Publications by authors named "Giancarlo Comi"

636 Publications

An Investigation of the Role of Common and Rare Variants in a Large Italian Multiplex Family of Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Oct 13;12(10). Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Health Sciences, CAAD (Center for Translational Research on Autoimmune and Allergic Diseases), University of Eastern Piedmont, 28100 Novara, Italy.

Known multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility variants can only explain half of the disease's estimated heritability, whereas low-frequency and rare variants may partly account for the missing heritability. Thus, here we sought to determine the occurrence of rare functional variants in a large Italian MS multiplex family with five affected members. For this purpose, we combined linkage analysis and next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based whole exome and whole genome sequencing (WES and WGS, respectively). The genetic burden attributable to known common MS variants was also assessed by weighted genetic risk score (wGRS). We found a significantly higher burden of common variants in the affected family members compared to that observed among sporadic MS patients and healthy controls (HCs). We also identified 34 genes containing at least one low-frequency functional variant shared among all affected family members, showing a significant enrichment in genes involved in specific biological processes-particularly mRNA transport-or neurodegenerative diseases. Altogether, our findings point to a possible pathogenic role of different low-frequency functional MS variants belonging to shared pathways. We propose that these rare variants, together with other known common MS variants, may account for the high number of affected family members within this MS multiplex family.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12101607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8535321PMC
October 2021

Associations of Disease-Modifying Therapies With COVID-19 Severity in Multiple Sclerosis.

Neurology 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Neurology Department, Hospital Universitario de CEMIC, Argentina.

Background: People with multiple sclerosis (MS) are a vulnerable group for severe COVID- 19, particularly those taking immunosuppressive disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). We examined the characteristics of COVID-19 severity in an international sample of people with MS.

Methods: Data from 12 data-sources in 28 countries were aggregated (sources could include patients from 1-12 countries). Demographic (age, sex), clinical (MS-phenotype, disability), and DMT (untreated, alemtuzumab, cladribine, dimethyl-fumarate, glatiramer acetate, interferon, natalizumab, ocrelizumab, rituximab, siponimod, other DMTs) covariates were queried, alongside COVID-19 severity outcomes, hospitalisation, ICU admission, requiring artificial ventilation, and death. Characteristics of outcomes were assessed in patients with suspected/confirmed COVID-19 using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, MS-phenotype, and EDSS.

Results: 657(28.1%) with suspected and 1,683(61.9%) with confirmed COVID-19 were analysed. Among suspected+confirmed and confirmed-only COVID-19, 20.9% and 26.9% were hospitalised, 5.4% and 7.2% were admitted to ICU, 4.1% and 5.4% required artificial ventilation, and 3.2% and 3.9% died. Older age, progressive MS-phenotype, and higher disability were associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. Compared to dimethyl-fumarate, ocrelizumab and rituximab were associated with hospitalisation (aOR=1.56,95%CI=1.01- 2.41; aOR=2.43,95%CI=1.48-4.02) and ICU admission (aOR=2.30,95%CI=0.98-5.39;aOR=3.93,95%CI=1.56-9.89), though only rituximab was associated with higher risk of artificial ventilation (aOR=4.00,95%CI=1.54-10.39). Compared to pooled other DMTs, ocrelizumab and rituximab were associated with hospitalisation (aOR=1.75,95%CI=1.29- 2.38; aOR=2.76,95%CI=1.87-4.07) and ICU admission (aOR=2.55,95%CI=1.49-4.36;aOR=4.32,95%CI=2.27-8.23) but only rituximab with artificial ventilation (aOR=6.15,95%CI=3.09-12.27). Compared to natalizumab, ocrelizumab and rituximab wereassociated with hospitalisation (aOR=1.86,95%CI=1.13-3.07; aOR=2.88,95%CI=1.68-4.92) and ICU admission (aOR=2.13,95%CI=0.85-5.35; aOR=3.23,95%CI=1.17-8.91), but only rituximab with ventilation (aOR=5.52,95%CI=1.71-17.84). Importantly, associations persisted on restriction to confirmed COVID-19 cases. No associations were observed between DMTs and death. Stratification by age, MS-phenotype, and EDSS found no indications that DMT associations with COVID-19 severity reflected differential DMT allocation by underlying COVID-19 severity.

Conclusions: Using the largest cohort of people with MS and COVID-19 available, we demonstrated consistent associations of rituximab with increased risk of hospitalisation, ICU admission, and requiring artificial ventilation, and ocrelizumab with hospitalisation and ICU admission. Despite the study's cross-sectional design, the internal and external consistency of these results with prior studies suggests rituximab/ocrelizumab use may be a risk factor for more severe COVID-19.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000012753DOI Listing
October 2021

The 4-Hole-Board Test for Assessment of Long-Term Spatial Memory in Mice.

Curr Protoc 2021 Aug;1(8):e228

Experimental Neurophysiology Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology (INSPE), San Raffaele Scientific Institute, IRCCS-San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy.

The hole-board test has been used in rodents since the early 60s to measure exploratory behavior, locomotor activity and cognitive function. The test is based on rodents' natural curiosity and attraction for novelty. Basically, the hole-board consists of a small square arena with an extractable platform as floor, which has a set of equally spaced circular holes on its surface. In this article, we describe the protocol of a 4-hole-board test allowing the assessment of long-term spatial memory in mice without the employment of water or food restriction, painful stimuli (as electrical shocks) or any aversive condition (as forced swimming or exposure to intense light). Four holes are present on the floor of the square arena (one for each of its four quadrants). Mice released in the arena spontaneously approach the holes and explore them by briefly inserting the snout inside, a behavior defined as nose-poking (or head-dipping). If, after 24 hr, rodents are re-exposed to the hole-board, the novelty of the holes decreases. Animals with an intact long-term memory will show a reduction of the frequency of nose-poking into the holes. The total number of nose-pokes on day 1 is an index of exploration, while the percentage of decrease in nose-poking on day 2 represents an index of long-term spatial memory. Number of quadrant crossings is scored as a control measure for locomotor activity, which with the present protocol should remain stable across the days of testing. Indeed, the 4-hole-board test represents a stress-free and animal-friendly option to evaluate long-term spatial memory. In the present paper, we provide detailed description of the hole-board apparatus and step-by-step protocol for assessment of spatial memory in mice. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Validation of the 4-hole-board Basic Protocol 2: Evaluation of long-term spatial memory through the 4-hole-board test.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpz1.228DOI Listing
August 2021

Optical Coherence Tomography and Visual Evoked Potentials as Prognostic and Monitoring Tools in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

Front Neurosci 2021 5;15:692599. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Experimental Neurophysiology Unit, San Raffaele Hospital, Institute of Experimental Neurology (INSPE), Milan, Italy.

