Publications by authors named "Ghatee Mohammad Amin"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Relationship between Bacillus Calmette Guerin Vaccination Policy and Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) Incidence.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 Feb 11;20(1):106-113. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Allergy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran AND Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) was designed for protecting children against tuberculosis. Also, it can protect against other infectious diseases through the induction of trained immunity. Due to its heterologous protective effects, the BCG vaccine has been proposed as atreatment option for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Epidemiological studies have found that countries without BCG vaccination policy have experienced higher mortality rates related toCOVID-19 infection than those with BCG vaccination policy. However, there are some confounding factors such as age, population intensity, immigration, the pandemic phase, and data accuracy that may affect these results. Therefore, this hypothesis should be evaluated by clinical trial studies. Large-scale clinical trials are in progress to investigate ifthe BCG vaccine could be used as a useful tool for protection against COVID-19 infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v20i1.5417DOI Listing
February 2021

Phylogenetic analysis of Trichostrongylus vitrinus isolates from southwest Iran.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Nov 7;13(1):553. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Student Research Committee, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran.

Background: Trichostrongylus is one of the most important zoonotic trichostrongylid nematodes, infecting mostly livestock. Data on its genetic characteristics are lacking in Iran.

Methods: We determined the phylogenetic relationships of Trichostrongylus species in three counties of Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad (K-B) province, southwest Iran. Small intestine and abomasum of 70 sheep and goats were investigated.

Results: A total of 35 isolates of Trichostrongylus worms were detected and all were genetically identified as Trichostrongylus vitrinus. Analysis of 321 bp of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA revealed 16 genotypes. All genotypes were single nucleotide polymorphisms, including some hypervariable points. All sequences were trimmed to 170 bp, compared with sequences on GenBank including short sequences from other endemic foci of Iran and other countries and all isolates were used to generate a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree, which consisted of two clades A and B. Clade A included isolates from Iran, Russia, New Zealand, Australia and the UK; clade B only contained South African isolates. Most clade A isolates (north, southwest and west Iran, Russia, New Zealand, Australia and UK) were in a similar phylogenetic position. One subclade was detected in clade A (isolates from Southwest Iran, New Zealand and UK).

Conclusions: We hypothesize that drug resistant T. vitrinus may account for its exclusive detection in our samples. The high similarity of genotypes from Iran, New Zealand and UK may be due to their close political relationships during the colonial era. More research is needed to understand better the phylogeny of T. vitrinus and its relationship with drug resistance and human transmission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04438-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7648934PMC
November 2020

Environmental, climatic and host population risk factors of human cystic echinococcosis in southwest of Iran.

BMC Public Health 2020 Oct 27;20(1):1611. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Department of Paediatrics, Nemazee Teaching Hospital, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a worldwide zoonotic disease, is affected by various biological and environmental factors. We investigated dog/livestock populations, climatic and environmental factors influencing the distribution of human CE cases in Fars province, southwest Iran.

Methods: We mapped the addresses of 266 hospitalised CE patients (2004-2014) and studied the effects of different temperature models, mean annual rainfall and humidity, number of frosty days, slope, latitude, land covers, close proximity to nomads travel routes, livestock and dog densities on the occurrence of CE using geographical information systems approach. Data were analyzed by logistic regression.

Results: In the multivariate model predicting CE, living in an urban setting and densities of cattle and dogs were the most important CE predictors, sequentially. Dry (rained) farm, density of camel and sheep, close proximity to nomads travel routes, humidity, and slope also were considered as the determinants of CE distribution, when analyzed independently. Slope had a negative correlation with CE while temperature, frost days and latitude were not associated with CE.

Conclusions: In our study, an urban setting was the most important risk factor and likely due to a combination of the high density of key life cycle hosts, dogs and livestock, a large human susceptible population and the high number of abattoirs. Farmland and humidity were highly suggestive risk factors and these conditions support the increased survival of Echinococcus granulosus eggs in the soil. These findings support the development of strategies for control of disease. More research is needed test optimal interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09638-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590804PMC
October 2020

The Geographical Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Causative Agents in Iran and Its Neighboring Countries, A Review.

