Publications by authors named "Gholamreza Goudarzi"

60 Publications

An evaluation of CO, CO, and SO emissions during continuous and non-continuous operation in a gas refinery using the AERMOD.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

Air quality modeling can be considered as a useful tool to predict air quality in the future and determine the control strategies of emissions abatement. In this study, the AERMOD dispersion model has been applied as a tool for the analysis of the values of pollutant emissions from the flares of the Maroon gas refinery located in the suburb of Ahvaz, Iran. First, the values of pollutant emissions from the refinery's flares were investigated by measurement and using the emission factors during cold and warm seasons of 2018. The gas burns continuously in two flares and the other 11 flares are used in emergency situations and only their spark plugs are lit. The type of compounds and their molar, volumetric, and weight percentages were determined by gas chromatography (GC) injection. By entering data such as emission rate, flare characteristics, and topographic and meteorological data of the study area into the AERMOD model, dispersion of pollutants was predicted by using the AERMOD model in the region with an area of 2500 km. The statistical evaluation showed that the maximum 8-h concentration of CO in the cold season was 133441 μg/m which was higher than the standard and reached 9755 μg/m in the warm season that was close to the standard. The maximum hourly concentration of SO was in the cold season with 215 μg/m that was higher than the standard value, occurred in a local scale of 50 km. This can be attributed to the high concentration of SO wet deposition. According to the direction of the wind from the northwest, pollutant emissions can lead to adverse health effects on the population of refinery employees, residents around the refinery, and occupants of passing vehicles. The concentration of pollutants generated due to the high volume of heavier compounds in the gas in the winter season was higher than that of the warm season. Comparison of maximum concentrations of the predicted results with the national and international standards showed that SO and CO concentration is higher than standard values. In total, according to the evaluation of the predictions made, the performance of the AERMOD model was acceptable in the prediction of pollutant concentrations in the study area.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14493-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Retraction Note: Ambient particulate matter concentration levels of Ahvaz, Iran, in 2017.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Environmental Technologies Research Center (ETRC), Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-021-00962-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Gallic acid treats dust-induced NAFLD in rats by improving the liver's anti-oxidant capacity and inhibiting ROS/NFκβ/TNFα inflammatory pathway.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2021 Feb;24(2):240-247

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Anatomical Science, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Objectives: The burden of disease and death related to environmental pollution is becoming a major public health challenge, especially in developing countries. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dust exposure on liver function and its structure in rats. Gallic acid (GA) as a potent anti-oxidant was also used to treat NAFLD in rats exposed to dust.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups: CA, Dust+N/S (after stopping dust exposure, rats received normal saline as vehicle, 1 ml, orally for 14 consecutive days), and Dust+GA (after stopping dust exposure, rats received GA at 100 mg/kg, orally for 14 consecutive days). Rats were exposed to CA/ dust for 6 weeks on alternate days. At the end of experiments, rats were anesthetized, their blood samples and liver sections were taken to perform molecular, biomedical and histopathological evaluations.

Results: Dust exposure induced NAFLD features in rats. It increased the serum levels of liver enzymes, LDL, TG, cholesterol, MDA, and mRNA expression of NFκβ, TNFα, IL-6, HO1, and miRs [122 and 34a], while decreasing serum levels of HDL and liver TAC. Treatment with GA improved liver enzymes, serum levels of miRs, TG, expression of NFκβ, TNFα, IL-6, Nrf2, and HO1 and liver MDA and TAC levels, while it could not improve HDL, LDL, and cholesterol.

Conclusion: This study showed dust exposure induced NAFLD in Wistar rats through inducing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress through activating the inflammatory pathways caused NAFLD features. Gallic acid treatment by inhibiting oxidative stress effectively protected liver function against dust induced inflammation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2021.51036.11603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061332PMC
February 2021

Effect of long-term exposure to PM on years of life lost in a populated Middle Eastern city.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

From a public health point of view, years of life lost (YLL) is a more important index than the number of deaths to evaluate the effect of risk factors. The objective of the present study was to estimate the burden of disease including years of life lost (YLL) and expected life remaining (ELR) attributed to long-term exposure to PM in Ahvaz, one of the most polluted cities of the world, during March 2014 through March 2017. AirQ +  software was used for the estimation of YLL and ELR due to all natural causes of death. Hourly concentrations of PM were acquired from the Department of Environment (DoE) of Ahvaz. Several steps were performed to validate the raw air quality data. Only the monitors were included that had minimum data completeness of 75%. Two age groups were selected for this study, including 0-64 and 65 < years. The life table approach was used to estimate YLL and ELR. Annual averages of PM were 5.2-8 times higher than the air quality guideline (10 μg/m) set by WHO for long-term exposure to PM. In total, PM has caused 234,041 years of life lost due to mortality. About 84% of YLLs were attributed to people older than 65 years old. The YLLs of men were higher than those for women. The YLLs in the third year were greater than the first two years. PM has caused the average age of total population, people aged 0-64 years old, and people > 65 years old decreased by 2.5, 3, and 1.6 years, respectively. These studies indicated that people in a city that the air quality is highly affected by dust storms, industrial emissions, and urban air pollution are significantly at risk. Air pollution control strategies and actions should be designed and executed to improve the quality of ambient air.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-021-00827-zDOI Listing
February 2021