Understanding the mechanisms underlying progression and developing new treatments for progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS) are among the major challenges in the field of central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating diseases. Over the last 10 years, also because of some technological advances, the visual pathways have emerged as a useful platform to study the processes of demyelination/remyelination and their relationship with axonal degeneration/protection. The wider availability and technological advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) have allowed to add information on structural neuroretinal changes, in addition to functional information provided by visual evoked potentials (VEPs). The present review will address the role of the visual pathway as a platform to assess functional and structural damage in MS, focusing in particular on the role of VEPs and OCT, alone or in combination, in the prognosis and monitoring of PMS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.692599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8374170PMC
August 2021

CONCERTO: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of oral laquinimod in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2021 Aug 11:13524585211032803. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy/Neuroimaging Research Unit, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy/Neurology Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy/Neurorehabilitation Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy/Neurophysiology Service, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Background: Interventions targeting the adaptive immune response are needed in multiple sclerosis (MS).

Objective: Evaluate laquinimod's efficacy, safety, and tolerability in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).

Methods: CONCERTO was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase-3 study. RRMS patients were randomized 1:1:1 to receive once-daily oral laquinimod 0.6 or 1.2 mg or placebo for ⩽24 months ( = 727,  = 732, and  = 740, respectively). Primary endpoint was time to 3-month confirmed disability progression (CDP). The laquinimod 1.2-mg dose arm was discontinued (1 January 2016) due to cardiovascular events at high doses. Safety was monitored throughout the study.

Results: CONCERTO did not meet the primary endpoint of significant effect with laquinimod 0.6-mg versus placebo on 3-month CDP (hazard ratio: 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.67-1.31;  = 0.706). Secondary endpoint values were nominal and non-inferential. Laquinimod 0.6 mg demonstrated 40% reduction in percent brain volume change from baseline to Month 15 versus placebo ( < 0.0001). The other secondary endpoint, time to first relapse, and annualized relapse rate (an exploratory endpoint) were numerically lower (both,  = 0.0001). No unexpected safety findings were reported with laquinimod 0.6 mg.

Conclusion: Laquinimod 0.6 mg demonstrated only nominally significant effects on clinical relapses and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes and was generally well tolerated.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01707992).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13524585211032803DOI Listing
August 2021

Long-Term Disease Stability Assessed by the Expanded Disability Status Scale in Patients Treated with Cladribine Tablets 3.5 mg/kg for Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis: An Exploratory Post Hoc Analysis of the CLARITY and CLARITY Extension Studies.

Adv Ther 2021 09 9;38(9):4975-4985. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Univ. Lille, Inserm U1172 LilNCog, CHU Lille, FHU Precise, Lille, France.

Introduction: In the Cladribine Tablets Treating Multiple Sclerosis Orally (CLARITY) study, cladribine tablets significantly reduced relapse rates and improved findings on magnetic resonance imaging versus placebo in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. In the CLARITY Extension study, treatment with cladribine tablets for 2 years followed by placebo for 2 years produced similar clinical benefits to 4 years of cladribine tablets. The objective of this exploratory post hoc analysis was to evaluate long-term disease stability (assessed by the Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score) after treatment with cladribine tablets.

Methods: Patients enrolled into CLARITY Extension who were previously randomized to cladribine tablets 3.5 mg/kg in the CLARITY study were included in this post hoc analysis. Two treatment groups were investigated-patients randomized to cladribine tablets 3.5 mg/kg in CLARITY and thereafter randomized to placebo in CLARITY Extension (the CP3.5 group) or to cladribine tablets 3.5 mg/kg in CLARITY Extension (the CC7 group). In each treatment group, EDSS scores at 6-month intervals, EDSS score improvement/worsening each year, and time to 3- and 6-month confirmed EDSS progression were assessed from CLARITY baseline over 5 years of follow-up (including a variable bridging interval between studies). All analyses are descriptive, and no statistical comparisons were performed for between-treatment group differences.

Results: The median (95% confidence interval [CI]) EDSS score for patients in the CP3.5 group at 5 years was 2.5 (2.0-3.5) compared with 3.0 (2.5-3.5) at baseline. In the CC7 group, median EDSS score (95% CI) at 5 years was 2.0 (2.0-3.0) compared with 2.5 (2.5-3.0) at baseline. During year 5 for the CP3.5 group, and based on changes in minimum score each year, EDSS score stability was observed in 53.9% of patients, improvement in 21.3%, and worsening in 24.7%. In the CC7 group, EDSS score remained stable in 66.1%, improved in 18.1%, and worsened in 15.8% of patients. Over 70% of patients in both treatment groups did not show 3- or 6-month confirmed EDSS progression at 5 years from CLARITY baseline.

Conclusions: These findings confirm long-term beneficial effects on disability afforded by either the recommended dose of cladribine tablets over 4 years (cumulative dose, 3.5 mg/kg) or a higher cumulative dose.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00213135 (CLARITY); NCT00641537 (CLARITY Extension).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-021-01865-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8408069PMC
September 2021

Genomic and functional evaluation of TNFSF14 in multiple sclerosis susceptibility.

J Genet Genomics 2021 06 25;48(6):497-507. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Health Sciences, Center on Autoimmune and Allergic Diseases (CAAD), UPO, University of Eastern Piedmont, A. Avogadro, Novara 28100, Italy. Electronic address:

Among multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility genes, the strongest non-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) signal in the Italian population maps to the TNFSF14 gene encoding LIGHT, a glycoprotein involved in dendritic cell (DC) maturation. Through fine-mapping in a large Italian dataset (4,198 patients with MS and 3,903 controls), we show that the TNFSF14 intronic SNP rs1077667 is the primarily MS-associated variant in the region. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis indicates that the MS risk allele is significantly associated with reduced TNFSF14 messenger RNA levels in blood cells, which is consistent with the allelic imbalance in RNA-Seq reads (P < 0.0001). The MS risk allele is associated with reduced levels of TNFSF14 gene expression (P < 0.01) in blood cells from 84 Italian patients with MS and 80 healthy controls (HCs). Interestingly, patients with MS are lower expressors of TNFSF14 compared to HC (P < 0.007). Individuals homozygous for the MS risk allele display an increased percentage of LIGHT-positive peripheral blood myeloid DCs (CD11c, P = 0.035) in 37 HCs, as well as in in vitro monocyte-derived DCs from 22 HCs (P = 0.04). Our findings suggest that the intronic variant rs1077667 alters the expression of TNFSF14 in immune cells, which may play a role in MS pathogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgg.2021.03.017DOI Listing
June 2021

SARS-CoV-2 serology after COVID-19 in multiple sclerosis: An international cohort study.

