Publications by authors named "Giacomo Manenti"

37 Publications

Transplantation of autologous extracellular vesicles for cancer-specific targeting.

Theranostics 2021 1;11(5):2034-2047. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Nano- and microsized extracellular vesicles (EVs) are naturally occurring cargo-bearing packages of regulatory macromolecules, and recent studies are increasingly showing that EVs are responsible for physiological intercellular communication. Nanoparticles encapsulating anti-tumor theranostics represent an attractive "exosome-interfering" strategy for cancer therapy. : Herein, by labeling plasma-derived EVs with indocyanine green (ICG) and following their biodistribution by and imaging, we demonstrate the existence of nanoparticles with a highly selective cancer tropism in the blood of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients but not in that of healthy volunteers. : In CRC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models, we show that transplanted EVs recognize tumors from the cognate nanoparticle-generating individual, suggesting the theranostic potential of autologous EVs encapsulating tumor-interfering molecules. In large canine breeds bearing spontaneous malignant skin and breast tumors, the same autologous EV transplantation protocol shows comparable safety and efficacy profiles. : Our data show the existence of an untapped resource of intercellular communication present in the blood of cancer patients, which represents an efficient and highly biocompatible way to deliver molecules directly to the tumor with great precision. The novel EV-interfering approach proposed by our study may become a new research direction in the complex interplay of modern personalized cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.51344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797692PMC
January 2021

Genetic Predisposition to Hepatocarcinogenesis in Inbred and Outbred Mouse Lines Selected for High or Low Inflammatory Response.

J Immunol Res 2019 31;2019:5298792. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Laboratory of Immunogenetics, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil.

AIRmax and AIRmin mouse strains phenotypically selected for high and low acute inflammatory responsiveness (AIR) are, respectively, susceptible or resistant to developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by the chemical carcinogens urethane and diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Early production of TNF-, IL-1, and IL-6 in the liver after DEN treatment correlated with tumor development in AIRmax mice. Transcriptome analysis of livers from untreated AIRmax and AIRmin mice showed specific gene expression profiles in each line, which might play a role in their differential susceptibility to HCC. Linkage analysis with SNP markers in F2 (AIRmax×AIRmin) intercross mice revealed two quantitative trait loci (QTL) in chromosomes 2 and 9, which are significantly associated with the number and progression of urethane-induced liver tumors. An independent linkage analysis with an intercross population from A/J and C57BL/6J inbred mice mapped regions in chromosomes 1 and 7 associated with the progression of urethane-induced liver tumors, evidencing the heterogeneity of HCC genetic control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/5298792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462334PMC
August 2019

cIAP1 regulates the EGFR/Snai2 axis in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

Cell Death Differ 2018 12 19;25(12):2147-2164. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Department of Experimental Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Molecular Mechanisms of Cell Cycle Control Unit, Milan, Italy.

Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins constitute a family of conserved molecules that regulate both apoptosis and receptor signaling. They are often deregulated in cancer cells and represent potential targets for therapy. In our work, we investigated the effect of IAP inhibition in vivo to identify novel downstream genes expressed in an IAP-dependent manner that could contribute to cancer aggressiveness. To this end, immunocompromised mice engrafted subcutaneously with the triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB231 cell line were treated with SM83, a Smac mimetic that acts as a pan-IAP inhibitor, and tumor nodules were profiled for gene expression. SM83 reduced the expression of Snai2, an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition factor often associated with increased stem-like properties and metastatic potential especially in breast cancer cells. By testing several breast cancer cell lines, we demonstrated that Snai2 downregulation prevents cell motility and that its expression is promoted by cIAP1. In fact, the chemical or genetic inhibition of cIAP1 blocked epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and caused the reduction of Snai2 transcription levels. In a number of breast cancer cell lines, cIAP1 depletion also resulted in a reduction of EGFR protein levels which derived from the decrease of its gene transcription, though, paradoxically, the silencing of cIAP1 promoted EGFR protein stability rather than its degradation. Finally, we provided evidence that IAP inhibition displays an anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effect in vivo. In conclusion, our work indicates that IAP-targeted therapy could contribute to EGFR inhibition and to the reduction of its downstream mediators. This approach could be particularly effective in tumors characterized by high levels of EGFR and Snai2, such as triple-negative breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-018-0100-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6262016PMC
December 2018

Germline control of somatic Kras mutations in mouse lung tumors.

Mol Carcinog 2018 06 25;57(6):745-751. Epub 2018 Mar 25.

Department of Research, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Somatic KRAS mutations are common in human lung adenocarcinomas and are associated with worse prognosis. In mice, Kras is frequently mutated in both spontaneous and experimentally induced lung tumors, although the pattern of mutation varies among strains, suggesting that such mutations are not random events. We tested if the occurrence of Kras mutations is under genetic control in two mouse intercrosses. Codon 61 mutations were prevalent, but the patterns of nucleotide changes differed between the intercrosses. Whole genome analysis with SNPs in (A/J x C57BL/6)F4 mice revealed a significant linkage between a locus on chromosome 19 and 2 particular codon 61 variants (CTA and CGA). In (AIRmax × AIRmin) F2 mice, there was a significant linkage between SNPs located on distal chromosome 6 (around 135 Mbp) and the frequency of codon 61 mutation. These results reveal the presence of two loci, on chromosomes 6 and 19, that modulate Kras mutation frequency in different mouse intercrosses. These findings indicate that somatic mutation frequency and type are not simple random events, but are under genetic control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.22796DOI Listing
June 2018

Targeting COPZ1 non-oncogene addiction counteracts the viability of thyroid tumor cells.

