Publications by authors named "Ghazaleh Ahmadi"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

HIV-1 Drug Resistance Profiles for the HIV Protease and Reverse Transcriptase Gene in Patients Receiving Combination Therapy in Tehran, Iran.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2018 ;18(3):241-248

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Determination of the drug-resistant mutations has a crucial role in the management of HIV-1 infected patients.

Objective: The aim of the current study was to evaluate drug resistance profile of Reverse transcriptase and Proteasegenes, and to find the correlation between drug resistance mutations and ART regimen to intensifyphysicians'options for the most effective therapy which could also influence the establishment of health-related policies at the national level in Iran.

Method: HIV-1 RNA of 34 samples was extracted from plasma and RT Nested- PCR was performed and the final products were sequenced. Stanford HIV drug resistance sequence database was used for interpretation of the data.

Results: In 14 patients out of 15, the following mutations were observed; Nucleoside RT Inhibitor (NRTI)-Resistance Mutations with the prevalence of 11 patients having this mutation at codon 184 (73%) and Non-Nucleoside RT Inhibitor (NNRTI)-Resistance Mutations with the prevalence of 8 patients having NNRTI mutations at codon 103(53%).In 17 patients, major Protease Inhibitor (PI) Resistance Mutations were found out in 2 (12%) of them while the minor PI was found in7 (41%) patients.

Conclusion: An antiretroviral treatment consisting of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor, impairs the emergence of a resistant strain and descends its prevalence among the community. Having a high rate mutation in participants of this study raises concerns about treatment failure in HIV infected people in Iran. Observing high mutations rates in participants of this study raises concerns about treatment failure in HIV infected people in Iran.
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January 2019

Neurological Manifestations of Renal Diseases in Children in Qazvin/ Iran.

Iran J Child Neurol 2016 ;10(3):24-7

General Practitioner, Qazvin Children Hospital, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Objective: Renal diseases are one of the most common causes of referrals and admissions of children, hence it is important to know their neurological presentations. This study aimed to determine neurological presentations of renal diseases in children.

Material & Methods: A total of 634 children with renal diseases, admitted to Qazvin Pediatric Hospital, Qazvin, central Iran from 2011 to 2013 were studied. Neurological presentations of patients were established and the results were analyzed using statistical tests.

Results: Neurological presentations were found in 18 (2.8%) out of 634 patients, of whom 15 had febrile seizures, two thromboembolism, and one encephalopathy. Among patients with urinary tract infection (UTI), 2.6% had febrile seizures, 11.1% of those with glomerulonephritis had encephalopathy, and 3.7% of those with nephrotic syndrome had cerebral thromboembolism.

Conclusion: Results showed neurological presentations in 2.8% of children with renal diseases, and febrile seizure as the most common presentation.
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July 2016

The correlation between end-tidal carbon dioxide and arterial blood gas parameters in patients evaluated for metabolic acid-base disorders.

Electron Physician 2015 Jul 20;7(3):1095-101. Epub 2015 Jul 20.

Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: The analysis of arterial blood gas (ABG) is an invasive procedure that is used frequently in the emergency department (ED) to evaluate the acid-base status of critically-ill patients. However, capnometry is an alternative procedure that has been used in recent years to determine the metabolic status of patients' blood. Considering the correlation between end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) identified in the previous studies and the strong correlation between PaCO2 and bicarbonate (HCO3(-) ), we assumed that ETCO2 might be a useful parameter in predicting the presence of metabolic acidosis. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between ETCO2 and the parameters of ABG in adult patients who were likely present metabolic acid-base disturbances in the Emergency Department of Imam Reza Hospital, the largest academic hospital in Mashhad in northeast Iran.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted during six months on 62 adult patients who presented with suspected metabolic acid-base disorders to the ED. The exclusion criteria were patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, loss of consciousness, intubated patients, and those who were unable to tolerate capnography. The patients' demographic information and vital signs were recorded. Also, ABG and ETCO2 results were recorded. The Pearson product moment correlation analysis and linear regression were used to determine the correlation between ETCO2 and ABG parameters.

Results: Sixty-four patients were enrolled, consisting of 37 men and 27 women with a mean age of 55.4 ± 22.7 years. The most common complaints presented were nausea and vomiting (n = 24). The average value for ETCO2 was 26.2 ± 6.1. There were significant linear correlations between ETCO2 level, pH (r = 0.368), HCO3(-) (r = 0.869), PaCO2 (r = 0.795), and Base Excess (B.E.) (r = 0.346). HCO3 and PaCO2 were the significant predictor values for ETCO2 (linear regression analysis).

Conclusion: ETCO2 can be an appropriate indicator to estimate HCO3(-) and PaCO2 in critical emergency situations, but it cannot be used as an indicator to estimate all ABG variables.
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July 2015