Mult Scler 2021 Jul 30:13524585211035318. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Neuroscience, Mental Health and Sensory Organs, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy/Unit of Neurology, IRCCS Neuromed, Isernia, Italy.

Background: The MuSC-19 project is an Italian cohort study open to international partners that collects data on multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with COVID-19. During the second wave of the pandemic, serological tests became routinely available.

Objective: To evaluate the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies according to the use of disease-modifying therapy (DMT) in a subset of patients included in the MuSC-19 data set who had undergone a serological test.

Methods: We evaluated the association between positive serological test results and time elapsed since infection onset, age, sex, Expanded Disability Status Scale score, comorbidities and DMT exposure using a multivariable logistic model.

Results: Data were collected from 423 patients (345 from Italy, 61 from Turkey and 17 from Brazil) with a serological test performed during follow-up. Overall, 325 out of 423 tested patients (76.8%) had a positive serological test. At multivariate analysis, therapy with anti-CD20 was significantly associated with a reduced probability of developing antibodies after COVID-19 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.20,  = 0.002).

Conclusion: Patients with MS maintain the capacity to develop humoral immune response against SARS-COV-2, although to a lesser extent when treated with anti-CD20 drugs. Overall, our results are reassuring with respect to the possibility to achieve sufficient immunization with vaccination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13524585211035318DOI Listing
July 2021

Plasma neurofilament light chain concentrations as a biomarker of clinical and radiologic outcomes in relapsing multiple sclerosis: Post hoc analysis of Phase 3 ozanimod trials.

Eur J Neurol 2021 11 23;28(11):3722-3730. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Mellen Center for MS Treatment and Research, Department of Neurology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background And Purpose: We investigated plasma neurofilament light chain concentration (pNfL) as a biomarker for neuroaxonal damage and disease activity using data from Phase 3 trials of ozanimod in relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS).

Methods: pNfL was measured before and after ozanimod 0.46 mg or 0.92 mg daily or interferon β-1a 30 µg weekly in the randomized, double-blind SUNBEAM and RADIANCE trials. In these post hoc analyses, we investigated relationships between pNfL (at baseline and median percentage change from baseline to Month 12 [SUNBEAM] or 24 [RADIANCE]) and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes.

Results: Median (Q1, Q3) baseline pNfL, available in 1244 of 1346 SUNBEAM participants, was 14.70 (10.16, 23.26) pg/ml and in 1109 of 1313 RADIANCE participants was 13.35 (9.42, 20.41) pg/ml. Baseline gadolinium-enhancing (GdE) and T2 lesion counts increased and brain volume decreased with increasing baseline pNfL. Baseline pNfL was higher in those with versus without on-treatment relapse. Median percentage reduction in pNfL at 12 months in SUNBEAM (n = 1238) and 24 months in RADIANCE (n = 1088) was greater for ozanimod (20%-27%) than interferon β-1a (13%-16%; p < 0.01). Greater pNfL reduction was associated with fewer GdE lesions, fewer new/enlarging T2 lesions per scan, less loss of brain volume, lower annualized relapse rate (ARR), and no evidence of disease activity. The following models predicted ARR: 0.5111 + 0.0116 × ΔNfL at 12 months (SUNBEAM) and 0.4079 + 0.0088 × ΔNfL at 24 months (RADIANCE).

Conclusions: pNfL was associated with clinical and radiologic measures of disease and treatment effects in RMS, supporting its use as a biomarker.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.15009DOI Listing
November 2021

DMTs and Covid-19 severity in MS: a pooled analysis from Italy and France.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 08 7;8(8):1738-1744. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Neurology, CIC INSERM 1434, CHU de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

We evaluated the effect of DMTs on Covid-19 severity in patients with MS, with a pooled-analysis of two large cohorts from Italy and France. The association of baseline characteristics and DMTs with Covid-19 severity was assessed by multivariate ordinal-logistic models and pooled by a fixed-effect meta-analysis. 1066 patients with MS from Italy and 721 from France were included. In the multivariate model, anti-CD20 therapies were significantly associated (OR = 2.05, 95%CI = 1.39-3.02, p < 0.001) with Covid-19 severity, whereas interferon indicated a decreased risk (OR = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.18-0.99, p = 0.047). This pooled-analysis confirms an increased risk of severe Covid-19 in patients on anti-CD20 therapies and supports the protective role of interferon.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.51408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351392PMC
August 2021

Spinal Fluid Myeloid Microvesicles Predict Disease Course in Multiple Sclerosis.

Ann Neurol 2021 Aug 20;90(2):253-265. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Clinical Neuroimmunology Unit, Division of Neuroscience, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Objective: In vivo measures of myeloid activity are promising biomarkers in multiple sclerosis. We previously demonstrated that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) myeloid microvesicles are markers of microglial/macrophage activity and neuroinflammation in multiple sclerosis. Here, we aimed at investigating the diagnostic and prognostic value of myeloid microvesicles in a clinical setting.

Methods: Six hundred one patients discharged with a diagnosis of neuroinflammatory, neurodegenerative, or no neurological disease were enrolled. Myeloid microvesicles were measured with flow cytometry as isolectin B4-positive events in fresh CSF. Clinical, demographical, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were collected at diagnosis (all patients) and during follow-up (n = 176).

Results: CSF myeloid microvesicles were elevated in neuroinflammatory patients compared to the neurodegenerative and control groups. In multiple sclerosis, microvesicles were higher in patients with MRI disease activity and their concentration increased along with the number of enhancing lesions (p < 0.0001, Jonckheere-Terpstra test). CSF myeloid microvesicles were also higher in patients with higher disease activity in the month and year preceding diagnosis. Microvesicles excellently discriminated between the relapsing-remitting and control groups (receiver operator characteristic curve, area under the curve = 0.939, p < 0.0001) and between radiologically isolated syndrome and unspecific brain lesions (0.942, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, microvesicles were independent predictors of prognosis for both the relapsing-remitting and progressive groups. Microvesicles independently predicted future disease activity in relapsing-remitting patients (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.967, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.147-3.372), correcting for prognostic factors of standard clinical use. In the progressive group, microvesicles were independent predictors of disability accrual (HR = 10.767, 95% CI = 1.335-86.812).