Cancer Lett 2017 12 23;410:201-211. Epub 2017 Sep 23.

Department of Experimental Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Dei Tumori, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Thyroid carcinoma is generally associated with good prognosis, but no effective treatments are currently available for aggressive forms not cured by standard therapy. To find novel therapeutic targets for this tumor type, we had previously performed a siRNA-based functional screening to identify genes essential for sustaining the oncogenic phenotype of thyroid tumor cells, but not required to the same extent for the viability of normal cells (non-oncogene addiction paradigm). Among those, we found the coatomer protein complex ζ1 (COPZ1) gene, which is involved in intracellular traffic, autophagy and lipid homeostasis. In this paper, we investigated the mechanisms through which COPZ1 depletion leads to thyroid tumor cell death. We showed that siRNA-mediated COPZ1 depletion causes abortive autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, unfolded protein response and apoptosis. Interestingly, we observed that mouse tumor xenografts, locally treated with siRNA targeting COPZ1, showed a significant reduction of tumor growth. On the whole, we demonstrated for the first time the crucial role of COPZ1 in the viability of thyroid tumor cells, suggesting that it may be considered an attractive target for novel therapeutic approaches for thyroid cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2017.09.024DOI Listing
December 2017

Complex genetic control of lung tumorigenesis in resistant mice strains.

Cancer Sci 2017 Nov 6;108(11):2281-2286. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

Department of Predictive and Preventive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

The SM/J mouse strain is resistant to chemically-induced lung tumorigenesis despite having a haplotype, in the pulmonary adenoma susceptibility locus (Pas1) locus, that confers tumor susceptibility in other strains. To clarify this inconsistent genotype-phenotype correlation, we crossed SM/J mice with another resistant strain and conducted genome-wide linkage analysis in the (C57BL/6J × SM/J)F2 progeny exposed to urethane to induce lung tumors. Overall, >80% of F2 mice of both sexes developed from 1 to 20 lung tumors. Genotyping of 372 F2 mice for 744 informative non-redundant SNPs dispersed over all autosomal chromosomes revealed four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting lung tumor multiplicity, on chromosomes 3 (near rs13477379), 15 (rs6285067), 17 (rs33373629) and 18 (rs3706601), all with logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores >5. Four QTLs modulated total lung tumor volume, on chromosome 3 (rs13477379), 10 (rs13480702), 15 (rs6285067) and 17 (rs3682923), all with LOD scores >4. No QTL modulating lung tumor multiplicity or total volume was detected in Pas1 on chromosome 6. The present study demonstrates that the SM/J strain carries, at the Pas1 locus, the resistance allele: a finding that will facilitate identification of the Pas1 causal element. More generally, it demonstrates that lung tumorigenesis is under complex polygenic control even in a pedigree with low susceptibility to this neoplasia, suggesting that the genetics of lung tumorigenesis is much more complex than evidenced by the pulmonary adenoma susceptibility and resistance loci that have, so far, been mapped in a small number of crosses between a few inbred strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.13349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5666032PMC
November 2017

MIF/CD74 axis is a target for novel therapies in colon carcinomatosis.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2017 01 23;36(1):16. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Department of Experimental Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, via G. Amadeo 42, Milan, 20133, Italy.

Background: Strategies aimed at obtaining a complete cytoreduction are needed to improve long-term survival for patients with colorectal cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis (CRC-pc).

Methods: We established organoid models from peritoneal metastases of two naïve CRC patients. A standard paraffin inclusion was conducted to compare their 3D structure and immunohistochemical profile with that of the corresponding surgical samples. RNA expression levels of the CRC stem cell marker LGR5 was measured by in situ hybridization. The secretome of organoids was profiled by mass spectrometry. Energy homeostasis of organoids was interfered with 4-IPP and metformin. Biochemical and metabolic changes after drug treatments were investigated by western blot and mass spectrometry. Mitochondria impairment was evaluated by electron microscopy and mitotraker staining.

Results: The two organoids recapitulated their corresponding clinical samples in terms of 3D structure and immmunoistochemical profile and were positive for the cancer stem cells marker LGR5. Proteomic analyses of organoids highlighted their strong dependence on energy producing pathways, which suggest that their targeting could be an effective therapeutic approach. To test this hypothesis, we treated organoids with two drugs that target metabolism acting on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the main regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, which may act as metabolic tumour suppressor in CRC. Organoids were treated with 4-IPP, an inhibitor of MIF/CD74 signalling axis which activates AMPK function, or metformin that inhibits mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. As a new finding we observed that treatment with 4-IPP downregulated AMPK signalling activity, reduced AKT phosphorylation and activated a JNK-mediated stress-signalling response, thus generating mitochondrial impairment and cell death. Metformin treatment enhanced AMPK activation, decreasing the activity of the anabolic factors ribosomal protein S6 and p4EBP-1 and inducing mitochondrial depolarization.

Conclusion: We provide evidence that the modulation of AMPK activity may be a strategy for targeting metabolism of CRC-pc organoids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-016-0475-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5260021PMC
January 2017

Retina-derived POU domain factor 1 coordinates expression of genes relevant to renal and neuronal development.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2016 09 15;78:162-172. Epub 2016 Jul 15.

Department of Predictive & Preventive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Italy.