Estimation of PM pollutant and its effect on total mortality (TM), hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases (HACD), and respiratory disease (HARD) outcome.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 7;28(17):22123-22130. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health AND Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Dust storms not only affect the quality of life but also pose a serious health and social problem. The main source dust events include central and west Asia, the Taklimakan desert, and Middle East, carrying out high volume of particulate matter, which increased the level of PM as representative of dust storm. The purpose of this study was to investigate the number of mortality (TM), hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases (HACD) and respiratory diseases (HARD) among the people of Bishkek and Ahvaz. Data validation was performed using the WHO criteria. The average time PM in outdoor air was calculated, and its health effects were obtained by entering its annual data and population at risk, baseline incidence (BI), and relative risk index (RR) for IHD outcomes. In our study, AirQ software was used. The number of excess cases in Bishkek and Ahvaz for total mortality and cardiovascular mortality was 63 and 758 and 35 and 478 persons while for HARD and HACD was 84 and 2054 and 33 and 560 persons, respectively. The survey requires the need to enact and enforce permissible PM levels/standards due to dust storms to reduce the health effect on humans by relevant environmental authorities both at federal and state levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12052-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Temporal fluctuations of PM and PM, population exposure, and their health impacts in Dezful city, Iran.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 18;18(2):723-731. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Morbidity and mortality impacts of particulate matter (PM) are globally important health critical parameters. In this ecological-descriptive study, the health impact of PM and PM associated with there temporal variations in Dezful city were assessed from 2013 to 2015. AirQ+ software handles the PM air pollutants by addressing impact evaluation and life table evaluation. We used a new method to analysis fine particles feature by using regular daily observations of PM. In this method, relationship between PM and PM mass concentrations were analyzed and calculated. The annual average concentrations of PM were 147.1, 114.3 and 158.8 μg/m, and the annual average concentration of PM were 57.8, 50.7 and 58.2 μg/m in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. PM also had obvious diurnal variations with highest hourly concentrations in 13:00 and 22:00 but the lowest concentrations often occurred in 05:00 and 16:00. Unexpectedly, in weekends the concentration of PM pollutants appeared to have increased from 18:00 to midnight. The daily based analysis showed that there are 147 dusty days in the study period during which the most severe dusty day occurred in 2014. Over the study period, mean levels of PM and PM in both conditions were higher in 2015 compare to 2013 and 2014, which probably is due to higher frequency of dust storms in 2015. Hence, during 2015 and 2013 they're were higher morbidity and mortality compare to 2014 due to exposure to higher polluted air with PMs in all cases except lung cancer (LC).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00498-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721840PMC
December 2020

Effects of long-term exposure to PM on years of life lost and expected life remaining in Ahvaz city, Iran (2008-2017).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 18;28(1):280-286. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

Ambient air pollution is one of the most significant environmental problems, and many individuals around the world die each year prematurely from diseases caused by this type of pollution. PM can transpire deep to the lungs and induce some dangerous health effects in humans. In this study, the health effects of long-term PM were estimated on expected life remaining (ELR) and years of life lost (YLL) indices in Ahvaz city during the years 2008-2017 using the AirQ+ software developed by WHO. Values obtained from the PM averaging, ELR, and YLL data were processed for the whole population in the age range of 0-64 and over 64. These values were entered into AirQ+ software. The mean annual concentration of PM was highly variable, with the highest concentration being 70.72 μg/m in 2010 and the lowest 41.97 μg/m in 2014. In all studied years, the concentration of PM with the variations between 4.2 to 7.07 times was higher than the WHO standard (10 μg/m). Ahvaz city also did not experience any clean day during the 10-year period, and in 2010, there were 47 very unhealthy days and 27 dangerous days, i.e., the highest number of very unhealthy and dangerous days during the period. The results estimated that the highest and lowest YLL in the next 10 years for all ages groups would be 137,760.49 (2010) and 5035.52 (2014), respectively. Also, the ELR index was lower than the Iranian standard and EPA which was significantly correlated with the concentration of PM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10393-zDOI Listing
January 2021

The Association Between Air Pollution and Low Birth Weight and Preterm Labor in Ahvaz, Iran.

Int J Womens Health 2020 4;12:313-325. Epub 2020 May 4.

Midwifery and Reproductive Health Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Pregnant women and fetuses are sensitive to air pollution due to physiological changes in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between exposure to air pollution, low birth weight and preterm labor in Ahvaz.

Methods: This research was a time-series study. The research sample consisted of all data about low birth weight and preterm labor pregnant women from Imam Khomeini Hospital and Razi Hospital in Ahvaz city. Air pollutant data including O, NO, NO, SO, CO, PM and PM and climate data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Khuzestan Province during a 10-year period from 2008 to 2018. The generalized additive models (GAMs) with different air pollutant lags up to 6 days were used.

Results: The results of multiple GAM model have shown that there is a direct and significant relationship between exposure to PM at 0-6-day lag, SO at 2- and 3-day lag and low birth weight. In addition, there was a direct and significant correlation between exposure to NO, NO, CO and PM at 0-6-day lag and preterm labor.

Conclusion: The results indicate the effect of air pollutants on low birth weight and preterm labor. Therefore, pregnant women should be informed about the negative consequences of air pollution and avoid exposure to polluted air during pregnancy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S227049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211085PMC
May 2020

Acute Effects of Air Pollution on Hospital Admissions for Asthma, COPD, and Bronchiectasis in Ahvaz, Iran.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2020 3;15:501-514. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background And Aim: Although air pollution is a serious problem in Ahvaz, the association between air pollution and respiratory diseases has not been studied enough in this area. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between short-term exposure to air pollutants and the risk of hospital admissions due to asthma, COPD, and bronchiectasis in Ahvaz.

Methods: Hospital admissions data and air pollutants including O, NO, NO, SO, CO, PM and PM were obtained from 2008 to 2018. Adjusted Quasi-Poisson regression with a distributed lag model, controlled for trend, seasonality, weather, weekdays, and holidays was used for data analysis.

