Publications by authors named "Ghedeir M Alshammari"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Quercetin prevents cadmium chloride-induced hepatic steatosis and fibrosis by downregulating the transcription of miR-21.

Biofactors 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

This study investigated if cadmium chloride (CdCl )-induced hepatic steatosis and fibrosis and the protective effect of quercetin (QUR) are mediated modulating the activity of miR-21, a known hepatic lipogenic and fibrotic miRNA. Male rats (n = 8/group) were divided as control, control + QUR (50 mg/kg; orally), CdCl (10 moml/L; drinking water), CdCl  + miR-21 antagomir (inhibitor) (16 mg/kg/first 3 days), and CdCl  + QUR (50 mg/kg). Treatments were conducted for 20 weeks, daily. All treatments showed no effect on fasting glucose and insulin levels. Administration of either miR-21 or QUR prevented CdCl -induced hepatic damage, as well as lipid droplets and collagen deposition. They also reduced serum levels of ALT and AST and decreased serum and hepatic levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins in CdCl -treated rats. Concomitantly, they reduced hepatic levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, suppressed the activation of NF-kb P65, and increased hepatic levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). These effects were associated with reduced expression of SREBP1, TGF-β1, Smad3, and collagen1 A and increased expression of PPARα, CPT1, and smad7. Interestingly, QUR significantly lowered levels of miR-21 and increased the protein levels and activity of Nrf2, as well as levels of GSH and SOD in the livers of both the control and CdCl -treated rats. Of note, levels of Nrf2 were negatively correlated with the transcription of miR-21. In conclusion: QUR prevents CdCl -induced hepatic steatosis and fibrosis mainly through attenuating its ability to upregulate miR-21, at least, by upregulation of Nrf2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biof.1724DOI Listing
March 2021

The protective effect of shrimp cooked in different methods on high-cholesterol- induced fatty liver in rats.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 24;28(1):170-182. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

This study examined the impact of different cooking methods on fatty acid (FAs) composition of shrimp meat and the ability of these foods to protect against high cholesterol (HC) diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. Shrimp were cooked for 10 min boiled, grilled, or fried in sunflower oil. Rats (n = 6/group) were fed a normal diet (ND)or high-cholesterol diet (HC) each containing boiled, grilled or fried shrimp powder (15% w/w) (NDBS, NDFS, NDGS for ND or HCBS, HCFS, HCDGS for HC diet). Frying alone significantly reduced total levels of saturated FAs (SFA) and increased total mono- and polyunsaturated FAs (MSFA, and PUFAs, respectively) in shrimp meat. It also increased levels of n-6 PUFAs and linoleic acid (LA) and decreased levels of n-3 PUFAs including eicosapentaenoic FAs (EPA) and docosahexaenoic fatty acid (DHA). When fed to HC rats, only diets containing the grilled and boiled shrimp powders significantly prevented the weight loss, lowered fasting and glucose levels, improved glucose and insulin tolerance, and prevented the increase in serum liver markers, ALT and AST. They also reduced hepatic fat accumulation, reduced serum levels and hepatic levels of cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs), reduced hepatic levels of MDA, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-6, and increased those of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). No alterations in all these parameters were observed in HC-fed rats which fed fried shrimp. In conclusion, boiling and grilling but not frying are the best method to cook shrimp to preserve their fatty acid content and its nutritional value in ameliorating NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.09.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783650PMC
January 2021

Curcumin reverses diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats by inhibition of PKCβ/pShc axis and activation of FOXO-3a.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 01 2;87:108515. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