Retina-derived POU domain Factor 1 (RPF-1), a member of POU transcription factor family, is encoded by POU6F2 gene, addressed by interstitial deletions at chromosome 7p14 in Wilms tumor (WT). Its expression has been detected in developing kidney and nervous system, suggesting an early role for this gene in regulating development of these organs. To investigate into its functions and determine its role in transcriptional regulation, we generated an inducible stable transfectant from HEK293 cells. RPF-1 showed nuclear localization, elevated stability, and transactivation of promoters featuring POU consensus sites, and led to reduced cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth. By addressing the whole transcriptome regulated by its induction, we could detect a gross alteration of gene expression that is consistent with promoter occupancy predicted by genome-wide Chip-chip analysis. Comparison of bound regulatory regions with differentially expressed genes allowed identification of 217 candidate targets. Enrichment of divergent octamers in predicted regulatory regions revealed promiscuous binding to bipartite POUS and POUH consensus half-sites with intervening spacers. Gel-shift competition assay confirmed the specificity of RPF-1 binding to consensus motifs, and demonstrated that the Ser-rich region upstream of the POU domain is indispensable to achieve DNA-binding. Promoter-reporter activity addressing a few target genes indicated a dependence by RPF-1 on transcriptional response. In agreement with its expression in developing kidney and nervous system, the induced transcriptome appears to indicate a function for this protein in early renal differentiation and neuronal cell fate, providing a resource for understanding its role in the processes thereby regulated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2016.07.013DOI Listing
September 2016

Immunomodulatory Factors Control the Fate of Melanoma Tumor Initiating Cells.

Stem Cells 2016 10 28;34(10):2449-2460. Epub 2016 Jun 28.

Unit of Immunotherapy of Human Tumors, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Melanoma is a highly heterogeneous tumor for which recent evidence supports a model of dynamic stemness. Melanoma cells might temporally acquire tumor-initiating properties or switch from a status of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) to a more differentiated one depending on the tumor context. However, factors driving these functional changes are still unknown. We focused on the role of cyto/chemokines in shaping TICs isolated directly from tumor specimens of two melanoma patients, namely Me14346S and Me15888S. We analyzed the secretion profile of TICs and of their corresponding melanoma differentiated cells and we tested the ability of cyto/chemokines to influence TIC self-renewal and differentiation. We found that TICs, grown in vitro as melanospheres, had a complex secretory profile as compared to their differentiated counterparts. Some factors, such as CCL-2 and IL-8, also produced by adherent melanoma cells and melanocytes did not influence TIC properties. Conversely, IL-6, released by differentiated cells, reduced TIC self-renewal and induced TIC differentiation while IL-10, produced by Me15888S, strongly promoted TIC self-renewal through paracrine/autocrine actions. Complete neutralization of IL-10 activity by gene silencing and antibody-mediated blocking of the IL-10Rα was required to sensitize Me15888S to IL-6-induced differentiation. For the first time these results show that functional heterogeneity of melanoma could be directly influenced by inflammatory and suppressive soluble factors, with IL-6 favoring TIC differentiation, and IL-10 supporting TIC self-renewal. Thus, understanding the tumor microenvironment (TME) role in modulating melanoma TIC phenotype is fundamental to identifying novel therapeutic targets to achieve long-lasting regression of metastatic melanoma. Stem Cells 2016;34:2449-2460.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.2413DOI Listing
October 2016

Expression quantitative trait analysis reveals fine germline transcript regulation in mouse lung tumors.

Cancer Lett 2016 Jun 7;375(2):221-230. Epub 2016 Mar 7.

Department of Predictive and Preventive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Gene expression modulates cellular functions in both physiologic and pathologic conditions. Herein, we carried out a genetic linkage study on the transcriptome of lung tumors induced by urethane in an (A/J x C57BL/6)F4 intercross population, whose individual lung tumor multiplicity (Nlung) is linked to the genotype at the Pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus. We found that expression levels of 1179 and 1579 genes are modulated by an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) in cis and in trans, respectively (LOD score > 5). Of note, the genomic area surrounding and including the Pas1 locus regulated 14 genes in cis and 857 genes in trans. In lung tumors of the same (A/J x C57BL/6)F4 mice, we found 1124 genes whose transcript levels associated with Nlung (FDR < 0.001). The expression levels of about a third of these genes (n = 401) were regulated by the genotype at the Pas1 locus. Pathway analysis of the sets of genes associated with Nlung and regulated by Pas1 revealed a set of 14 recurrently represented genes that are components or targets of the Ras-Erk and Pi3k-Akt signaling pathways. Altogether our results illustrate the architecture of germline control of gene expression in mouse lung cancer: they highlight the importance of Pas1 as a tumor-modifier locus, attribute to it a novel role as a major regulator of transcription in lung tumor nodules and strengthen the candidacy of the Kras gene as the effector of this locus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2016.02.054DOI Listing
June 2016

4-IPP, a selective MIF inhibitor, causes mitotic catastrophe in thyroid carcinomas.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2015 Oct 23;22(5):759-75. Epub 2015 Jul 23.

Proteomics LaboratoryDepartment of Experimental Oncology and Molecular MedicineDepartment of Diagnostic Pathology and Laboratory MedicineDepartment of Predictive and Preventive MedicineFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Amadeo 42, 20133 Milan, ItalyLaboratory of Clinical Pathology and Medical GeneticsFondazione IRCCS 'Carlo Besta' Istituto Neurologico, Via Amadeo 42, 20133 Milan, Italy