Front Public Health 2020 18;8:11. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

and are both the main cause of anthroponotic (ACL) and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), respectively, in the Old World. and , which are important causes of visceral leishmaniasis, have also occasionally been reported in CL patients. The present study investigates the current distribution of causative species of CL in Iran and neighboring countries in the Middle East. There has been expansion of into new urban and rural foci in Iran, with well-documented cases of visceralization, a substantial increase of CL in Syria, and the emergence of new foci and outbreaks in Turkey and Iraq, especially due to . Civil war in Syria and Iraq, population movement, poverty, and climatic change play important roles in the changing CL distribution in this region. Control programs should adopt a multidisciplinary approach based on active surveillance and case finding, especially in vulnerable refugee populations, determination of hazard maps for CL hot points using GIS and other advanced technology, the free distribution of drugs, rodent control, and greater community engagement in poor and marginalized populations. Comprehensive molecular studies that could show the species and strains of in different areas of each country can give a better view from the distribution of CL in this region.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039857PMC
May 2021

Geo-climatic factors in a newly emerging focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in rural areas of north-eastern Iran.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Mar 1;67(2):914-923. Epub 2019 Dec 1.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the fatal form of leishmaniasis. A newly emerging focus of zoonotic VL (ZVL) including 13 villages has been reported from Maraveh Tappeh County, Golestan province, north-eastern Iran. We investigated the effect of climatic and environmental factors on the occurrence of disease in this focus by geographical information systems (GIS) approaches and logistic regression models. The incidence rate of ZVL in human and dog population was estimated 1.2% and 27.3%, respectively, in the studied areas. Rock soil type (OR = 11.7), rainfall (OR = 1.04) and elevation (OR = 0.99) were found as determinants of ZVL. Also, almost all infected villages were in close proximity of rivers. Cavities of rock soil around rivers are assumed as suitable areas for sandfly resting and growth by providing shadow and moisture. Rainfall also provides appropriate moisture in semi-arid regions for survival of sandflies. The negative effect of higher altitude can be explained by some sandfly life-limiting conditions like freezing weather. Accordingly, regions with lower altitude and higher rainfall, covered by rock and in close proximity of rivers, are the hazard zones for ZVL in the Maraveh Tappeh. Air humidity, temperature, land cover type and slope were not predictors of disease in the current study. Further investigations on human population movement, probable reservoirs and vectors of disease can provide valuable data for modelling the future distribution of ZVL in the Iranian province.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13416DOI Listing
March 2020

Cytokine profile and nitric oxide levels in macrophages exposed to Leishmania infantum FML.

Exp Parasitol 2019 Aug 22;203:1-7. Epub 2019 May 22.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran; Student Research Committee, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran.

Fucose-mannose ligand (FML) is a soluble antigen purified from Leishmania donovani complex and used for diagnosis, prognosis, and vaccine development against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We aimed to explore the effects of FML on the production of cytokines, chemokines and nitric oxide (NO) by macrophages in vitro. Peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice were treated with various concentrations of FML purified from Leishmania infantum in the absence or presence of LPS Peritoneal macrophages. After 48hr, cell culture supernatants were recovered and the levels of TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12p70 and IP-10 measured by Sandwich ELISA and NO concentration by Griess reaction. We found that FML significantly increase NO, IL-12p70 and IP-10 production in both LPS-treated and untreated macrophages and increase IL-10 levels only in LPS-treated macrophages. However, FML could not alert TNF-α levels in both LPS-treated and untreated macrophages. Further analysis revealed that FML can also increase IL-12p70/IL-10 ratio in LPS-treated macrophages. We concluded that FML can polarize macrophages to an appropriate phenotype similar to M1 phenotype against Leishmania donovani complex, although IL10 and TNF results are controversial.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2019.05.004DOI Listing
August 2019

Population structures of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica the causative agents of kala-azar in Southwest Iran.