This study investigated if the nephroprotective effect of Curcumin in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) in rats involves downregulation/inhibition of pShc and examined the underlying mechanisms. Rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 12/group) as control, control + Curcumin (100 mg/kg), T1DM, and T1DM + Curcumin. Curcumin was administered orally to control or diabetic rats for 12 weeks daily. As compared to diabetic rats, Curcumin didn't affect either plasma glucose or insulin levels but significantly reduced serum levels of urea, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine, and concurrently reduced albumin/protein urea and increased creatinine clearance. It also prevented the damage in renal tubules and mitochondria, mesangial cell expansion, the thickness of the basement membrane. Mechanistically, Curcumin reduced mRNA and protein levels of collagen I/III and transforming growth factor- β-1 (TGF-β1), reduced inflammatory cytokines levels, improved markers of mitochondrial function, and suppressed the release of cytochrome-c and the activation of caspase-3. In the kidneys of both control and diabetic rats, Curcumin reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased mRNA levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and gamma-glutamyl ligase, increased glutathione (GSH) and protein levels of Bcl-2 and MnSOD, and increased the nuclear levels of nuclear factor2 (Nrf2) and FOXO-3a. Besides, Curcumin reduced the nuclear activity of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), downregulated protein kinase CβII (PKCβII), NADPH oxidase, and pShc, and decreased the activation of pShc. In conclusion, Curcumin prevents kidney damage in diabetic rats by activating Nrf2, inhibiting Nf-κB, suppressing NADPH oxidase, and downregulating/inhibiting PKCβII/pShc axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2020.108515DOI Listing
January 2021

Evaluation of nutritional status of foreign students at King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Public Health Nutr 2021 01 26;24(1):43-51. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Food Science and Nutrition Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2460, Riyadh11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The current study was conducted to assess the nutritional status and associated risk factors among foreign students residing at King Saud University for different periods and to explore its correlations.

Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the spring semester of 2018. A total of 400 male students aged 18-35 years had participated in the current study after signing a written consent form according to Helsinki Declaration.

Setting: A structural questionnaire was used to collect data on daily food intake and habits and socio-economic characteristics. Nutrients of food intake were assessed using the Esha programme and compared with that of dietary requirement intake (DRI). A body composition analyser was used to measure body fat (BF), visceral fat (VF) and BMI. Spearman correlation coefficients and simple regression analysis were performed to determine associations between variables.

Participants: Foreign students residing for different periods (<6 months: 200 students and >6 months: 200 students) were used as subjects.

Results: The students who stayed <6 months consumed lower level of some nutrients than that of the DRI compared with those stayed >6 months. Overweight and obesity were more common among students who stayed >6 months with high values of BF and VF. Several risk factors were positively or negatively correlated with the students' nutrition proxies.

Conclusion: Most of the students who stayed >6 months are suffered from overweight. Some independent variables were found to be significantly correlated with the students' nutrition proxies either positively or negatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980020002864DOI Listing
January 2021

Fruit Extract Induces Tp53/Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

Biomed Res Int 2020 25;2020:3712536. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Adipocytes and Metabolic Disorders Lab, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The second most biggest cancer worldwide is breast cancer. There is an increasing need for safer, effective, and affordable drug candidates from natural sources to treat breast cancer. In the present investigation, the anticancer effect of Bouché (. ) fruit extract was tested on the human breast cancer cells such as MCF-7. The cells were exposed with different doses of . , for the assessment of IC concentrations on the MCF-7 cell lines for 24 hs. The effect of . fruit extract on morphological and apoptotic changes were evaluated by specific fluorescence staining techniques and real-time PCR in a time-dependent manner for 24 hs and 48 hs. The IC value for . fruit extract was found to be 90 g/mL. Morphological alteration and apoptotic distinctiveness aspect like chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were noticed in extract exposed breast cancer cells. Further, we observed that . extract-induced programmed cell death in the MCF-7 cells were mediated with the elevated expression of the tumor suppressor gene such as p53 and apoptotic markers such as caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, fatty acid synthase (FAS), Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (BAK), and Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX). These observations established that . significantly concealed the cell division and provoked p53/caspase-mediated programmed cell death. Further, we noticed that this cell death in MCF-7 cells is concentration and time dependent. As evaluated through the comet assay, . induced DNA damage; further upon increasing the duration of the treatment, the DNA damage was higher than before. Thus, our study concludes that . could serve as an effective anticancer agent through vital gene modulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3712536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335397PMC
April 2021

Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Mar 27;27(3):925-934. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic syndrome distinguished with glucose increasing in blood, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia. It results in decease of millions of people yearly. is a traditional diabetes and hypertension medicine from the Arabian region. extract was administered to diabetes rats for estimate its anti-diabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities in Wistar rats were induced using (60 mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, diabetic, diabetic receiving glibenclamide, and two diabetic -treatment groups. Rats were weighted weekly, and the biochemical analysis were carried out in serum, and liver homogenate samples. Body weight of diabetic rats was lessening significantly improved body weight, glucose concentration, lipid profiles, hepatic enzymes, urea, creatinine, insulin, and HDL-C. These results are the first to indicate the potential antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities of
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.01.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042628PMC
March 2020

Pumpkin () extract attenuate the adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells by controlling adipogenic gene expression.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 May 2;26(4):744-751. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Adipocytes and Metabolic Disorders Lab, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Prevention and management of obesity through dietary modification is one of the top way to trim down its consequences. Development of adipose tissue requires the differentiation of less specialized cells, such as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), into adipocytes. Since food constituents play a major role in the cell differentiation and proliferation, we sought to determine if various extracts of (), could affect the adipogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Flow cytometry analysis with quantitative and qualitative Nile red, and quantitative PCR methods were employed to evaluate the effect on hMSCs adipogenesis. Results revealed that, chloroform extract exhibits significant adipogenic inhibition than that of hexane and methanol extracts. Chloroform extract treated cells display the down-regulation of ADIPOQ, FABP4, PPARGC1A, CEBPB & LPL and up-regulation of ACACB & CEBPA genes. Further, various phytoconstituents present in the chloroform extract of were analyzed though LC-MS and GC-MS Our results indicates that chloroform extract of might be used as a food supplement to control obesity and its related consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.10.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6486525PMC
May 2019

Butein protects the nonalcoholic fatty liver through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species attenuation in rats.

Biofactors 2018 May 19;44(3):289-298. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Adipocytes and Metabolic Disorders Lab, Food Science and Nutrition Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

One of the worldwide metabolic health dilemma is nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Researchers are searching effective drug to manage NAFLD patients. One of the best way to manage the metabolic imperfection is through natural principal isolated from different sources. Butein, a natural compound known to have numerous pharmacological application. In the current study we assessed the therapeutic effect of butein administration on liver function tests, oxidative stress, antioxidants, lipid abnormalities, serum inflammatory cytokines, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels, in rats with methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet induced NAFLD. Male Wistar rats were treated with MCD diet with/without butein (200 mg/kg body wt. orally) for 6 weeks. The protective effect of butein, were evident from decreased transaminase activities, restoration of albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, and oxidants in serum (P < 0.01), further it improved liver antioxidant status (P < 0.01). Butein significantly lowered lipid profile parameters (P < 0.01), suppressed inflammatory cytokines (P < 0.01), and improved liver histology. Further to understand the possible mechanism behind the hepatoprotective and lipid lowering effect of butein, the activities of heme oxygenase (HO1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured. We found that butein supplementation significantly decreased the activity of HO1 (P < 0.001), and increased the activity of MPO (P < 0.001). Furthermore butein attenuated mitochondrial ROS produced in NAFLD condition. Present study shows that butein supplementation restore liver function by altering liver oxidative stress, inflammatory markers, vital defensive enzyme activities, and mitochondrial ROS. In summary, butein has remarkable potential to develop effective hepato-protective drug. © 2018 BioFactors, 44(3):289-298, 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biof.1428DOI Listing
May 2018

Unveiling anticancer potential of glibenclamide: Its synergistic cytotoxicity with doxorubicin on cancer cells.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2018 May 14;154:294-301. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605 014, India. Electronic address:

