient underwent electric cardioversion and another patient pacemaker positioning to normalise heart rate in order to continue ibrutinib.

Conclusion: Our data show that echocardiography is a highly informative and reproducible tool that should be included in pre-treatment workup for patients who are candidates for ibrutinib therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-018-0626-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996546PMC
June 2018