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is over-expressed in several human neoplastic cells. When MIF binds its receptor (CD74) and co-receptor (CD44), it initiates signaling cascades that orchestrate cell proliferation and survival, and it can directly modulate the activity of AMPK. These activities indicate that MIF potentially regulates cell survival and metabolism. We found that MIF was primarily co-expressed with CD74 in 16 out of 23 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and in all the 27 available anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) biopsy samples. MIF and CD74 were co-expressed in TPC-1 and HTC-C3 cell lines. The selective MIF inhibitor, 4-iodo-6-phenylpyrimidine (4-IPP), blocked MIF/CD74 internalization, activated JNK, and dose-dependently inhibited proliferation inducing apoptosis and mitotic cell death. In two CD74-negative cell lines, NIM-1 and K1, 4-IPP treatment partially reduced proliferation. Coordinated MIF and CD74 expression appeared to confer in tumor cells the plasticity necessary to escape cell cycle regulation, metabolic changes, and stress conditions. MIF/CD74 signaling removal made cells susceptible to apoptosis and mitotic cell death. This finding suggests a possible avenue for targeting DNA endoreduplication, thus preventing the proliferation of therapy-resistant cell subpopulations. This study highlights MIF/CD74 axis as an important player in the biology of aggressive thyroid neoplasms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/ERC-15-0299DOI Listing
October 2015

Histone deacetylase inhibitor-temozolomide co-treatment inhibits melanoma growth through suppression of Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2-driven signals.

Oncotarget 2014 Jun;5(12):4516-28

Molecular Pharmacology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy. These authors contributed equally to this work.

Target-specific agents used in melanoma are not curative, and chemokines are being implicated in drug-resistance to target-specific agents. Thus, the use of conventional agents in rationale combinations may result in optimization of therapy. Because histone deacetylases participate in tumor development and progression, the combination of the pan-inhibitor SAHA and temozolomide might provide a therapeutic advantage. Here, we show synergism between the two drugs in mutant BRAF cell lines, in association with decreased phosphorylation of cell survival proteins (e.g., C-Jun-N-terminal-kinase, JNK). In the spontaneous ret transgenic mouse melanoma model, combination therapy produced a significant disease onset delay and down-regulation of Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), JNK, and of Myeloid-derived suppressor cell recruitment. Co-incubation with a CCL2-blocking-antibody enhanced in vitro cell sensitivity to temozolomide. Conversely, recombinant CCL2 activated JNK in human tumor melanoma cells. In keeping with these results, the combination of a JNK-inhibitor with temozolomide was synergistic. By showing that down-regulation of CCL2-driven signals by SAHA and temozolomide via JNK contributes to reduce melanoma growth, we provide a rationale for the therapeutic advantage of the drug combination. This combination strategy may be effective because of interference both with tumor cell and tumor microenvironment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4147342PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.2065DOI Listing
June 2014

Mouse pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 locus is an expression QTL modulating Kras-4A.

PLoS Genet 2014 Apr 17;10(4):e1004307. Epub 2014 Apr 17.

Department of Predictive and Preventive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) is the major locus responsible for lung tumor susceptibility in mice; among the six genes mapping in this locus, Kras is considered the best candidate for Pas1 function although how it determines tumor susceptibility remains unknown. In an (A/J × C57BL/6)F4 intercross population treated with urethane to induce lung tumors, Pas1 not only modulated tumor susceptibility (LOD score = 48, 69% of phenotypic variance explained) but also acted, in lung tumor tissue, as an expression quantitative trait locus (QTL) for Kras-4A, one of two alternatively spliced Kras transcripts, but not Kras-4B. Additionally, Kras-4A showed differential allelic expression in lung tumor tissue of (A/J × C57BL/6)F4 heterozygous mice, with significantly higher expression from the A/J-derived allele; these results suggest that cis-acting elements control Kras-4A expression. In normal lung tissue from untreated mice of the same cross, Kras-4A levels were also highly linked to the Pas1 locus (LOD score = 23.2, 62% of phenotypic variance explained) and preferentially generated from the A/J-derived allele, indicating that Pas1 is an expression QTL in normal lung tissue as well. Overall, the present findings shed new light on the genetic mechanism by which Pas1 modulates the susceptibility to lung tumorigenesis, through the fine control of Kras isoform levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3990522PMC
April 2014

Development of transplantable human chordoma xenograft for preclinical assessment of novel therapeutic strategies.

Neuro Oncol 2014 Jan;16(1):72-80

Background: Chordomas are rare and indolent bone tumors that arise in the skull base and mobile spine. Distant metastases occur in >20% of cases, but morbidity and mortality are mainly related to local relapses that affect the majority of patients. Standard chemotherapy has modest activity, whereas new targeted therapies (alone or in combination) have some activity in controlling disease progression. However, the scarcity of preclinical models capable of testing in vivo responses to these therapies hampers the development of new medical strategies.

Methods: In this study, 8 chordoma samples taken from 8 patients were implanted in nude mice. Four engrafted successfully and gave rise to tumor masses that were analyzed histologically, by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization and biochemical techniques. The data relating to each of the mouse tumors were compared with those obtained from the corresponding human tumor.

Results: All 4 engraftments retained the histological, genetic and biochemical features of the human tumors they came from. In one epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR)-positive xenograft, responsiveness to lapatinib was evaluated by comparing the pre- and post treatment findings. The treatment induced a low-level, heterogeneous switching off of EGFR and its downstream signaling effectors.

Conclusions: Overall, this model is very close to human chordoma and represents a new means of undertaking preclinical investigations and developing tailored therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/not238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3870831PMC
January 2014

Gene expression signature of non-involved lung tissue associated with survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

Carcinogenesis 2013 Dec 25;34(12):2767-73. Epub 2013 Aug 25.