Drug repurposing has been an emerging therapeutic strategy, which involves exploration of a new therapeutic approach for the use of an existing drug. Glibenclamide (Gli) is an anti-diabetic sulfonylurea drug extensively used for the treatment of type-2 diabetes, it has also been shown to possess anti-proliferative effect against several types of tumors. The present study was executed to understand the mechanisms underlying the interaction of Gli with DNA under physiological conditions. The binding mechanism of Gli with DNA was scrutinized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. The conformational changes and electrochemical properties were analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Isothermal titration calorimetry was employed to examine the thermodynamic changes and molecular docking technique used to analyze the interaction mode of Gli with DNA. The spectroscopic studies revealed that Gli interacts with DNA through groove binding mode. Further, isothermal titration calorimetry depicted a stronger mode of interaction favorably groove-binding. Recently, systemic combination therapy has shown significant promise in inhibiting multiple targets simultaneously yielding high therapeutic competence with lesser side effects. With this concern, we intended to study the combined cytotoxicity of Gli with doxorubicin (Dox). The results of MTT assay and acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EtBr) staining showed synergistic cytotoxicity of Gli + Dox combination on HepG2 & A549 cells. The present study documents the intricate mechanism of Gli-DNA interaction and delivers a multifaceted access for chemotherapy by Gli + Dox combination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2018.03.025DOI Listing
May 2018

Synthesis and characterisation of arsenic nanoparticles and its interaction with DNA and cytotoxic potential on breast cancer cells.

Chem Biol Interact 2018 Nov 22;295:73-83. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605 014, India. Electronic address:

Therapeutic applications of arsenic trioxide (ATO) are limited due to their severe adverse effects. However, nanoparticles of ATO might possess inimitable biologic effects based on their structure and size which differ from their parent molecules. Based on this conception, AsNPs were synthesized from ATO and comparatively analysed for their interaction mechanism with DNA using spectroscopic & electrochemical techniques. Finally, anti-proliferative activity was assessed against different breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 & MCF-7) and normal non-cancerous cells (HEK-293). The DNA interaction study revealed that AsNPs and ATO exhibit binding constant values in the order of 10 which indicates strong binding interaction. Binding of AsNPs did not disturb the structural integrity of DNA, on the other hand an opposing effect was observed with ATO through biophysical techniques. Further, in vitro study, confirms cytotoxicity of ATO and AsNPs against different cells, however at particular concentration ATO exhibits more cytotoxicity than that of AsNPs. Furthermore, cytotoxicity was confirmed through acridine orange and comet assay. In conclusion, AsNPs are safer than ATO with comparable efficacy and might be a suitable candidate for the development of novel therapeutic agent against breast cancer and other solid tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2017.12.025DOI Listing
November 2018

Nimbolide attenuate the lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and antioxidant in primary hepatocytes.

Mol Biol Rep 2017 Dec 28;44(6):463-474. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Nimbolide is a bioactive compound found in Azadirachta indica. This work was devised to investigate the potential effects of nimbolide on intracellular lipid deposition and its associated redox modulation in primary hepatocytes (Heps). Lipid accumulation was induced in Heps by supplementing 1 mM oleic acid for 24 h which was marked by significant accumulation of lipids. The results demonstrated that nimbolide can decrease intracellular cholesterol, free fatty acids and triglycerides. Nimbolide may also improve hepatocytes function through its antioxidant effects by inhibiting oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation by curtailing the reactive oxygen species levels. Further it also restore the mitochondrial potential, improving the endogenous antioxidant levels such as GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities. Nimbolide increased (P < 0.05) liver X receptor-α (LXRα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) gene expression in Heps. The biological significance of nimbolide may involve hypolipidemic effect, lipid peroxidation inhibition, DNA damage inhibition, ROS inhibition, restoring mitochondrial function, increases in GSH and SOD & CAT activities, and direct regulation of LXRα, PPARγ and SREBP1c gene expression. Nimbolide may be used as effective lipid lowering compound and lipid deposition-induced Heps changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-017-4132-1DOI Listing
December 2017

Size Dependent Uptake and Hemolytic Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Erythrocytes and Biomedical Potential of ZnO-Ferulic acid Conjugates.

Sci Rep 2017 06 23;7(1):4203. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry, 605 014, India.