Interpretation: Our results confirm that CSF myeloid microvesicles are a clinically meaningful biomarker of neuroinflammation and microglial/macrophage activity in vivo. These findings may support a possible use in clinical practice during diagnostic workup and prognostic assessment. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:253-265.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.26154DOI Listing
August 2021

Dysregulated copper transport in multiple sclerosis may cause demyelination via astrocytes.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(27)

Division of Neuroscience, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132, Milan, Italy;

Demyelination is a key pathogenic feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we evaluated the astrocyte contribution to myelin loss and focused on the neurotrophin receptor TrkB, whose up-regulation on the astrocyte finely demarcated chronic demyelinated areas in MS and was paralleled by neurotrophin loss. Mice lacking astrocyte TrkB were resistant to demyelination induced by autoimmune or toxic insults, demonstrating that TrkB signaling in astrocytes fostered oligodendrocyte damage. In vitro and ex vivo approaches highlighted that astrocyte TrkB supported scar formation and glia proliferation even in the absence of neurotrophin binding, indicating TrkB transactivation in response to inflammatory or toxic mediators. Notably, our neuropathological studies demonstrated copper dysregulation in MS and model lesions and TrkB-dependent expression of copper transporter (CTR1) on glia cells during neuroinflammation. In vitro experiments evidenced that TrkB was critical for the generation of glial intracellular calcium flux and CTR1 up-regulation induced by stimuli distinct from neurotrophins. These events led to copper uptake and release by the astrocyte, and in turn resulted in oligodendrocyte loss. Collectively, these data demonstrate a pathogenic demyelination mechanism via the astrocyte release of copper and open up the possibility of restoring copper homeostasis in the white matter as a therapeutic target in MS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025804118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271600PMC
July 2021

PML risk is the main factor driving the choice of discontinuing natalizumab in a large multiple sclerosis population: results from an Italian multicenter retrospective study.

J Neurol 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Neurosciences Unit, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

Background: Natalizumab (NTZ) is an effective treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However, patients and physicians may consider discontinuing NTZ therapy due to safety or efficacy issues. The aim of our study was to evaluate the NTZ discontinuation rate and reasons of discontinuation in a large Italian population of RRMS patients.

Materials And Methods: The data were extracted from the Italian MS registry in May 2018 and were collected from 51,845 patients in 69 Italian multiple sclerosis centers. MS patients with at least one NTZ infusion in the period between June 1st 2012 to May 15th 2018 were included. Discontinuation rates at each time point were calculated. Reasons for NTZ discontinuation were classified as "lack of efficacy", "progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) risk" or "other".

Results: Out of 51,845, 5151 patients, 3019 (58.6%) females, with a mean age of 43.6 ± 10.1 years (median 40), were analyzed. Out of 2037 (39.5%) who discontinued NTZ, a significantly higher percentage suspended NTZ because of PML risk compared to lack of efficacy [1682 (32.7% of 5151) vs 221 (4.3%), p < 0.001]; other reasons were identified for 99 (1.9%) patients. Patients discontinuing treatment were older, had longer disease duration and worse EDSS at the time of NTZ initiation and at last follow-up on NTZ treatment. The JCV index and EDSS at baseline were predictors for stopping therapy (HR 2.94, 95% CI 1.22-4.75; p = 0.02; HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.18-5.41; p = 0.04).

Conclusions: Roughly 60% of MS patients stayed on NTZ treatment during the observation period. For those patients in whom NTZ discontinuation was required, it was mainly due to PML concerns.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10676-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Pregnancy in multiple sclerosis women with relapses in the year before conception increases the risk of long-term disability worsening.

Mult Scler 2021 Jun 16:13524585211023365. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Division Neurological Rehabilitation, Department of NEUROFARBA, University of Florence, Florence, Italy/IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Florence, Italy.

Background: The influence of pregnancy on long-term disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) is still controversial.

Objective: To assess the risk of long-term disability worsening after pregnancy in MS women as compared with a propensity-score (PS) matched group of MS women without pregnancy.

Methods: In the setting of the Italian Pregnancy Dataset, MS patients with (pregnancy group (PG)) and without pregnancy (control group (CG)) were recruited. Time to disability worsening on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was assessed through a multivariable Cox regression model.

Results: The PS-matching retained 230 PG and 102 CG patients. After a follow-up of 6.5 +/- 3.1 years, disability worsening occurred in 87 (26.2%) women. In the multivariable analysis, disability worsening was associated with pregnancy in women with relapses in the year before conception (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.84; = 0.027), higher EDSS (aHR = 1.39; 95% CI 1.12-1.74; = 0.003), younger age (aHR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.99; = 0.022) and shorter DMD exposure over the follow-up ( < 0.008).

Conclusion: Pregnancy in MS women with relapses in the year before conception increases the risk of long-term disability worsening. Our findings underscore the importance of counselling in MS women facing a pregnancy that should be planned after a period of clinical stability, favouring treatment optimization in patients with recent disease activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13524585211023365DOI Listing
June 2021

Long-term disability trajectories in relapsing multiple sclerosis patients treated with early intensive or escalation treatment strategies.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2021 31;14:17562864211019574. Epub 2021 May 31.

Dipartimento di Neurologia, Neurofisiologia e Neuroriabilitazione, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

Background And Aims: No consensus exists on how aggressively to treat relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) nor on the timing of the treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate disability trajectories in RRMS patients treated with an early intensive treatment (EIT) or with a moderate-efficacy treatment followed by escalation to higher-efficacy disease modifying therapy (ESC).

Methods: RRMS patients with ⩾5-year follow-up and ⩾3 visits after disease modifying therapy (DMT) start were selected from the Italian MS Registry. EIT group included patients who received as first DMT fingolimod, natalizumab, mitoxantrone, alemtuzumab, ocrelizumab, cladribine. ESC group patients received the high efficacy DMT after ⩾1 year of glatiramer acetate, interferons, azathioprine, teriflunomide or dimethylfumarate treatment. Patients were 1:1 propensity score (PS) matched for characteristics at the first DMT. The disability trajectories were evaluated by applying a longitudinal model for repeated measures. The effect of early late start of high-efficacy DMT was assessed by the mean annual Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) changes compared with baseline values (delta-EDSS) in EIT and ESC groups.