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Lung adenocarcinoma patients of similar clinical stage and undergoing the same treatments often have marked interindividual variations in prognosis. These clinical discrepancies may be due to the genetic background modulating an individual's predisposition to fighting cancer. Herein, we hypothesized that the lung microenvironment, as reflected by its expression profile, may affect lung adenocarcinoma patients' survival. The transcriptome of non-involved lung tissue, excised from a discovery series of 204 lung adenocarcinoma patients, was evaluated using whole-genome expression microarrays (with probes corresponding to 28 688 well-annotated coding sequences). Genes associated with survival status at 60 months were identified by Cox regression analysis (adjusted for gender, age and clinical stage) and retested in a validation series of 78 additional cases. RNA-Seq analysis from non-involved lung tissue of 12 patients was performed to characterize the different isoforms of candidate genes. Ten genes for which the loge-transformed hazard ratios expressed the same direction of effect in the discovery (P < 1.0 × 10(-3)) and validation series comprised the gene expression signature associated with survival: CNTNAP1, PKNOX1, FAM156A, FRMD8, GALNTL1, TXNDC12, SNTB1, PPP3R1, SNX10 and SERPINH1. RNA sequencing highlighted the complex expression pattern of these genes in non-involved lung tissue from different patients and permitted the detection of a read-through gene fusion between PPP3R1 and the flanking gene (CNRIP1) as well as a novel isoform of CNTNAP1. Our findings support the hypothesis that individual genetic characteristics, evidenced by the expression pattern of non-involved tissue, influence the outcome of lung adenocarcinoma patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgt294DOI Listing
December 2013

S100A11 overexpression contributes to the malignant phenotype of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013 Oct 8;98(10):E1591-600. Epub 2013 Aug 8.

PhD, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via G. A. Amadeo, 42 20133 Milan, Italy.

Context: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most frequent thyroid tumor and is responsible for the overall increase in thyroid cancer incidence. S100A11 (calgizzarin), a member of the S100 Ca(2+)-binding protein family, is involved in several different biological processes. S100A11 has been found up-regulated in PTC, both at the mRNA and protein levels.

Objective: Through a combination of expression analysis and functional in vitro and in vivo studies, we have attempted to gain insight into the relevance of S100A11 overexpression in PTC biology.

Design: The expression of the S100A11 gene in PTC was investigated in several gene expression data sets. The effect of S100A11 silencing on the hallmarks of the malignant phenotype of several PTC-derived cell lines was investigated. In NIH3T3 cells, the cooperation of S100A11 with the different PTC-specific oncogenes was assessed.

Results: We found that the S100A11 gene expression is frequently up-regulated in PTC, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, but not in follicular thyroid carcinoma. S100A11 overexpression was also detected in PTC-derived cell lines, which were then used for functional studies. S100A11 silencing in PTC-derived cell lines did not affect cell proliferation, whereas it reduced the loss of contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, and resistance to anoikis. Cotransfection experiments in NIH3T3 cells showed that overexpression of the S100A11 gene was able to enhance the transforming capabilities of the different PTC-associated oncogenes by affecting the loss of contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, and in vivo tumor formation.

Conclusion: Our data indicate that S100A11 overexpression exerts a protumoral functional role in PTC pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2013-1652DOI Listing
October 2013

Multigenic nature of the mouse pulmonary adenoma progression 1 locus.

BMC Genomics 2013 Mar 6;14:152. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Department of Predictive and Preventive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Amadeo 42, Milan, 20133, Italy.

Background: In an intercross between the SWR/J and BALB/c mouse strains, the pulmonary adenoma progression 1 (Papg1) locus on chromosome 4 modulates lung tumor size, one of several measures of lung tumor progression. This locus has not been fully characterized and defined in its extent and genetic content. Fine mapping of this and other loci affecting lung tumor phenotype is possible using recombinant inbred strains.

Results: A population of 376 mice, obtained by crossing mice of the SWR/J strain with CXBN recombinant inbred mice, was treated with a single dose of urethane and assayed for multiplicity of large lung tumors (N2lung). A genome-wide analysis comparing N2lung with 6364 autosomal SNPs revealed multiple peaks of association. The Papg1 locus had two peaks, at rs3654162 (70.574 Mb, -logP=2.8) and rs6209043 (86.606 Mb, -logP=2.7), joined by an interval of weaker statistical association; these data confirm the presence of Papg1 on chromosome 4 and reduce the mapping region to two stretches of ~6.8 and ~4.2 Mb, in the proximal and distal peaks, respectively. The distal peak included Cdkn2a, a gene already proposed as being involved in Papg1 function. Other loci possibly modulating N2lung were detected on chromosomes 5, 8, 9, 11, 15, and 19, but analysis for linkage disequilibrium of these putative loci with Papg1 locus suggested that only those on chromosomes 11 and 15 were true positives.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that Papg1 consists, most likely, of two distinct, nearby loci, and point to putative additional loci on chromosomes 11 and 15 modulating lung tumor size. Within Papg1, Cdkn2a appears to be a strong candidate gene while additional Papg1 genes await to be identified. Greater knowledge of the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying the germ-line modulation of lung tumor size in mice is relevant to other species, including humans, in that it may help identify new therapeutic targets in the fight against tumor progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3602191PMC
March 2013

Dimeric Smac mimetics/IAP inhibitors as in vivo-active pro-apoptotic agents. Part II: Structural and biological characterization.

Bioorg Med Chem 2012 Nov 24;20(22):6709-23. Epub 2012 Sep 24.

Dipartimento di Oncologia Sperimentale e Medicina Molecolare, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Amadeo 42, Milan, Italy.