Despite zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) being increasingly used as carriers in biomedical fields due to their multifaceted properties and therapeutic importance, better understanding of the mechanisms and cellular consequences resulting from their interaction with cells and cellular components has been warranted. In the present study, we investigate the size-dependent interaction of ZnONPs on RBCs, and its impact on cell viability, DNA damage, ROS generation and morphological changes, employing cellular and analytical methods. Size, charge, stability and solubility were confirmed by DLS, zeta potential, ICP-AES and TEM analysis. Further ICP-AES, TEM, spectroscopic observations and cell based assays showed that ZnONPs exhibited a size dependent impact on RBCs and haemoglobin (Hb), particularly size <50 nm. Conversely, ferulic acid (FA) conjugates and serum albumin significantly reduced the adverse effects exhibited by ZnONPs. The extent of DNA damage and ROS generation is comparatively low in ZnONPs-FA than in ZnONPs alone treated cells. Thus our study documents a novel conceptualization delineating the influence of size on the material properties and therapeutic potential of nanoparticle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-04440-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5482866PMC
June 2017

2-Hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid attenuates the carbon tetra chloride-induced hepatotoxicity and its lipid abnormalities in rats via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanism.

Inflamm Res 2017 Sep 30;66(9):753-763. Epub 2017 May 30.

Adipocytes and Metabolic Disorders Lab, Food Science and Nutrition Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background And Aim: Liver inflammation stimulates various inflammatory cytokines and initiates injury through oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to curtaile the liver injury through natural principles such as 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid (HMBA).

Methods: The current study examines the hepatoprotective and lipid lowering effect of HMBA against carbon tetra chloride (CCl)-mediated liver toxicity in male Wistar rats.

Results: The hepatoprotective effects of HMBA against CCl-induced liver damage, were evident from low serum transaminases activities, reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation and collagen content, restoration of total glutathione, and recouping of the inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, and IL-6 levels. Further it was found that the treatment of HMBA, significantly lowered (P<0.01) the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids in serum and liver. To investigate the mechanism behind the hepatoprotective and lipid lowering effect, the activities of heme oxygenase (HO1), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured and expression levels were quantified through western blot following HMBA administration. The results showed that HMBA administration significantly decreased the activity of HO1 (P<0.001), and increased the activity of MPO (P<0.001); further similar finding was observed in western analysis. The hepatoprotective, lipid lowering and shifting key defensive enzyme activities are similar to that of standard drug such as N-acetylcysteine.

Conclusion: HMBA is competent of shielding liver from CCl-induced hepatotoxicity, and this is associated with the lipid lowering, inflammatory cytokine restoration and induction of defensive enzyme activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00011-017-1054-2DOI Listing
September 2017

Prevalence of overweight and obesity among police officers in Riyadh City and risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

Lipids Health Dis 2017 Apr 14;16(1):79. Epub 2017 Apr 14.

Metabolic Disorders Lab, Food Science and Nutrition Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Despite the prevalence of overweight and obesity and increases in associated diseases such as diabetes and heart disease in the Saudi population, no studies have addressed the spread of obesity among Saudi police officers. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and associations with biochemical parameters among the police in Riyadh.

Method: The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 160 police officers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profiles and fasting blood sugar levels were measured for all individuals.

Results: According to the results, the average body mass index (BMI) was 27.5 ± 5.1, indicating an increase in overweight in this population and 66.9% were overweight or obese. Moreover, the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were 119.5 and 79.4 mmHg, respectively, within normal limits. The mean total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) levels were 187.5, 43.9, 119.5 and 124.5 mg/100 ml, respectively.

Discussion: These BMI and biochemical findings suggest a high proportion of overweight and obese individuals in the sample population, as well as an increase in the proportion of individuals with high levels of biochemical indicators who are therefore susceptible to heart disease and diabetes.

Conclusion: The study recommends using preventive programs to combat obesity and overweight and related diseases and conducting further studies using measures other than BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-017-0467-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5391546PMC
April 2017

In vitro biocompatibility and proliferative effects of polar and non-polar extracts of cucurbita ficifolia on human mesenchymal stem cells.