Results: The results showed a significant increase in hospital admissions for asthma (RR=1.004, 95% CI: 1.002-1.007) and COPD (RR=1.003, 95% CI: 1.001-1.005) associated with PM. PM was associated with increased hospital admissions due to bronchiectasis in both genders (Men: RR=1.003, 95% CI: 1.001-1.006) (Female: RR=1.003, 95% CI: 1.000-1.006). NO was also associated with an increased risk of hospital admissions for asthma (RR=1.040, 95% CI: 1.008-1.074) and COPD (RR=1.049, 95% CI: 1.010-1.090). SO was associated with the risk of hospital admissions of asthma (RR=1.069, 95% CI: 1.017-1.124) and bronchiectasis (RR=1.030, 95% CI: 1.005-1.056). Finally, CO was associated with COPD (RR=1.643, 95% CI: 1.233-2.191) and bronchiectasis (RR=1.542, 95% CI: 1.035-2.298) hospital admissions.

Conclusion: Short-term exposure to air pollutants significantly increases the risk of hospital admissions for asthma, COPD, and bronchiectasis in the adult and elderly population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S231317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7061718PMC
February 2021

Relationship between environmental Fungi and changes in lung function indices of new referral allergic patients in Ahvaz city under normal and dust conditions.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Dec 9;17(2):961-967. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

1Environmental Health Department, Public Health Faculty, Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases Research Centre, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Aim of this study was to determine whether any specific fungal spores could be responsible for changes observed in lung function indices.

Materials And Methods: 1042 new allergic patients were selected from July 2017 to May 2018 in Ahvaz City, Iran. Fungal samples were collected in normal and dusty condition within 5 and 2 min, respectively. Sampling was repeated once every 6 days and also in the dusty days.

Results: Average numbers of fungi colony were 639.86 and 836.44 CFU m under normal and dusty conditions, respectively. Most common fungi in Ahwaz City air were , , , and Highest fungal mean concentrations, 392 and 480 CFU m, were related to under normal and dust conditions, respectively. Average total numbers of colony fungal were 614, 483, 1082, 424 CFU m and 856, 701, 1418, 418 CFU m during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter under normal and dusty conditions, respectively. Patients were evaluated by measured lung function parameters of FEV (L), FEV (%pred), FVC (L), FVC (%pred), and FEV/FVC ratio with mean values of 1.85, 58.32, 2.63, 68.18, and 69.43, respectively.

Conclusion: Increases in mean total spores of fungi in spring were accompanied by decreases in FEV/FVC ratio. Enhanced spores of in spring led to reduced FEV/FVC ratio. Increase the spores of in summer decreased by FEF. The augmented spores of in summer were associated with declined FEV and FEV/FVC ratio. Enhanced fungal spores of in spring resulted in lowered FEV, FEV/FVC ratio, and FEF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00411-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985357PMC
December 2019

Exposure to ambient dusty particulate matter impairs spatial memory and hippocampal LTP by increasing brain inflammation and oxidative stress in rats.

Life Sci 2020 Feb 23;242:117210. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Physiology Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran; Iran National Science Foundation (INSF), Science Deputy of Presidency, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iran; Department of Physiology, Medicine Faculty, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran; Medicinal Plant Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Electronic address:

Objectives: Exposure of healthy subjects to ambient airborne dusty particulate matter (PM) causes brain dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sub-chronic inhalation of ambient PM in a designed special chamber to create factual dust storm (DS) conditions on spatial cognition, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress in the brain tissue.

Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into four groups: Sham (clean air, the concentration of dusty PM was <150 μg/m), DS1 (200-500 μg/m), DS2 (500-2000 μg/m) and DS3 (2000-8000 μg/m). Experimental rats were exposed to clean air or different sizes and concentrations of dust PM storm for four consecutive weeks (exposure was during 1-4, 8-11, 15-16 and 20-23 days, 30 min, twice daily) in a real-ambient dust exposure chamber. Subsequently, cognitive performance, hippocampal LTP, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and brain edema of the animals evaluated. As well as, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress indexes in the brain tissue measured using ELISA assays.

Results: Exposing to dust PM impaired spatial memory (p < 0.001), hippocampal LTP (p < 0.001). These disturbances were in line with the severe damage to respiratory system followed by disruption of BBB integrity (p < 0.001), increased brain edema (p < 0.001), inflammatory cytokines (p < 0.001) excretion and oxidative stress (p < 0.001) in brain tissue.

Conclusions: Our study showed that exposure to ambient dust PM increased brain edema and BBB permeability, induced memory impairment and hippocampal LTP deficiency by increasing the inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in the brain of the rats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.117210DOI Listing
February 2020

Gallic acid affects blood-brain barrier permeability, behaviors, hippocampus local EEG, and brain oxidative stress in ischemic rats exposed to dusty particulate matter.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Feb 17;27(5):5281-5292. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Environmental Technology Research Center, Jundishapur University of Medical Science, Ahvaz, Iran.