Results: The study cohort included 2702 RRMS patients. The PS matching procedure produced 363 pairs, followed for a median (interquartile range) of 8.5 (6.5-11.7) years. Mean annual delta-EDSS values were all significantly ( < 0.02) higher in the ESC group compared with the EIT group. In particular, the mean delta-EDSS differences between the two groups tended to increase from 0.1 (0.01-0.19,  = 0.03) at 1 year to 0.30 (0.07-0.53,  = 0.009) at 5 years and to 0.67 (0.31-1.03,  = 0.0003) at 10 years.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that EIT strategy is more effective than ESC strategy in controlling disability progression over time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17562864211019574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170278PMC
May 2021

Stopping disease-modifying therapy in relapsing and progressive multiple sclerosis.

Curr Opin Neurol 2021 08;34(4):598-603

Università Vita Salute San Raffaele, Multiple Sclerosis Centre, Hospital of Gallarate, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: To assess the reasons for considering discontinuation of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs)in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Relevant aspects of the natural history, pathology, and immunology are analyzed.

Recent Findings: A number of retrospective observational studies in aggregate indicate that stopping DMTs may be attempted in older individuals with stable disease. Prognostic factors have been identified informing about the risk of recurrence of disease activity after DMT discontinuation.

Summary: Several clinical scenarios provide a rationale to stop DMTs in people with MS. Cumulative evidence has been gathered recently allowing us to more precisely weigh the risks against the benefits. This information aids in the decision process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WCO.0000000000000960DOI Listing
August 2021

Blood neurofilament light chain and total tau levels at admission predict death in COVID-19 patients.

J Neurol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

Background And Aims: Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 range from asymptomatic, to mild, moderate or severe disease evolution including fatal outcome. Thus, early predictors of clinical outcome are highly needed. We investigated markers of neural tissue damage as a possible early sign of multisystem involvement to assess their clinical prognostic value on survival or transfer to intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods: We collected blood from 104 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 the day of admission to the emergency room and measured blood neurofilament light chair (NfL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), and total tau protein levels.

Results: We found that NfL, GFAP, and tau were significantly increased in patients with fatal outcome, while NfL and UCH-L1 in those needing ICU transfer. ROC and Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that total tau levels at admission accurately predict mortality.

Conclusions: Blood neural markers may provide additional prognostic value to conventional biomarkers used to predict COVID-19 outcome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10595-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108733PMC
May 2021

Risk of Persistent Disability in Patients With Pediatric-Onset Multiple Sclerosis.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Jun;78(6):726-735

Multiple Sclerosis Center, Gallarate Hospital, ASST Valle Olona, Gallarate (VA), Italy.

Importance: Availability of new disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) and changes of therapeutic paradigms have led to a general improvement of multiple sclerosis (MS) prognosis in adults. It is still unclear whether this improvement also involves patients with pediatric-onset MS (POMS), whose early management is more challenging.

Objective: To evaluate changes in the prognosis of POMS over time in association with changes in therapeutic and managing standards.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Retrospective, multicenter, observational study. Data were extracted and collected in May 2019 from the Italian MS Registry, a digital database including more than 59 000 patients. Inclusion criteria were MS onset before age 18 years, diagnosis before January 2014, and disease duration of at least 3 years. Exclusion criteria were primary progressive MS, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of at least 8 one year after onset, unavailability of diagnosis date, and less than 2 EDSS score evaluations. Eligible patients were 4704 patients with POMS. According to these criteria, we enrolled 3198 patients, excluding 1506.

Exposures: We compared time to reach disability milestones by epoch of MS diagnosis (<1993, 1993-1999, 2000-2006, and 2007-2013), adjusting for possible confounders linked to EDSS evaluations and clinical disease activity. We then analyzed the difference among the 4 diagnosis epochs regarding demographic characteristics, clinical disease activity at onset, and DMTs management.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Disability milestones were EDSS score 4.0 and 6.0, confirmed in the following clinical evaluation and in the last available visit.

Results: We enrolled 3198 patients with POMS (mean age at onset, 15.2 years; 69% female; median time to diagnosis, 3.2 years; annualized relapse rate in first 1 and 3 years, 1.3 and 0.6, respectively), with a mean (SD) follow-up of 21.8 (11.7) years. Median survival times to reach EDSS score of 4.0 and 6.0 were 31.7 and 40.5 years. The cumulative risk of reaching disability milestones gradually decreased over time, both for EDSS score of 4.0 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58-0.83 in 1993-1999; HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.38-0.60 in 2000-2006; and HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.32-0.59 in 2007-2013) and 6.0 (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57-0.90; HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.33-0.60; and HR, 0.30; 0.20-0.46). In later diagnosis epochs, a greater number of patients with POMS were treated with DMTs, especially high-potency drugs, that were given earlier and for a longer period. Demographic characteristics and clinical disease activity at onset did not change significantly over time.

Conclusions And Relevance: In POMS, the risk of persistent disability has been reduced by 50% to 70% in recent diagnosis epochs, probably owing to improvement in therapeutic and managing standards.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8094039PMC
June 2021

Ozanimod in relapsing multiple sclerosis: Pooled safety results from the clinical development program.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jun 15;51:102844. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Research Center for Clinical Neuroimmunology and Neuroscience Basel (RC2NB), Departments of Medicine, Clinical Research, Biomedicine, and Biomedical Engineering, University Hospital and University of Basel, Petersgraben 4, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Ozanimod, an oral sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 and 5 modulator, is approved in multiple countries for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). In phase 3 trials, ozanimod was well tolerated and superior to interferon beta-1a 30 µg once-weekly in reducing clinical and radiologic disease activity. The objective of this integrated safety analysis was to evaluate the safety of extended ozanimod exposure in participants with RMS from all clinical trials and compare it with phase 3 trial data.

Methods: We report pooled incidence and study duration‒adjusted incidence rates (IR) of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) from an interim data cut (January 31, 2019) of RMS participants treated with ozanimod. Data were pooled from a phase 1 pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic trial, a placebo-controlled phase 2 trial with dose-blinded extension, 2 large active-controlled phase 3 trials, and an open-label extension (OLE). Results were compared with pooled phase 3 trial data.