Novel pro-apoptotic, homodimeric and heterodimeric Smac mimetics/IAPs inhibitors connected through head-head (8), tail-tail (9) or head-tail linkers (10), were biologically and structurally characterized. In vitro characterization (binding to BIR3 and linker-BIR2-BIR3 domains from XIAP and cIAP1, cytotoxicity assays) identified early leads from each dimer family. Computational models and structural studies (crystallography, NMR, gel filtration) partially rationalized the observed properties for each dimer class. Tail-tail dimer 9a was shown to be active in a breast and in an ovary tumor model, highlighting the potential of dimeric Smac mimetics/IAP inhibitors based on the N-AVPI-like 4-substituted 1-aza-2-oxobicyclo[5.3.0]decane scaffold as potential antineoplastic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2012.09.041DOI Listing
November 2012

The Lsktm1 locus modulates lung and skin tumorigenesis in the mouse.

G3 (Bethesda) 2012 Sep 1;2(9):1041-6. Epub 2012 Sep 1.

Department of Predictive and Preventive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Alleles derived from skin tumor-resistant Car-R mice provide resistance to both skin and lung tumorigenesis over the susceptibility of the SWR/J strain. In an effort to map tumor modifier loci affecting both tumor types, we carried out a genetic linkage analysis in backcross SWR/J x (SWR/J x Car-R) mice and identified a locus (Lsktm1) on chromosome 1 linked to both skin (LOD score = 3.93) and lung (LOD score = 8.74) tumorigenesis. Two genes, Igfbp5 and Igfbp2, residing in this locus and belonging to the insulin-like growth factor binding protein family were expressed at significantly greater levels in normal lung tissue from cancer-resistant Car-R mice than in cancer-susceptible SWR/J mice. Overexpression of the recombinant Igfbp5 and Igfbp2 genes in two lung cancer cell lines significantly inhibited clonogenicity (P < 0.0001). Collectively, we have identified a single polymorphic locus that affects skin and lung tumorigenesis and identify Igfbp5 and Igfbp2 as candidate modifier genes of lung tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.112.003525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3429918PMC
September 2012

High CD133 expression levels in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2011 Jul-Aug;80(4):238-47. Epub 2011 Apr 1.

Laboratory of Experimental Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Background: Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) have activating KIT or PDGFRA gene mutations. Imatinib mesylate, which targets KIT and PDGFRA, is effective in treating GISTs, but 90% of GIST patients become imatinib-resistant as a result of acquiring secondary KIT mutations. Recent findings suggest that tumour growth can be driven by mutated self-renewing progenitors known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are believed to be present in all neoplastic proliferations and are thought to accumulate mutations. It is therefore possible that the acquisition of secondary KIT mutations during imatinib treatment may occur in putative GIST CSCs.

Methods: Using flow cytometry, in vivo murine xenografts and molecular characterization, we tried to identify putative GIST CSCs by looking for the occurrence of common CSC markers such as KIT, CD133, CD90, CD44, and CD34 in 18 surgical samples obtained from nine untreated and nine imatinib-treated KIT-mutated GIST patients.

Results: The results indicated the homogeneous and previously unreported expression of CD133 (18/18), CD90 (15/16), and CD44 (12/14), together with KIT (18/18) and CD34 (13/18). This profile is similar to that identified in bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors and does not seem to be significantly modified by imatinib as only marginal changes in KIT and CD133 expression (P ≤ 0.05, Mann-Whitney test) were found in the treated samples.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that GISTs are a clonal expansion of quite primitive cells that strictly depend on KIT oncogenic addiction, and have no cancer/stem cell component that can be detected by means of the antigens used in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.b.20589DOI Listing
October 2011

Multiple genetic loci modulate lung adenocarcinoma clinical staging.

Clin Cancer Res 2011 Apr 17;17(8):2410-6. Epub 2011 Jan 17.

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: The main prognostic factor of lung cancer patient outcome is clinical stage, a parameter of tumor aggressiveness. Our study was conducted to test whether germ line variations modulate individual differences in clinical stage.

Experimental Design: We conducted a case-only genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a 620,901 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in a first series of 600 lung adenocarcinoma (ADCA) patients and in a replication series of 317 lung ADCA patients.

Results: GWAS identified 54 putatively associated SNPs, 3 of which were confirmed in the replication series. Joint analysis of the two series pointed to 22 statistically associated (P < 0.01) genetic variants that together explained about 20% of the phenotypic variation in clinical staging (P < 2 × 10(-16)) and showed a statistically significant difference in overall survival (P = 8.0 × 10(-8)). The strongest statistical association was observed at rs10278557 (P = 1.1 × 10(-5)), located in the mesenchyme homeobox 2 (MEOX2) gene.

Conclusion: These data point to the role of germ line variations involving multiple loci in modulating clinical stage and, therefore, prognosis in lung ADCA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-2394DOI Listing
April 2011

Analysis of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and downstream pathways in chordomas.

Neuro Oncol 2010 Aug 17;12(8):776-89. Epub 2010 Feb 17.

Experimental Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Tumori Milano, Via G. Venezian 1, 20133 Milano, Italy.

We have previously demonstrated that chordomas express activated platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFRB) and that treatment with imatinib, which is capable of switching off the activation of various receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including PDGFRB, benefits a number of patients. The aim of this study was to identify the possible presence of other activated RTKs and their downstream signaling effectors. Cryopreserved material from 22 naïve sporadic chordomas was investigated for the presence of activated RTKs and their cognate ligands and downstream signaling effectors by means of human phospho-RTK antibody arrays, Western blotting, and molecular analysis; immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to analyze the corresponding formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples. We detected activated PDGFRB, FLT3, and colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) of the PDGFR family and highly phosphorylated EGFR, HER2/neu, and (to a lesser extent) HER4 of the EGFR family. The detection of PDGFRB/PDGFB confirmed our previous data. The presence of activated EGFR was paralleled by the finding of high levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) and PDGFB co-expression and PDGFRB co-immunoprecipitation. Of the downstream effectors, the PI3K/AKT and RAS/MAPK pathways were both activated, thus leading to the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and 4E-BP1 among the regulators involved in translational control. Taken together, our results (i) provide a rationale for tailored treatments targeting upstream activated receptors, including the PDGFR and EGFR families; (ii) support the idea that a combination of upstream antagonists and mTOR inhibitors enhances the control of tumor growth; and (iii) indicate that the 4E-BP1/eIF4E pathway is a major regulator of protein synthesis in chordoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noq003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2940683PMC
August 2010

A locus on mouse chromosome 2 is involved in susceptibility to congenital hypothyroidism and contains an essential gene expressed in thyroid.