Dust storms are environmental natural events that transport high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in living spaces. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that air pollution is associated with stroke. In the present study we aimed to investigate the probable protective effects of gallic acid (GA) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, brain oxidative stress, anxiety, depression, locomotion behaviors, and changes of hippocampal local electroencephalogram (local EEG) power induced by 4-vessel transient occlusion (4VO I/R) following exposure to dusty PM in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups: (1) vehicle+Sham (Veh + Sh), (2) vehicle+4VO I/R (Veh + I/R), (3) gallic acid+sham (GA + Sh), (4) gallic acid+4VO I/R (GA + I/R), (5) vehicle+PM (Veh + PM), (6) PM + 4VO I/R (PM + I/R), (7) gallic acid+PM + Sham (GA + PM + Sh), and (8) gallic acid+PM + 4Vo I/R (GA + PM + I/R). 4VO type of I/R was induced after 10 days of pretreatment by GA 100 mg/kg/2 ml/ip, or 2 ml/kg/ip, normal saline as vehicle (Veh) and exposure to dust storm composed of dusty PM (DPM, 2000-8000 μg/m3), 60 min daily for consecutive 10 days) simultaneously. Seventy-two hours after I/R induction, all behavioral tests and BBB permeability evaluation were done. Hippocampus local EEG was recorded just before and 72 h after I/R induction, and finally brain tissue oxidative stress was assayed. Data showed that 4VO I/R following exposure to DPM increased BBB permeability (p < 0.001), brain oxidative stress (p < 0.001), induced anxiety (p < 0.001), depression (p < 0.01), locomotion impairment (p < 0.001), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and local EEG power also were decreased in PM + Sh (p < 0.001). Pretreatment with GA reversed BBB permeability and MDA. Our findings suggest that GA is a probable protective agent against adverse effects of both I/R and exposure to DPM and also in I/R subjects exposed to DPM. The beneficial effects of GA may induce by its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-07076-9DOI Listing
February 2020

The Occurrence of bla extended-spectrum β-lactamase Among Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Khorramabad, Iran.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 ;20(4):506-510

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Objective: During the recent decade, CTX-M-type enzymes, primarily CTX-M-15 extended- spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) have strikingly developed throughout the world. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of CTX-M-type β-lactamases, as well as blaCTXM- 15 among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in Khorramabad, Iran.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 isolates of K. pneumoniae were collected from selected teaching hospitals in Khorramabad, Iran. ESBLs producing isolates were identified using phenotypic double-disk synergy test. The presence of blatypes, as well as bla gene, were investigated by PCR method.

Results: While the highest resistance rates of isolates were found to nalidixic acid (65%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (60%) antibiotics, the least resistance was to imipenem (15%). Moreover, 31(51.7%) isolates were resistant to at least three classes of antibiotics and designated as multidrug resistance (MDR). Fifty-two (86.7%) of 60 isolates were ESBLs positive. Thirty-five (58.3%) isolates harbored CTX-M-type β-lactamases, and also 29 (48.3%) isolates carried blaCTX-M-15.

Conclusions: This study presents the first report on the frequency of bla in the west of Iran, so that our results showed ESBL of CTX-M-15 may partly account for hydrolyzing thirdgeneration cephalosporins.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526519666191119122059DOI Listing
May 2021

Air pollution prediction by using an artificial neural network model.

Clean Technol Environ Policy 2019 Aug 28;21(6):1341-1352. Epub 2019 May 28.

Environmental Engineering, School of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

Air pollutants impact public health, socioeconomics, politics, agriculture, and the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm to predict hourly criteria air pollutant concentrations and two air quality indices, air quality index (AQI) and air quality health index (AQHI), for Ahvaz, Iran, over one full year (August 2009-August 2010). Ahvaz is known to be one of the most polluted cities in the world, mainly owing to dust storms. The applied algorithm involved nine factors in the input stage (five meteorological parameters, pollutant concentrations 3 and 6 h in advance, time, and date), 30 neurons in the hidden phase, and finally one output in last level. When comparing performance between using 5% and 10% of data for validation and testing, the more reliable results were from using 5% of data for these two stages. For all six criteria pollutants examined (O, NO, PM, PM, SO, and CO) across four sites, the correlation coefficient () and root-mean square error (RMSE) values when comparing predictions and measurements were 0.87 and 59.9, respectively. When comparing modeled and measured AQI and AQHI, was significant for three sites through AQHI, while AQI was significant only at one site. This study demonstrates that ANN has applicability to cities such as Ahvaz to forecast air quality with the purpose of preventing health effects. We conclude that authorities of urban air quality, practitioners, and decision makers can apply ANN to estimate spatial-temporal profile of pollutants and air quality indices. Further research is recommended to compare the efficiency and potency of ANN with numerical, computational, and statistical models to enable managers to select an appropriate toolkit for better decision making in field of urban air quality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10098-019-01709-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8075317PMC
August 2019

Application of electro-Fenton process for treatment of composting plant leachate: kinetics, operational parameters and modeling.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Jun 8;17(1):417-431. Epub 2019 May 8.

5Environmental Technologies Research Center (ETRC), Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Composting plant leachate is considered as one of the highly polluted wastewaters which is necessary to be treated by simple, economic, fast and environmentally compatible methods. In this study, treatment of fresh composting plant leachate by electro-Fenton (EF) process was investigated.

Methods: The effect of various input variables like pH (2-7), DC currents (1.5-3 A), HO concentrations (theoretical ratio HO/COD: 0.1-0.6), TDS changes (4-6%), feeding mode, and BOD/COD ratio at the optimal point were studied. The settling characteristics of the waste sludge produced by the treatment (sludge volumes after 30-min sedimentation: V) were also determined. Artificial neural network (ANN) approach was used for modeling the experimental data.

Results: Based on the results, the best removal rate of COD was obtained at pH: 3, 3 A constant DC current value, 0.6 theoretical ratio HO/COD and the feeding mode at four step injection. BOD/COD ratio at the optimal point was 0.535 and the maximum COD removal was achieved at TDS = 4%. In the optimal conditions, 85% of COD was removed and BOD/COD ratio was increased from 0.270 to 0.535. The data follow the second-order kinetic (R > 0.9) and neural network modeling also provided the accurate prediction for testing data.