Results: At the data cutoff, 2631 RMS participants had exposure to ozanimod 0.92 mg (mean 32.0 months) and 2787 had exposure to either ozanimod 0.46 or 0.92 mg (mean 37.1 months). The IRs per 1000 person-years (PY) for any TEAE (772.2) and serious TEAEs (33.2) in the overall population were similar to those in the phase 3 population (896.1 and 31.2, respectively). There were no serious opportunistic infections. There were no second-degree or higher atrioventricular blocks on electrocardiogram. Hepatic enzyme elevations declined over time. Malignancy rates remained low with longer exposure. Pulmonary function tests showed minimal reductions in lung function. Seven ozanimod-treated participants with comorbid risk factors had confirmed macular edema, including 3 in the ongoing OLE.

Conclusions: Safety results in this larger RMS population with greater ozanimod exposure demonstrated no new safety concerns and were consistent with phase 3 trial results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2021.102844DOI Listing
June 2021

Subclinical anterior optic pathway involvement in early multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndromes.

Brain 2021 04;144(3):848-862

Experimental Neurophysiology Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology (INSPE), San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is gaining increasing relevance in the assessment of patients with multiple sclerosis. Converging evidence point to the view that neuro-retinal changes, in eyes without acute optic neuritis, reflect inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes taking place throughout the CNS. The present study aims at exploring the usefulness of OCT as a marker of inflammation and disease burden in the earliest phases of the disease. Thus, a cohort of 150 consecutive patients underwent clinical, neurophysiological and brain MRI assessment as well as lumbar puncture as part of their diagnostic workup for a neurological episode suggestive of inflammatory CNS disorder; among those 32 patients had another previous misdiagnosed episode. For the present study, patients also received a visual pathway assessment (OCT, visual evoked potentials, visual acuity), measurement of CSF inflammatory markers (17 cytokines-chemokines, extracellular vesicles of myeloid origin), and dosage of plasma neurofilaments. Subclinical optic nerve involvement is frequently found in clinically isolated syndromes by visual evoked potentials (19.2%). OCT reveals ganglion cell layer asymmetries in 6.8% of patients; retinal fibre layer asymmetries, despite being more frequent (17.8%), display poor specificity. The presence of subclinical involvement is associated with a greater disease burden. Second, ganglion cell layer thinning reflects the severity of disease involvement even beyond the anterior optic pathway. In fact, the ganglion cell layer in eyes without evidence of subclinical optic involvement is correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale, low contrast visual acuity, disease duration, brain lesion load, presence of gadolinium enhancing lesions, abnormalities along motor and somatosensory evoked potentials, and frequency of CSF-specific oligoclonal bands. Third, the inner nuclear layer thickens in a post-acute (1.1-3.7 months) phase after a relapse, and this phenomenon is counteracted by steroid treatment. Likewise, a longitudinal analysis on 65 patients shows that this swelling is transient and returns to normal values after 1 year follow-up. Notwithstanding, the clinical, MRI, serological and CSF markers of disease activity considered in the study are strictly associated with one another, but none of them are associated with the inner nuclear layer. Our findings challenge the current hypothesis that the inner nuclear layer is an acute phase marker of inflammatory activity. The present study suggests that instrumental evidence of subclinical optic nerve involvement is associated with a greater disease burden in clinically isolated syndrome. Neuro-retinal changes are present since the earliest phases of the disease and yield important information regarding the neurodegenerative and inflammatory processes occurring in the CNS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa458DOI Listing
April 2021

Early MRI outcomes in participants with a first clinical demyelinating event at risk of multiple sclerosis in the ORACLE-MS study.

Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin 2021 Jan-Mar;7(1):2055217321990852. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Comprehensive Multiple Sclerosis Center, Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: In the Phase 3, 96-week ORACLE-MS study, cladribine tablets 10 mg (3.5 or 5.25 mg/kg cumulative dosage over two years) significantly reduced lesions associated with multiple sclerosis versus placebo in participants following a first clinical demyelinating event (FCDE).

Objective: To determine the timing of effects of cladribine tablets on lesion activity assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: This analysis assessed the effect of cladribine tablets versus placebo in ORACLE-MS on secondary MRI endpoints including T1 gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+), new or enlarging T2 lesions, and combined unique active lesions assessed on MRI scans performed at screening and every 3 months thereafter.

Results: Compared to placebo, cladribine tablets 3.5 mg/kg treatment appeared to lead to a trend of reductions in the mean number of T1 Gd+ lesions by Week 13 (first post-baseline scan: 0.37 vs. 1.00), new or enlarging T2 (0.20 vs. 1.01) and combined unique active (0.29 vs. 1.91) lesions by Week 24. Low lesion counts were maintained with cladribine tablets throughout 96 weeks. Similar results were observed with the 5.25 mg/kg dosage.

Conclusion: In participants with an FCDE, cladribine tablets appeared to reduce lesion numbers within 13 weeks (time of first evaluation).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2055217321990852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925953PMC
February 2021

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation With H-Coil in Alzheimer's Disease: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.

Front Neurol 2020 18;11:614351. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

Focal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been applied to improve cognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with conflicting results. We applied rTMS in AD in a pilot placebo-controlled study using the H2-coil. H-coils are suitable for targeting wider neuronal structures compared with standard focal coils, in particular the H2-coil stimulates simultaneously the frontal-parietal-temporal lobes bilaterally. Thirty patients (mean age 70.9 year, SD 8.1; mean MMSE score 16.9, SD 5.5) were randomized to sham or real 10 Hz rTMS stimulation with the H2-coil. Each patient underwent 3 sessions/week for 4 weeks, followed by 4 weeks with maintenance treatment (1 session/week). Primary outcome was improvement of ADAS-cog at 4 and 8 weeks compared with baseline. A trend toward an improved ADAS-cog score over time was observed for patients undergoing real rTMS, with actively treated patients experiencing a mean decrease of -1.01 points at the ADAS-Cog scale score per time point (95% CIs -0.02 to -3.13, < 0.04). This trend was no longer evident 2 months after the end of treatment. Real rTMS showed no significant effect on MMSE and BDI changes over time. These preliminary findings suggest that rTMS with H-coil is feasible and safe in patients with probable AD and might provide beneficial, even though transient, effects on cognition. This study prompts larger studies in the early stages of AD, combining rTMS and cognitive rehabilitation. www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04562506.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.614351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930223PMC
February 2021

Bilateral Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation With the H-Coil in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled Study.

