Publications by authors named "Ghazala Perven"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Non-lesional mesial temporal lobe epilepsy requires bilateral invasive evaluation.

Epilepsy Behav Rep 2021 27;15:100441. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390-8508, USA.

Purpose: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) usually responds well to surgical treatment, although in non-lesional cases up to 50% of patients experience seizure relapse. The possibility of bilateral independent seizure onset should be considered as a reason for epilepsy surgery failure.

Methods: In a cohort of 177 patients who underwent invasive presurgical evaluation with stereo-tactically placed electrodes in two level four epilepsy centers, 29 had non-lesional MTLE. Invasive evaluation results are described.

Results: Among 29 patients with non-lesional MRI and mesial temporal lobe seizure onset recorded during stereo-EEG (SEEG) evaluation, four patients with unilateral preimplantation hypothesis had independent bilateral mesial temporal seizures on SEEG despite of unilateral non-invasive evaluation data. Three of these patients were treated with bitemporal responsive neurostimulator system (RNS). Independent bilateral mesial temporal seizures have been confirmed on RNS ECoG (electrocorticography). The fourth patient underwent right anterior temporal lobectomy.

Conclusion: We propose that patients with non-lesional mesial temporal lobe epilepsy would benefit from bilateral invasive evaluation of mesial temporal structures to predict those patients who would be at most risk for surgical failure. Neurostimulaiton could be an initial treatment option for patients with independent bitemporal seizure onset.
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March 2021

Physical activity status and quality of life in patients with epilepsy - Survey from level four epilepsy monitoring units.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Apr 9;173:106639. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, TX, 75390, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: People with epilepsy (PWE) tend to have sedentary lifestyles which may predispose them to a lower perceived quality of life (QOL). Moreover, the relationship between physical activity (PA) and QOL in populations of PWE with high disease burden has been under-studied. The goal of this study was to evaluate PA level and its impact on health-related QOL in PWE who were admitted to Level-4 epilepsy monitoring units (EMU).

Methods: In this prospective observational study, 200 patients from two EMUs in Dallas, Texas completed the following standard surveys: Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity (RAPA), the Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-31), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) questionnaire. Information on self-reported epilepsy history, severity of disease, and socioeconomic status were also collected. The diagnosis of epilepsy was confirmed by video-EEG monitoring.

Results: Among the 200 who completed the survey, 113 had a diagnosis of epilepsy and 109 of them completed the RAPA. Ninety-two (84 %) of these PWE reported a sedentary level of physical activity (RAPA < 6) and 16 % reported an active level (RAPA ≥ 6). Self-reported QOL was slightly higher in PWE with an active level of PA compared to PWE with a sedentary level of PA (63.8 ± 15.0 vs 53.7 ± 17.9, p = 0.07), even though there was no difference in the severity of self-reported mood symptoms. After controlling for employment and seizure frequency, physical activity level measured by RAPA score was also positively related to QOL (r = 0.39, p = 0.01) and negatively correlated with anxiety symptoms (r = -0.28, p = 0.02) and depression symptoms (r = -0.25, p = 0.04).

Conclusion: The majority of PWE in this survey reported sedentary lifestyles despite most of them being young to middle-aged adults. Higher PA level was associated with fewer self-reported mood symptoms and higher QOL. In conjunction with the literature, these results suggest that PWE with a wide range of disease burden should be encouraged to participate in regular exercise to potentially improve QOL.
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April 2021

Comparison of psychiatric comorbidities and impact on quality of life in patients with epilepsy or psychogenic nonepileptic spells.

Epilepsy Behav 2020 01 20;102:106649. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, TX 75390, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Psychiatric comorbidity is common in people with epilepsy (PWE) and psychogenic nonepileptic spells (PNES). These comorbidities can be detrimental to quality of life (QOL) and are often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Some types of epilepsy, such as focal temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), have been associated with higher rates of psychiatric comorbidity. This study examined the impact of psychiatric comorbidity on QOL in patients admitted to two level 4 epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs).

Methods: In this prospective observational study, 200 patients admitted to two level 4 EMUs completed standardized surveys including the Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-31-P), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Hierarchal multiple regression was performed to assess impact on QOL.

Results: Of the 200 participants, 113 had a diagnosis of epilepsy, 36 had a diagnosis of PNES, and 51 were excluded for nondiagnostic evaluation or dual diagnosis. Of those with epilepsy, 65 had TLE, 28 had focal extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE), and 20 had nonfocal epilepsy. Patients with PNES had higher self-reported anxiety and depression levels (GAD-7: p = 0.04, PHQ-9: p < 0.01; BDI-II: p < 0.01) but similar QOL to PWE (p = 0.78). Using hierarchal multiple regression, symptoms of anxiety and depression were significant predictors of lower QOL in PWE but not in patients with PNES. There was no difference in QOL in those with ETLE and TLE.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that self-reported anxiety and depression symptoms are common in patients admitted to level 4 EMUs regardless of diagnosis and play an important role in predicting QOL in PWE. Our findings emphasize the importance of routinely screening all EMU patients for psychiatric comorbidity.
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January 2020

Epileptic auras: phenomenology and neurophysiology.