Conclusion: Results showed that EF process can be used efficiently for treatment of composting plant leachate using the proper operating conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00361-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582029PMC
June 2019

Concentrations and health effects of short- and long-term exposure to PM, NO, and O in ambient air of Ahvaz city, Iran (2014-2017).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Sep 22;180:542-548. Epub 2019 May 22.

Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Electronic address:

The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations and short and long-term excess mortality attributed to PM, NO, and O observed in ambient air of Ahvaz during March 2014 to March 2017 period using the AirQ + software developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), which is updated in 2016 by WHO European Centre for Environment and Health. The hourly concentrations of PM, O, and NO measured at different regulatory monitoring network stations in Ahvaz city were obtained from the Department of Environment (DOE) of the city. Then, for various air quality monitoring stations, the 24-h average concentration of PM, 1-h average of NO concentration, and maximum daily 8-h O concentrations were calculated using Excel 2010 software. When the maximum daily 8-h ozone means exceeding the value of 35, it was subtracted from 35 to calculate SOMO35 indicator for modeling. Validation of air quality data was performed according to the Aphekom and WHO's methodologies for health impact assessment of air pollution. Year-specific city population and baseline incidence of the health outcomes were obtained. The three-year averages of PM, NO, and O concentrations were 68.95 (±39.86) μg/m, 135.90 (±47.82) μg/m, and 38.63 (±12.83) parts-per-billion-volume (ppbv), respectively. SOMO35 values of ozone were 6596.66, 3411.78, and 470.88 ppbv in 2014-2015, 2015-2016, and 2016-2017 years, respectively. The AP and number of natural deaths due to NO were higher than PM except the last year (2016-2017), causing about 39.18%, 40.73%, and 14.39% of deaths within the first, the second, and the third year, respectively. However, for the last year, the natural mortality for PM was higher than NO (34.46% versus 14.39%). The total number of natural mortality caused by PM and NO in all years was 4061 and 4391, respectively. A significant number of deaths was estimated to be attributed to the given air pollutants. It can be concluded that by designing and implementing air pollution control strategies and actions, both health effects and economic losses will be prevented.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.05.026DOI Listing
September 2019

Gallic acid protects particulate matter (PM) triggers cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation causing heart adverse events in rats.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jun 30;26(18):18200-18207. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Health Faculty, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Previous studies have shown that exposure to particulate matter (PM) increased variety of health problems, particularly cardiovascular diseases leading to premature mortality. The cardiac effects of particulate matter containing PM include increased infarct size, decreased heart function, and increased arrhythmias in experimental ischemia-reperfusion models in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm (PM) on isolated-rat heart and also to determine the efficacy of gallic acid (GA) as a preventive agent in oxidative damage. The healthy rats were divided into 8 equal groups which served as, control, GA, PM (0.5, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg), and PM+GA groups. PM administered into the lungs via the trachea in two stages with 48-h interval. After all experiments, the electrocardiogram was recorded. Then, the hemodynamic parameters and ventricular arrhythmias in rat isolated-hearts were assessed using Langendorff apparatus and according to the Lambeth conventions. In addition, the inflammation and oxidative stress factors in cardiac tissues were evaluated in all groups. The obtained results showed that the exposure to PM caused to decrease in cardiac hemodynamic and electrocardiogram parameters. Also, in PM rat groups, the IL-6, TNF-α, and oxidative stress parameters were increased. Gallic acid preserved the value of cardiac parameters and inflammation in rat hearts. In summary, we added a novel therapeutic effect of gallic acid for cardiac dysfunction induced by particulate matter. These findings could be related to antioxidant and antiinflammation properties and the obtained results suggest that natural antioxidant like gallic acid could be a therapeutic agent in prevention and management of health issues in the polluted areas of the world.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05223-wDOI Listing
June 2019

Effects of PM and NO on the 8-isoprostane and lung function indices of FVC and FEV in students of Ahvaz city, Iran.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Mar 12;26(3):473-480. Epub 2016 Nov 12.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Health Faculty, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between PM and NO pollutants and oxidative stress marker (8-isoprostane) and lung function tests (FVC and FEV) in healthy children who were living and studying in three different areas of Ahvaz city including A: Naderi site with high traffic, A: Alavi Alley site with average traffic, and A: Ein 2 site with low traffic (a rural area on the suburb of Ahvaz). 30 students in the 12-13 year-old range were selected from each studied zone (1, 2 and 3 sites) during three months of year. Of each student, one sample was taken every two weeks to measure 8-isoprostane of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Air pollution data were collected from three air quality monitoring stations. Also, the relationship between air pollution and 8-isoprostane as well as lung function tests were determined using generalized estimating equations (GEE). The mean concentration of PM and NO in A, A and A areas were 116, 92 and 45 (μg/m) also 77, 53 and 14 (ppb) respectively. Among all studied students, there was a significant correlation between the increase of mean concentration of PM and NO in 1-4 before sampling day, increased 8-isoprostane concentration and decreased FEV, while there was no significant correlation between them and decreased FVC. In A site, an increase in IQR (13 μg/m) PM and IQR (6.5 ppb) NO on 1-4 days before sampling was associated with 0.38 unit (95% CI: 0.11, 0.65) and 1.1 unit (95% CI: 0.85, 1.35) increase in 8-isoprostane concentration, also decreased 121 ml and 190 ml FEV, respectively. Results showed that the short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution can decrease the values of lung function indices and increase the oxidative stress. It may adversely affect children's lungs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.11.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408680PMC
March 2019

Estimation of Short-term Mortality and Morbidity Attributed to Fine Particulate Matter in the Ambient Air of Eight Iranian Cities.