Front Neurol 2020 18;11:584713. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Experimental Neurophysiology Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology - INSPE, Scientific Institute Hospital San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

Pilot open-label application of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with H-coil in Parkinson's Disease (PD) have shown promising results. To evaluate safety and efficacy of high-frequency rTMS with H-coil in PD in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Sixty patients with PD were randomized into 3 groups: M1-PFC (real stimulation on primary motor-M1 and pre-frontal cortices-PFC), M1 (real rTMS on M1, sham on PFC), Sham (apparent stimulation). Primary outcome was baseline-normalized percent improvement in UPDRS part III OFF-therapy at the end of treatment (12 rTMS sessions, 4 weeks). Secondary outcomes were improvement in UPDRS part III sub-scores, timed tests, and neuropsychological tests. Statistical analysis compared improvement following real and sham stimulation at the end of the protocol using either a -test or a Mann-Whitney test. All patients tolerated the treatment and concluded the study. One patient from M1-PFC group was excluded from the analysis due to newly discovered uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. No serious adverse effect was recorded. At the end of treatment, patients receiving real rTMS (M1-PFC and M1 combined) showed significantly greater improvement compared to sham in UPDRS part III total score ( = 0.007), tremor subscore ( = 0.011), and lateralized sub-scores ( = 0.042 for the more affected side; = 0.012 for the less affected side). No significant differences have been oserved in safety and efficacy outcomes between the two real rTMS groups. Notably, mild, not-distressing and transient dyskinesias occurred in 3 patients after real rTMS in OFF state. The present findings suggest that high-frequency rTMS with H-coil is a safe and potentially effective procedure and prompt larger studies for validation as add-on treatment in PD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.584713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930321PMC
February 2021

Cerebral thrombi of cardioembolic etiology have an increased content of neutrophil extracellular traps.

J Neurol Sci 2021 04 21;423:117355. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Neuroimmunology Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology (INSPE), IRCCS San Raffaele Institute and University Vita- Salute San Raffaele, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy; Neurology Department, IRCCS San Raffaele Institute and University Vita- Salute San Raffaele, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Inflammation is emerging as an essential trigger for thrombosis. In the interplay between innate immunity and coagulation cascade, neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can promote thrombus formation and stabilization. In ischemic stroke, it is uncertain whether the involvement of the inflammatory component may differ in thrombi of diverse etiology. We here aimed to evaluate the presence of neutrophils and NETs in cerebral thrombi of diverse etiology retrieved by endovascular thrombectomy (EVT).

Methods: We performed a systematic histological analysis on 80 human cerebral thrombi retrieved through EVT in acute ischemic stroke patients. Thrombus composition was investigated in terms of neutrophils (MPO cells) and NET content (citH3 area), employing specific immunostainings. NET plasma content was determined and compared to NET density in the thrombus.

Results: Neutrophils and NETs were heterogeneously represented within all cerebral thrombi. Thrombi of diverse etiology did not display a statistically significant difference in the number of neutrophils (p = 0.51). However, NET content was significantly increased in cardioembolic compared to large artery atherosclerosis thrombi (p = 0.04), and the association between NET content and stroke etiology remained significant after adjusted analysis (beta coefficient = -6.19, 95%CI = -11.69 to -1.34, p = 0.01). Moreover, NET content in the thrombus was found to correlate with NET content in the plasma (p ≤ 0.001, r = 0.62).

Conclusion: Our study highlights how the analysis of the immune component within the cerebral thrombus, and specifically the NET burden, might provide additional insight for differentiating stroke from diverse etiologies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117355DOI Listing
April 2021

Long term follow-up in advanced Parkinson's disease treated with DBS of the subthalamic nucleus.

J Neurol 2021 Aug 17;268(8):2821-2830. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Neurology Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting both motor and non-motor systems. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has been an approved treatment for PD for more than 30 years, but few data are available regarding its long-term effectiveness.

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate patients' outcome, both from a motor and non-motor perspective, 9 to 14 years after DBS implantation. We have investigated patients with advanced PD and treated with STN-DBS, in relation to key clinical features of PD.

Methods: 18 patients were assessed both retrospectively and prospectively. They underwent motor examination, neuropsychological evaluation and questionnaires on the quality of life, preoperatively, as well as 1, 9 and 14 years after DBS surgery. All patients were implanted with STN-DBS at San Raffaele Hospital between 2004 and 2010.

Results: 13 males and five females underwent DBS implantation with a mean PD duration of 11 years. Stimulation significantly improved med-off/stim-on condition up to 9 years, compared to the preoperative off state, and med-on/stim-on condition at 14 years, compared to med-on/stim-off state. Long term improvement specifically involved tremor and rigidity, as well as dopaminergic daily dose. At the same time, STN-DBS had no long-lasting effect on axial symptoms and cognitive functions.

Conclusions: STN-DBS remains an effective therapy for advanced PD, also over the years. Despite the underlying progression of the disease, this treatment extends the period in which the overall quality of life is still acceptable.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10430-yDOI Listing
August 2021

Disease-Modifying Therapies and Coronavirus Disease 2019 Severity in Multiple Sclerosis.

Ann Neurol 2021 04 9;89(4):780-789. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Neuroscience, Mental Health, and Sensory Organs, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the impact of immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies on the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS).

Methods: We retrospectively collected data of PwMS with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. All the patients had complete follow-up to death or recovery. Severe COVID-19 was defined by a 3-level variable: mild disease not requiring hospitalization versus pneumonia or hospitalization versus intensive care unit (ICU) admission or death. We evaluated baseline characteristics and MS therapies associated with severe COVID-19 by multivariate and propensity score (PS)-weighted ordinal logistic models. Sensitivity analyses were run to confirm the results.

Results: Of 844 PwMS with suspected (n = 565) or confirmed (n = 279) COVID-19, 13 (1.54%) died; 11 of them were in a progressive MS phase, and 8 were without any therapy. Thirty-eight (4.5%) were admitted to an ICU; 99 (11.7%) had radiologically documented pneumonia; 96 (11.4%) were hospitalized. After adjusting for region, age, sex, progressive MS course, Expanded Disability Status Scale, disease duration, body mass index, comorbidities, and recent methylprednisolone use, therapy with an anti-CD20 agent (ocrelizumab or rituximab) was significantly associated (odds ratio [OR] = 2.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-4.74, p = 0.015) with increased risk of severe COVID-19. Recent use (<1 month) of methylprednisolone was also associated with a worse outcome (OR = 5.24, 95% CI = 2.20-12.53, p = 0.001). Results were confirmed by the PS-weighted analysis and by all the sensitivity analyses.