Biomed Pharmacother 2017 May 20;89:215-220. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Cucurbita ficifolia (C. ficifolia) has been traditionally known for its medicinal properties as an antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory agent. However, there has been an enduring attention towards the identification of unique method, to isolate the natural components for therapeutic applications. Our study focuses on different polar and non-polar solvents (methanol, hexane and chloroform) to extract the bioactive components from C. ficifolia (pumpkin) and to study the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity effects on human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). The extracts were screened for their effects on cytotoxicity, cell proliferation and cell cycle on the hBM-MSCs cell line. The assays demonstrated that the chloroform extract was highly biocompatible, with less cytotoxic effect, and enhanced the cell proliferation. The methanol extract did not exhibit significant cytotoxicity when compare to the control. Concordantly, the cell cycle analysis confirmed that chloroform extract enhances the proliferation at lower concentrations. On the other hand, hexane extract showed high level of cytotoxicity with apoptotic and necrotic changes in hBM-MSCs. Collectively, our data revealed that chloroform is a good candidate to extract the bioactive components from C. ficifolia. Furthermore, our results suggest that specific gravity and density of the solvent might play a crucial role in the extraction process, which warrants further investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.02.023DOI Listing
May 2017

Effect of troxerutin on 2-aminoanthracene and DNA interaction and its anti-mutagenic property.

Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Apr 21;88:325-334. Epub 2017 Jan 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605 014, India. Electronic address:

One of the pivotal mechanisms projected for bioflavonoids in cancer chemoprevention is through their intervention against mutagen-DNA interaction. Recent literatures emphasize the role of troxerutin (TXER) as an emerging anticancer agent. However, there are no reports on its intervention in any carcinogen-DNA interaction. The present study investigates the possibility of TXER, in prevention of 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) contact with DNA. Steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy results, highlight the direct contact of 2-AA with DNA, while presence of TXER prevented this interaction. Gel-electrophoresis study clearly revealed that, TXER inhibits 2-AA+UVA radiation induced DNA damage. Fluorescence microscopic studies elucidated that, TXER treatment obstructs the 2-AA interaction with cellular DNA, while molecular docking showed the energetically favourable structure of TXER/2-AA/TXER complex. Further anti-mutagenicity experiment revealed that, TXER prevents the mutation induced colony formation in mutant strain of S. typhymurium. Our in vitro and ex vivo experimental findings provide imperative evidence about the protective role of TXER against environmental carcinogens through the inhibition of carcinogen-DNA interaction, implicating its potential for therapeutic applications in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.01.042DOI Listing
April 2017

Epoxy clerodane diterpene inhibits MCF-7 human breast cancer cell growth by regulating the expression of the functional apoptotic genes Cdkn2A, Rb1, mdm2 and p53.

Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Mar 6;87:388-396. Epub 2017 Jan 6.

Cancer Molecular Biology Research Lab, Department of Food Sceince and Nutrition, College of Food Science and Agriculture, King Saud University, Riyadh - 11451, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Systematic analyses of plants that are used in traditional medicine may lead to the discovery of novel cytotoxic secondary metabolites. Diterpene possesses multiple bioactivities; here, epoxy clerodane diterpene (ECD) was isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) stem and shown potential antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The antiproliferative effect of ECD on MCF-7 cells was systematically analyzed by cell and nuclear morphology, alterations in oxidative stress, and the expression of tumor suppressor and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis-related genes. We found that the IC value of ECD was 3.2μM at 24h and 2.4μM at 48h. We observed that the cytotoxicity of ECD was specific to MCF-7 cells, whereas ECD was nontoxic to normal Vero and V79 cells. ECD significantly triggered intracellular ROS generation even from the lower doses of 0.6 and 1.2μM; and it is relative to higher dose of 2.4μM. Further, we used 0.6μM, 1.2μM and 2.4μM as experimental doses to analyze the relative dose-dependent effects. Nuclear staining revealed that cells treated with the 2.4μM dose exhibited characteristic apoptotic morphological changes and that 46% of the cells were apoptotic and 4% were necrotic after 48h. ECD significantly increased the expression of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway-related genes after 48h; we observed significantly (p≤0.05) increased expression of CYP1A, GPX, GSK3β and TNF-α and downregulated expression of NF-κB. ECD also increased the expression of tumor suppressor genes such as Cdkn2A, Rb1 and p53. In addition, we observed that ECD treatment significantly (p≤0.001) upregulated the expression of apoptotic genes such as Bax, cas-3, cas-8, cas-9 and p21 and downregulated the expression of BCL-2, mdm2 and PCNA. In conclusion, ECD regulates the expression of Cdkn2A, p53 and mdm2 and induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2016.12.091DOI Listing
March 2017