Ann Glob Health 2018 08 31;84(3):408-418. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Abadan School of Medical Sciences, Abadan, IR.

Amongst the various pollutants in the air, particulate matters (PM) have significant adverse effects on human health. The current research is based on existing epidemiological literature for quantitative estimation of the current health impacts related to particulate matters in some selected principal Iranian megacities. In order to find the influence of air pollution on human health, we used the AirQ software tool presented by the World Health Organization (WHO) European Centre for Environment and Health (ECEH), Bilthoven Division. The adverse health outcomes used in the study consist of mortality (all causes excluding accidental causes), due to cardiovascular (CVD) and respiratory (RES) diseases, and morbidity (hospital admissions for CVD and RES causes). For this purpose, hourly PM10 data were taken from the monitoring stations in eight study cities during 2011 and 2012. Results showed annual average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in all megacities exceeded national and international air quality standards and even reached levels nearly ten times higher than WHO guidelines in some cities. Considering the short-term effects, PM2.5 had the maximum effects on the health of the 19,048,000 residents of the eight Iranian cities, causing total mortality of 5,670 out of 87,907 during a one-year time-period. Hence, reducing concentrations and controlling air pollution, particularly the presence of particles, is urgent in these metropolises.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.29024/aogh.2308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6748288PMC
August 2018

Prediction of O in the respiratory system of children using the artificial neural network model and with selection of input based on gamma test, Ahvaz, Iran.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Apr 20;26(11):10941-10950. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Student Research Committee, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

In recent years, concerns over the issue of air pollution have increased as one of the significant environmental and health problems. Air pollutants can be toxic or harmful to the life of plants, animals, and humans. Contrast to primary pollutants, ozone is a secondary pollutant that is produced by the reaction between primary precursors in the atmosphere. The average of air pollutant data was compiled for the purpose of analyzing their correlation with the pulmonary function of students and the FENO biomarker from the air pollutants of the Environmental Protection Agency. According to the average of 3 days, the concentration of ozone in the (S) region was higher than the other regions, and this level was significantly different from the ANOVA test (p < 0.05). The results of artificial neural network modeling for three particular combinations in the cold season, two hidden layers with 9 and 12 neurons, with R = 0.859 and in the warm season, layer with 13 neurons, with R = 0.74, showed the best performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04389-7DOI Listing
April 2019

Attenuation of tetracyclines during chicken manure and bagasse co-composting: Degradation, kinetics, and artificial neural network modeling.

J Environ Manage 2019 Feb 16;231:1203-1210. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.

The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a locally abundant bulking material (bagasse) in the composting process to remove tetracycline from chicken manure in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Degradation extent and kinetic of three types of tetracycline (tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH), chlortetracycline (CTC), and oxytetracycline (OTC)) during co-composting of chicken manure and bagasse were investigated. After 56 days of incubation in the dark and room temperature, TCH, CTC, and OTC were removed up to 99.0%, 99.3%, and 99.5%, respectively. Highest Tetracyclines (TCs) removals were observed when chicken manure was composted with 14% bagasse. Both simple and availability-adjusted first-order kinetic models fitted TCH, CTC, and OTC degradation data. Half-lives estimated by both models were close together. TCH, CTC and OTC half-lives were estimated to be 8, 5, and 4 days, respectively. An artificial neural network model was developed to model TCs degradation. Artificial neural network analysis showed the relative importance of time, antibiotic type, bagasse percentage, and initial antibiotics concentration, in TCs degradation to be 80.43%, 7.95%, 6.43%, and 5.17%, respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.11.003DOI Listing
February 2019

In vivo and in vitro evidence for the involvement of Nrf2-antioxidant response element signaling pathway in the inflammation and oxidative stress induced by particulate matter (PM10): the effective role of gallic acid.

Free Radic Res 2019 Feb 22;53(2):210-225. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

c Health Faculty, Department of Environmental Health Engineering , Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences , Ahvaz , Iran.

Environmental pollution is one of the risk factors for respiratory diseases. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the major mechanisms contributing to cellular defense against oxidative damage. Gallic acid (GA) is regarded as potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. The aim was to evaluate the role of Nrf2 pathway in particulate matter (PM) exposure on lung and epithelial cells with an emphasis on the role of GA. In in vivo part, the rats were divided as control, GA (30 mg/kg), particulate matter (PM) (0.5, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg), and PM + GA. In in vitro study, the cells were divided as control, PM (100, 250, and 500 µg/ml), GA (50 µmol/L) and PM+GA. Inflammation, oxidative stress and Nrf2-pathway factors were assessed. PM groups showed a considerable increase in the epithelial permeability and inflammatory parameters. We also found a significant decrease in the expression of Nrf2 and its up-stream regulators genes. Accordingly, the biosynthesis of glutathione (GSH) and other antioxidant activities significantly decreased. Gallic acid was identified to restore the antioxidant status to the normal levels. Our findings approved that Nrf2 is involved in PM-induced oxidative damages and showed that Nrf2 activation by natural agents could ameliorate respiratory injuries induced by PM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10715762.2018.1563689DOI Listing
February 2019

Chemical and organic characteristics of PM particles and their in-vitro cytotoxic effects on lung cells: The Middle East dust storms in Ahvaz, Iran.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 13;655:434-445. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran.