Endocrinology 2010 Apr 16;151(4):1948-58. Epub 2010 Feb 16.

Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale I, Naples 80121, Italy.

We report here the mapping of a chromosomal region responsible for strain-specific development of congenital hypothyroidism in mice heterozygous for null mutations in genes encoding Nkx2-1/Titf1 and Pax8. The two strains showing a differential predisposition to congenital hypothyroidism contain several single-nucleotide polymorphisms in this locus, one of which leads to a nonsynonymous amino acid change in a highly conserved region of Dnajc17, a member of the type III heat-shock protein-40 (Hsp40) family. We demonstrate that Dnajc17 is highly expressed in the thyroid bud and had an essential function in development, suggesting an important role of this protein in organogenesis and/or function of the thyroid gland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2009-1240DOI Listing
April 2010

Mouse genome-wide association mapping needs linkage analysis to avoid false-positive Loci.

PLoS Genet 2009 Jan 9;5(1):e1000331. Epub 2009 Jan 9.

Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy.

We carried out genome-wide association (GWA) studies in inbred mouse strains characterized for their lung tumor susceptibility phenotypes (spontaneous or urethane-induced) with panels of 12,959 (13K) or 138,793 (140K) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Above the statistical thresholds, we detected only SNP rs3681853 on Chromosome 5, two SNPs in the pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus, and SNP rs4174648 on Chromosome 16 for spontaneous tumor incidence, urethane-induced tumor incidence, and urethane-induced tumor multiplicity, respectively, with the 13K SNP panel, but only the Pas1 locus with the 140K SNP panel. Haplotype analysis carried out in the latter panel detected four additional loci. Loci reported in previous GWA studies failed to replicate. Genome-wide genetic linkage analysis in urethane-treated (BALB/cxC3H/He)F2, (BALB/cxSWR/J)F2, and (A/JxC3H/He)F2 mice showed that Pas1, but none of the other loci detected previously or herein by GWA, had a significant effect. The Lasc1 gene, identified by GWA as a functional element (Nat. Genet., 38:888-95, 2006), showed no genetic effects in the two independent intercross mouse populations containing both alleles, nor was it expressed in mouse normal lung or lung tumors. Our results indicate that GWA studies in mouse inbred strains can suffer a high rate of false-positive results and that such an approach should be used in conjunction with classical linkage mapping in genetic crosses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2614123PMC
January 2009

Genetic control of resistance to hepatocarcinogenesis by the mouse Hpcr3 locus.

Hepatology 2008 Aug;48(2):617-23

Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Unlabelled: The genome of the BALB/c mouse strain provides alleles that dominantly inhibit hepatocellular tumor development in F1 crosses with the highly hepatocarcinogenesis-susceptible C3H/He strain. Genome-wide linkage analysis using a 1536-single-nucleotide polymorphism array in a (C3H/He x BALB/c)F2 intercross population treated with urethane to induce hepatocellular tumor development revealed a locus with a major role in the resistance to hepatocarcinogenesis. This locus, designated hepatocarcinogen resistance 3 (Hpcr3) and mapping to central chromosome 15, showed a linkage at LOD score = 16.52 and accounted for 40% of the phenotypical variance. The BALB/c-derived allele at Hpcr3 reduced tumor-occupied area of the liver up to 25-fold, in a semidominant way. Additional minor loci were mapped to chromosomes 1, 10, and 18. A gene expression profile of normal adult mouse liver showed a significant association with susceptibility of BALB/c, C3H/He, and F1 mice to hepatocarcinogenesis and identified the genes expressed in the Hpcr3 locus region; moreover, this analysis implicated the E2F1 pathway in the modulation of the phenotype susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenesis.

Conclusion: These findings, indicating the complex genetics of dominant resistance to hepatocarcinogenesis, represent a step toward the identification of the genes underlying this phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.22374DOI Listing
August 2008

Common polymorphisms in D12S1034 flanking genes RASSF8 and BHLHB3 are not associated with lung adenocarcinoma risk.

Lung Cancer 2007 Apr 27;56(1):1-7. Epub 2006 Dec 27.

Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via G. Venezian 1, 20133 Milan, Italy.