Epileptic Disord 2015 Dec;17(4):349-62

Epilepsy Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, Department of Neurology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.

This review discusses the phenomenology, neurophysiology, and localization of epileptic auras with particular emphasis on how auras can manifest as part of an epileptic network. Epileptic auras, as the first clinical symptom of a seizure, may lead us to infer the site of seizure onset. At the same time, auras can also be a result of activation or alteration in an epileptic network. They can be highly specific or ill-defined in symptomatology. They occur as a result of limited seizure activation, allowing access of the neural signal to the conscious brain. An understanding of epileptic auras offers a window into understanding fundamental brain functions, and helps the clinician at the bedside to make appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic choices.
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December 2015

The relevance of somatosensory auras in refractory temporal lobe epilepsies.

Epilepsia 2015 Oct 7;56(10):e143-8. Epub 2015 Aug 7.

Cleveland Clinic Epilepsy Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

The purpose of this study is to look at the prevalence, characteristics, and prognostic value of somatosensory auras (SSAs) in patients who have undergone temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery to treat drug-resistant focal epilepsy. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who underwent TLE surgery at Cleveland Clinic between 2005 and 2010 (n = 333) to study the prevalence, characteristics, and prognostic implications of SSA in the context of TLE surgery. Analyses were performed using two seizure outcome definitions: complete seizure freedom and Engel classification. Of the 333 patients, 26 (7.8%) had SSA. Almost half (12 patients) had unilateral sensory symptoms, whereas the rest had bilateral symptoms. Tingling and numbness were the most frequently reported sensations. Compared to their non-SSA counterparts, patients with SSA had the same clinical and imaging characteristics, but had a higher rate of breakthrough seizures (p = 0.03), although most (54%) were still able to achieve Engel class of I (p = 0.02). Based on our results we would encourage detailed presurgical testing, which may include an invasive evaluation to analyze the extent of the epileptogenic zone in patients with SSA and suspected TLE.
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October 2015

A rare case of intramedullary 'whorling-sclerosing' variant meningioma.

Springerplus 2015 4;4:318. Epub 2015 Jul 4.

Department of Surgery/Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, 3000 Arlington Avenue, Toledo, OH 43614 USA.

A 52-year-old man with a seven-year history of progressive weakness, gait problems, and pain in his extremities presented with subacute worsening of his symptoms. Examination revealed weakness in all four extremities, increased tone, hyperreflexia, and sensory deficits. MRI of the cervical spine showed an area of signal abnormality and abnormal enhancement within the cervical cord at the C5-C6 level. The patient initially underwent biopsy followed a few days later by a debulking surgery. Postoperatively, the patient showed improvement in strength as well as ambulation. Intraoperatively, the lesion was confirmed to be intramedullary without any dural attachments. Histopathological examination revealed an extensively hyalinized tumor with sparse collections of cells that were immunopositive for both cytokeratin and GFAP, and immunonegative for EMA and progesterone receptor. This is an unusual pattern of expression, with cytokeratin immunopositivity suggesting a meningioma and GFAP immunopositivity suggesting a glioma. Considering the combination of extensive hyalinization with cytokeratin positivity the tumor was thought to be most consistent with a hyalinized meningioma with GFAP positivity. GFAP-positive meningiomas are rare, and these include the recently described 'whorling-sclerosing' variant. Only three cases of this tumor have been previously reported, all of which were intracranial. This is the first reported case of an intramedullary whorling-sclerosing meningioma.
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July 2015

Critical evaluation of the claims made by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotional material in Pakistan.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2006 ;9(1):50-9

Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, the Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: In Pakistan, there is no mechanism to monitor the drug promotional campaign by pharmaceutical industry despite the fact that there is enough evidence that irrational pharmacotherapy is increasingly encountered even in the developed countries due to unethical practices of pharmaceutical promotion. Objectives. To audit the drug promotional claims made by the pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan.

Methods: Drug promotional pamphlets and brochures containing claims for the drugs, which were circulated by the pharmaceutical representatives were collected from 122 general practitioners (GPs) from Karachi and Larkana cities of the Sindh Province. The claims were critically analyzed and audited with the help of currently available evidence in the medical literature.

Results: 345 distinct advertisements covering 182 drugs from different manufacturers were critically analyzed for information content. Sixty two out of 345 (18%) of the reviewed advertisements were adjudged to be misleading / unjustifiable, which were again classified as, exaggerated (32%), ambiguous (21%), false (26%), and controversial (21%). The primary source of information (approximately 78%) about the newly launched drugs for the GPs was found to be the pharmaceutical representatives followed by hospital doctors (5%) and colleagues (5%). Furthermore, 110 (90%) GPs were of the view that the drug promotion has definitely an influence on their prescribing pattern.

Conclusions: Since GPs in Pakistan rate pharmaceutical companies as their primary source of information regarding drugs, it can be anticipated that inappropriate advertisement claims would lead to irrational prescribing if physicians had no any other information to follow.
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August 2006