There are very few reports about the effect of PM particles carried by the Middle East dust storms on lung cells. This study aimed to investigate the chemical properties and in-vitro cytotoxic effects of PM extracts. Water-soluble fraction and organic solvent-extractable components of the samples collected from the city of Ahvaz, Khuzestan Province, Iran, during the normal and dust storm days of the winter of 2016 were analyzed and then applied on the human lung epithelial cell line (A549). The chemical properties and the cytotoxicity were analyzed by ICP-OES and Lactase Dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, respectively. The results of the independent t-test showed significantly higher mean cytotoxicity in the samples of normal days than that of dust storm days. It could be due to the fact that the cells were exposed to the same amount of water-soluble extract, whether it be from a normal day or a dust storm day, and since the normal air of Ahvaz is severely affected by traffic and industrial pollutants, its normal day samples showed stronger cytotoxic effect. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test showed that cytotoxic effect increased with the particulate concentration. The highest cytotoxicity levels observed at 62, 125, and 250 μg/mL concentrations after 24-h incubation were 17% (belonging to a dust storm day), 37% (belonging to a normal day), and 47% (belonging to a dust storm day), respectively Since PAH compounds were measured in the particulate phase, their amount was naturally correlated with the quantity of particulates. However, it was observed that the samples of normal days contained the species with stronger human carcinogens ΣPAHs = 0.82 ng/m.The results of one-way ANOVA showed a significant difference between the incubation times regarding the resulted cytotoxicity levels. In general, as the incubation duration increased, so did the cytotoxicity level. Although normal day particulates had a greater cytotoxic effect on A549 cell line, dust storm days are associated with higher levels of health risk; simply because during dust storms, people inhale much larger amounts of particulates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.153DOI Listing
March 2019

Ambient particulate matter concentration levels of Ahvaz, Iran, in 2017.

Environ Geochem Health 2019 Apr 6;41(2):841-849. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Environmental Technologies Research Center (ETRC), Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Dust storm in Khuzestan region is strongly influenced by transportation and influx of large amount of particulate matter from internal sources (Hawizeh Marshes and East Ahwaz) and external sources (the Arabian Desert in Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria and the Sahara Desert). Particulate matter is one of the main components of indoor and outdoor air quality that can be very dangerous for human. The principal objective of this study was the pinpoint of the source of airborne particulate matter by the NOAA HYSPLIT model in Ahvaz City, southwest of Iran. The investigation of dust storm and their origin was performed by the GFSG Meteorological Data (backward trajectories ending analysis of the NOAA HYSPLIT model) and collecting particulate samples with high-volume air samplers during the fall and winter seasons. The results showed the average ambient particulate matter concentration in the cold and warm seasons was 158 and 161 µg/m, respectively. Moreover, the average particulate matter concentration in the cold season was significantly higher than the standard level as presented in the National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Consequently, it seems essential to develop green space, decrease particulate emission from source and make determined efforts to control dust at governmental and international scales.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-018-0182-0DOI Listing
April 2019

Short-term effects of air pollution on respiratory mortality in Ahvaz, Iran.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2018 8;32:30. Epub 2018 Apr 8.

Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Urban air pollutants may affect respiratory mortality. This study was conducted to investigate this effect in Ahvaz, one of the most polluted cities in the world. The impact of 7 major air pollutants including O3, PM10, NO2, CO, and SO2 were evaluated on respiratory mortality in different gender and age groups using a quasi-Poisson, second degree polynomial constrained, distributed lag model, with single and cumulative lag structures adjusted by trend, seasonality, temperature, relative humidity, weekdays, and holiday. Data were analyzed using the dlnm package in R x64 3.2.5 software. Significance level was set at less than 0.05. In adjusted models, for each IQR increase of O3 in the total population, the risk ratio (RR) for respiratory deaths in 0 to 14- day lags was, respectively, 1.009 (95% CI:1.001-1.016) and 1.009 (95% CI:1.002-1.017), and it was 1.021 (95% CI: 1.002-1.040) in cumulative 0 to 14- day lags. For PM10, in the total population and in adjusted models after 0 to 14- day lags and in cumulative lags of 0 to 14 for an IQR increase in the mean concentration of PM10, the RR for respiratory deaths increased significantly and was, respectively, 1.027 (95% CI:1.002-1.051), 1.029 (95% CI:1.006-1.052), and 1.065 (95% CI:1.005-1.128). NO2 showed a significant association with respiratory deaths only in the 18 to 60 year- old age group and in 9- day lags (RR= 1.318, 95% CI:1.002-1.733). Finally, the results showed that for an IQR increase in the mean concentration of CO and SO2, the adjusted RR for respiratory deaths in 9- day lags in the total population was, respectively, RR= 1.058 (95% CI:1.008-1.111) and 1.126 (95% CI:1.034-1.220). Air pollution in Ahvaz is probably causing increased respiratory mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14196/mjiri.32.30DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6108243PMC
April 2018

Interaction of viral oncogenic proteins with the Wnt signaling pathway.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2018 Jul;21(7):651-659

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

It is estimated that up to 20% of all types of human cancers worldwide are attributed to viruses. The genome of oncogenic viruses carries genes that have protein products that act as oncoproteins in cell proliferation and transformation. The modulation of cell cycle control mechanisms, cellular regulatory and signaling pathways by oncogenic viruses, plays an important role in viral carcinogenesis. Different signaling pathways play a part in the carcinogenesis that occurs in a cell. Among these pathways, the Wnt signaling pathway plays a predominant role in carcinogenesis and is known as a central cellular pathway in the development of tumors. There are three Wnt signaling pathways that are well identified, including the canonical or Wnt/β-catenin dependent pathway, the noncanonical or β-catenin-independent planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, and the noncanonical Wnt/Ca2+ pathway. Most of the oncogenic viruses modulate the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. This review discusses the interaction between proteins of several human oncogenic viruses with the Wnt signaling pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2018.28903.6982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6098952PMC
July 2018