The reported association between D12S1034 and lung adenocarcinoma (ADCA) risk [Yanagitani N, Kohno T, Sunaga N, et al. Localization of a human lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility locus, possibly syntenic to the mouse Pas1 locus, in the vicinity of the D12S1034 locus on chromosome 12p11.2-p12.1. Carcinogenesis. 2002;23:1177-83] prompted us to carry out a case-control study in lung ADCA and healthy control subjects to test possible involvement of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in D12S1034 flanking genes RASSF8 and BHLHB3, whose minimal distances from D12S1034 are approximately 16-24 kb. RASSF8 contains a RAS-associated domain and is a candidate tumor suppressor, whereas BHLHB3 is a basic helix-loop-helix domain-containing protein that functions as a transcriptional repressor. We observed no significant association between common SNPs in RASSF8 (rs1546550 in the 3'-UTR and 3 intronic SNPs) and BHLHB3 (Ala298Val and rs1048155 in the 3'-UTR) with lung ADCA risk. However, patient groups carrying one or two copies of the BHLHB3 Val298 variation (i.e., Ala/Val or Val/Val genotypes) had a higher proportion of short-term survivors (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.7) compared with those carrying the Ala/Ala genotype. A replication study in an independent Norwegian lung cancer population of multiple cancer histotypes failed to replicate the significant association of BHLHB3 Ala298Val with survival; such association, however, was confirmed by analysis of ADCA only from both populations. Our results suggest that BHLHB3 variants may affect lung ADCA prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2006.11.008DOI Listing
April 2007

Allelic effects of mouse Pas1 candidate genes in human lung cancer cell lines.

Cancer Lett 2006 Dec 2;244(2):176-81. Epub 2006 Feb 2.

Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via G. Venezian 1, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Four of the six genes constituting the mouse Pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus haplotype carry amino acid variants: Lrmp, Casc1, Ghiso, and Lmna-rs1. In vitro colony formation assay of human lung cancer cell lines A549 and NCI-H520 transfected with the allelic variants of the four genes revealed allele-specific modulations of colony numbers by Lmna-rs1 and Casc1, but not by Lrmp or Ghiso. In A549 and NCI-H520 cells, the A/J allele of Lmna-rs1 produced approximately 4- and approximately 2-fold, respectively, more transfectants than did the C57BL/6J allele, whereas the A/J allele of Casc1 produced approximately 6- and approximately 5-fold fewer transfectants, respectively, as compared to the C57BL/6J allele. Inhibition of clonogenicity by allelic forms of Pas1 candidate genes was not mediated by induction of apoptosis. These findings provide evidence that allelic variants of mouse Pas1 candidate genes differentially modulate growth of human cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2005.12.015DOI Listing
December 2006

A V141L polymorphism of the human LRMP gene is associated with survival of lung cancer patients.

Carcinogenesis 2006 Jul 12;27(7):1386-90. Epub 2006 Jan 12.

Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Mouse Lrmp and Casc1 genes are candidates for the pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus, the major determinant of strain variation in lung tumor susceptibility. These genes contain coding and non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) strongly associated with lung tumor risk in mice. Analysis of LRMP and CASC1 gene SNPs in 361 lung adenocarcinoma (ADCA) patients and 327 healthy controls revealed common SNPs in LRMP (V141L and S197C) and CASC1 (R33S and three intronic variations), and none showed a significant association with lung ADCA risk. However, in the time-dependent Cox regression model, after adjustment for age, gender, smoking history and clinical stage, the carrier status of the Leu variation (V141L) of the LRMP gene was associated with higher mortality in patients with age at tumor onset < or = 65 years [hazard ratio (HR) 2.3; 95% CI 1.4-3.7; P = 0.001]. These findings suggest that the LRMP V141L polymorphism can predict survival in lung ADCA and that the role of LRMP and CASC1 in human lung cancer risk may differ from that in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgi332DOI Listing
July 2006

Met proto-oncogene juxtamembrane rare variations in mouse and humans: differential effects of Arg and Cys alleles on mouse lung tumorigenesis.

Oncogene 2005 Feb;24(6):1084-90

Department of Experimental Oncology, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via G Venezian 1, Milan, Italy.

Analysis of seven candidate genes mapping in the 1-Mb region of the mouse pulmonary adenoma resistance 4 (Par4) locus revealed a single amino-acid change, consisting in a nonconservative Arg968Cys variation in the juxtamembrane domain of the Met proto-oncogene-encoded protein. The BALB/c strain (resistant allele) carried the Arg allele, whereas the SWR/J mouse strain (Par4-susceptible allele) carried the Cys variation, recently proven to functionally modulate tumorigenesis. Seven genetic linkage crosses herein analysed and six crosses reported in the literature pointed to the candidacy of the Met gene for Par4. Analysis of genomic DNA of 126 lung adenocarcinoma patients for the Met juxtamembrane domain revealed the same Arg/Cys variation at the mouse homologous position in one patient; two other patients carried additional variants in the same domain, suggesting a potential role for rare MET juxtamembrane variants in human lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1208324DOI Listing
February 2005

Pas1 haplotype-dependent genetic predisposition to lung tumorigenesis in rodents: a meta-analysis.

Carcinogenesis 2005 May 7;26(5):875-82. Epub 2004 Oct 7.

Department of Experimental Oncology and laboratories, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Rodent species and strains show wide variations in susceptibility to lung tumorigenesis. In mice, hierarchical clustering of 29 inbred laboratory strains by pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus polymorphisms separated the strains into either an A/J- or a C57BL/6J-type Pas1 haplotype. A pooled analysis (including >8500 mice) of studies on spontaneous and chemically induced lung tumorigenesis in these strains revealed a significantly higher risk of spontaneous lung tumors [odds ratio (OR) 12.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.00-16.45] as well as of chemically induced lung tumors (OR 15.14; 95% CI 12.51-18.31) in the A/J-type haplotype. Strain differences were observed with six different carcinogens, suggesting that Pas1 locus activity is carcinogen-independent. Thus, the present meta-analysis indicates a link between the genetic control of spontaneous and chemically induced lung tumor susceptibility in mice. The Pas1 susceptibility allele is frequent in the population of inbred mouse strains, whereas a counterpart appears to be absent or rare in rat and hamster strains. These findings might help in the interpretation of results of rodent carcinogenicity bioassays and assessing the risk of lung carcinogenesis from chemicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgh299DOI Listing
May 2005