Interpretation: This study showed an acceptable level of safety of therapies with a broad array of mechanisms of action. However, some specific elements of risk emerged. These will need to be considered while the COVID-19 pandemic persists. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:780-789.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.26028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8013440PMC
April 2021

Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Multiple Sclerosis.

Neurology 2021 01 20. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Gianluigi Mancardi Department of Neurology, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genoa and Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, IRCCS, Genoa, Italy and IRCCS Scientific Clinical Institutes Maugeri, Pavia-Genoa Nervi/Italy.

Objective: To determine whether autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) is able to induce durable disease remission in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), we analyzed the long-term outcomes after transplant in a large cohort of MS patients.

Methods: To be included, a minimum data set (consisting of age, MS phenotype, EDSS at baseline, information on transplant technology and at least 1 follow-up visit after transplant) was required.

Results: 210 patients were included [relapsing-remitting (RR)MS=122(58%)]. Median baseline EDSS was 6(1-9), mean follow-up was 6.2(±5.0) years. Among RRMS patients, disability worsening-free survival (95%CI) was 85.5%(76.9-94.1%) at 5 years and 71.3%(57.8-84.8%) at 10 years. In patients with progressive MS, disability worsening-free survival was 71.0%(59.4-82.6%) and 57.2%(41.8-72.7%) at 5 and 10 years, respectively. In RRMS patients, EDSS significantly reduced after aHSCT [p=0.001; mean EDSS change per year -0.09 (95%CI=-0.15 to -0.04%)]. In RRMS patients, the use of the BEAM+ATG conditioning protocol was independently associated with a reduced risk of NEDA-3 failure [HR=0.27(0.14-0.50), p<0.001]. Three patients died within 100-days from aHSCT (1.4%); no deaths occurred in patients transplanted after 2007.

Conclusions: aHSCT prevents disability worsening in the majority of patients and induces durable improvement in disability in patients with RRMS. The BEAM+ATG conditioning protocol is associated with a more pronounced suppression of clinical relapses and MRI inflammatory activity.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for people with MS, aHSCT induces durable disease remission in most patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011461DOI Listing
January 2021

CSF extracellular vesicles and risk of disease activity after a first demyelinating event.

Mult Scler 2021 09 19;27(10):1606-1610. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Clinical Neuroimmunology Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs), a recently described mechanism of cell communication, are released from activated microglial cells and macrophages and are a candidate biomarker in diseases characterized by chronic inflammatory process such as multiple sclerosis (MS).

Methods: We explored cerebrospinal fluid extracellular vesicle (CSF EV) of myeloid origin (MEVs), cytokine and chemokine levels in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS).

Results: We found that CSF MEVs were significantly higher in CIS patients than in controls and were inversely correlated to CSF CCL2 levels. MEVs level were significantly associated with an shorter time to evidence of disease activity (hazard ratio: 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.02,  < 0.01) independently from other known prognostic markers.

Conclusion: After a first demyelinating event, CSF EVs may improve risk stratification of these patients and allow more targeted intervention strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458520987542DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of Ozanimod on Symbol Digit Modalities Test Performance in Relapsing MS.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Feb 10;48:102673. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Neurology, Mellen Center for MS Treatment and Research, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 USA. Electronic address:

Background: Cognitive dysfunction, including slowed cognitive processing speed (CPS), is one of the most disabling symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is a preferred measure of CPS for MS trials and routine screening. Based on encouraging SDMT results in the phase 3 SUNBEAM trial, these post hoc, exploratory analyses were conducted to further compare effects of the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator ozanimod versus intramuscular interferon β-1a on CPS in participants with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS).

Methods: In the phase 3, double-blind, double-dummy, SUNBEAM study, adults (aged 18‒55 years) with RMS (N=1,346) were randomized to once-daily oral ozanimod 0.92 or 0.46 mg, or weekly intramuscular interferon β-1a 30 µg. The study continued until the last participant was treated for 12 months. CPS was measured as part of a secondary endpoint using the SDMT. Exploratory, post hoc analyses evaluated SDMT change and percentages of participants with clinically meaningful (≥4-point) SDMT improvement or worsening at months 6 and 12, and relationship between SDMT and brain volume on magnetic resonance imaging.

Results: Ozanimod improved SDMT scores compared with interferon β-1a at months 6 and 12. At month 12, least squares mean difference in SDMT z-scores for ozanimod 0.92 mg versus interferon β-1a was 0.102 (95% CI, 0.031‒0.174, nominal p = 0.0051; standardized mean difference = 0.1376). A greater percentage of ozanimod 0.92 mg‒treated participants had clinically meaningful improvements in SDMT scores versus interferon β-1a at month 6 (30.0% versus 22.2%) and month 12 (35.6% versus 27.9%). Of those with SDMT improvement at month 6, 66.4% of those treated with ozanimod 0.92 mg and 55.9% of those treated with interferon β-1a had sustained improvement at month 12. Brain volume loss was similar for those with SDMT improvement versus worsening at month 12.

Conclusions: In these exploratory analyses, ozanimod had modestly beneficial effects on CPS in RMS participants. The effects of ozanimod on SDMT are being further evaluated in an ongoing 3-year clinical trial. SUNBEAM is registered on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02294058) and the European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT 2014-002320-27).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102673DOI Listing
February 2021

Multiple Sclerosis Data Alliance - A global multi-stakeholder collaboration to scale-up real world data research.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jan 21;47:102634. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Institute of Experimental Neurology, Ospedale San Raffaele, Via Olgettina, 48, 20132, Milan, Italy.

The Multiple Sclerosis Data Alliance (MSDA), a global multi-stakeholder collaboration, is working to accelerate research insights for innovative care and treatment for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) through better use of real-world data (RWD). Despite the increasing reliance on RWD, challenges and limitations complicate the generation, collection, and use of these data. MSDA aims to tackle sociological and technical challenges arising with scaling up RWD, specifically focused on MS data. MSDA envisions a patient-centred data ecosystem in which all stakeholders contribute and use big data to co-create the innovations needed to advance timely treatment and care of people with MS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102634DOI Listing
January 2021
-->