On the chemical nature of precipitation in a populated Middle Eastern Region (Ahvaz, Iran) with diverse sources.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Nov 1;163:558-566. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Health and Environment Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

This study reports on the chemical composition of rainwater collected at three ground sites with varying degrees of pollution in Ahvaz, Iran, between January 2014 and February 2015. A total of 24 rainwater samples were analyzed for pH and concentrations of trace elements (Fe, Al, Pb, and Cd) and major ions (Na, NH, Ca, Mg, HCO, NO, Cl and SO). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify sources of the measured species. The equivalent concentration of the components followed the order of Ca > SO > HCO > NH > Cl > Na > NO > Mg. The average pH of the rainwater samples was 6, and only three events exhibited acidic conditions below a pH of 5.6. The lowest and the highest average pH values were observed in the high traffic area (5.96) and industrial area (6.54), respectively. The highest and lowest Ca levels were observed in the industrial and high traffic areas, respectively. Na, Mg, and SO exhibited their highest and lowest concentrations in the industrial and high traffic areas, respectively. 70.36% of the total variance was due to anthropogenic species (Ca, SO, Mg, NO, Cl), soil particles (Cl, Na, and HCO), and biomass burning (NH, pH). The results of this study show that local anthropogenic sources and Middle Eastern Dust (MED) storms affect the rainwater chemistry strongly, which the latter stems from the Arabian Peninsula, Kuwait, Iraq, and some parts of Iran.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.07.103DOI Listing
November 2018

Association between cancer risk and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' exposure in the ambient air of Ahvaz, southwest of Iran.

Int J Biometeorol 2018 Aug 29;62(8):1461-1470. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Rehabilitation Management, School of Rehabilitation, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Nowadays, a large number of health endpoints such as disease rates, treatment costs, and death, by air pollutants, have been a serious health problem for humans. One of the most hazardous air pollutants, which is highly dangerous for human health, is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The existence of the emission of industries' pollutants and seasonal variations are the primary agents affecting PAHs' concentration. The purposes of this study were to calculate the cancer risk and measure PAHs' exposure in the ambient air of Ahvaz, southwest of Iran, during 2017. Three distinct areas ((S1) industrial, (S2) high traffic, and (S3) residential) of Ahvaz metropolitan were selected. Omni sampler equipped with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters were used for active sampling of PAHs. To detect the level of PAHs, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and lifetime average daily dose (LADD) were used to estimate the health risk caused by PAHs. The results showed that the residential and industrial areas had the lowest and highest level of PAHs. Moreover, the average levels of PAHs in industrial, high traffic, and residential areas were 8.44 ± 3.37, 7.11 ± 2.64, and 5.52 ± 1.63 ng m, respectively. Furthermore, ILCR in autumn and winter was higher than EPA standard, 0.06307 and 0.04718, respectively. In addition, ILCR in different areas was significantly higher than standard. Research findings imply that the levels of exposure to PAHs can increase ILCR and risk of health endpoint. The cancer risk attributed to PAHs should be further investigated from the perspective of the public health in metropolitans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-018-1543-1DOI Listing
August 2018

Short-term effects of particle size fractions on lung function of late adolescents.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Aug 23;25(22):21822-21832. Epub 2018 May 23.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Although ambient air pollution has been linked to reduced lung function in healthy students, longitudinal studies that compare the response of asthmatic and healthy adolescents are lacking. To evaluate lung function responses to short-term ambient air particulate matter (PM, PM, and PM) levels, we conducted a study on high school students aged 15-18 years. The aim of this study was to assess effects of acute exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) on lung function in healthy and asthmatic late adolescents. We examined associations of lung function indices and ambient PM levels in 23 asthmatic and 23 healthy students. Paired-samples T test was used to evaluate the association of exposure to airborne PM concentrations with lung function test results (FVC, FEV, FEV/FVC, and FEF). We observed negative impact of exposure to an increased concentration of ambient air PM, PM, and PM on lung function parameters of asthmatic and healthy late adolescents. These findings are consistent with other similar short-term studies which have confirmed the adverse effect of PM air pollution. These associations were stronger in asthmatic subjects compared with those in healthy ones. There are significant adverse effects of ambient air PM on pulmonary function of adolescents, especially asthmatics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2264-zDOI Listing
August 2018

The relation between air pollution and respiratory deaths in Tehran, Iran- using generalized additive models.

BMC Pulm Med 2018 Mar 20;18(1):49. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Some epidemiological evidence has shown a relation between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of air pollution on mortality from respiratory diseases in Tehran, Iran.

Methods: In this ecological study, air pollution data was inquired from the Tehran Province Environmental Protection Agency and the Tehran Air Quality Control Company. Meteorological data was collected from the Tehran Meteorology Organization and mortality data from the Tehran Cemetery Mortality Registration. Generalized Additive Models (GAM) was used for data analysis with different lags, up to 15 days. A 10-unit increase in all pollutants except CO (1-unit) was used to compute the Relative Risk of deaths.

Results: During 2005 until 2014, 37,967 respiratory deaths occurred in Tehran in which 21,913 (57.7%) were male. The strongest relationship between NO and PMand respiratory death was seen on the same day (lag 0), and was respectively (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02-1.07) and (RR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02-1.04). O and PM had the strongest relationship with respiratory deaths on lag 2 and 1 respectively, and the RR was equal to 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05 and 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10 respectively. NO, O, PM and PM also showed significant relations with respiratory deaths in the older age groups.

Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that O, NO, PM and PM air pollutants were related to respiratory deaths in Tehran. Reducing ambient air pollution can save lives in Tehran.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-018-0613-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5859399PMC
March 2018