Parasitol Res 2018 Nov 13;117(11):3447-3458. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Iran and is caused predominantly by Leishmania infantum, but L. tropica is emerging as an important cause. We studied the intra-species population structure of Leishmania spp. causing VL in southwest Iran by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 of DNA samples from 29 bone marrow aspiration smears. L. infantum (n = 25) and L. tropica (n = 4) were identified, consisting of 10 and three ITS1 sequence types (STs), respectively. Compared to GenBank ITS1 STs, our L. infantum parasites displayed high heterogeneity but less heterogeneity compared than northwest Iranian isolates. VL affects mostly nomadic populations in southwest Iran, and their mobility may explain partly the L. infantum heterogeneity. The VL causing L. tropica was also genetically heterogeneous but genetically indistinguishable from L. tropica strains causing anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis from southwest Iran.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-018-6041-1DOI Listing
November 2018

Population Structure of Causing Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southern Iran by PCR-RFLP of Kinetoplastid DNA.

Biomed Res Int 2018 6;2018:6049198. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Iran is one of the six countries with the most cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients. Understanding better the genotypes of the parasite population in relation to geography and climate is critical to achieving better CL control. We aimed to characterise the population structure of , the cause of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), from important foci in southeast (Bam and Kerman) and southwest (Shiraz) Iran. A total of 39 isolates from ACL patients from southeast (Bam 14, Kerman 12) and southwest (Shiraz 13) Iran were analysed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) using restriction enzymes I () and I. 37 genotypes were identified among south Iran isolates. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) tree obtained from the banding patterns of I digested kDNA RFLP distinguished southeast from and southwest isolates with some subclustering but the I derived tree showed greater discrimination with greater subclustering and divergence of the two foci of southeast region but with some overlapping. Although a monophyletic structure has been defined for southeast , isolates from two foci of southeast Iran were partly discriminated in the current study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/6049198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6011176PMC
January 2019

Heterogenity of Echinococcus canadensis genotype 6 - the main causative agent of cystic echinococcosis in Birjand, Eastern Iran.

Vet Parasitol 2017 Oct 30;245:78-85. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran; Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran. Electronic address:

Little is known about the genotypes of Echinococcus spp. and their life cycles in eastern Iran. We analysed the partial sequences of the nad1 and cox1 genes from 17 isolates from hydatid cyst-infected patients (n=9), camels (n=5) and sheep (n=3) in Birjand, eastern Iran. A new primer pair was also used to amplify the long fragment (1180bp) of the cox1 gene. All camel and eight human isolates were G6 strains of Echinococcus canadensis while one human isolate and the three sheep isolates were G1 genotypes (sheep strain) of E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.). Nad1 and cox1 sequence analyses showed high G6 genetic homogeneity, similar to previously reported G6 strains from southeast and central Iran, Sudan and Mauritania. Low nucleotide and haplotype diversity similar to G6 strains from Russia (Altai republic) and Kazakhstan was also found, consistent with a bottleneck effect. In this study, G6 was the most common Echinococcus genotype. Genetic homogeneity of east, southeast and central Iranian G6 and its low genetic diversity may be due limited mobility and contact between humans and camels from other regions because of large, inhospitable deserts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.08.018DOI Listing
October 2017

Survey of False-positive Reactivity of Latex Agglutination Test for Kala-azar (Katex) without Urine Sample Boiling Process in Autoimmune Patients.

Iran J Public Health 2017 Jun;46(6):804-810

Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Latex agglutination test for Kala-azar (KAtex) is an easy, inexpensive, and field-applicable antigen detection test. However, the main drawback of this method is the boiling step applied to remove false positivity of the test. This study was conducted to survey false positivity results of latex agglutination test for KAtex without boiling process in urine of some autoimmune patients.

Methods: Ninety-two urine samples from autoimmune patients including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), scleroderma, autoimmune vasculitis, vitiligo, pemphigus and Wagner cases and 20 urine samples from healthy individuals were collected from Kerman Province in Southeastern Iran in 2010-2011. All urine samples were checked by KAtex after boiling for 5 min false positivity rate of the test was surveyed in different healthy and patients groups while boiling process was removed. Rheumatoid factor (RF) then was checked in sera of all cases to evaluate the relationship between RF and KAtex false positivity.

Results: All samples represented negative results with KAtex when boiling was performed (100% specificity). Then, 20% positivity was evident in healthy cases. False-positive reactivity was more prominent observed in patient groups than healthy individuals, except in vitiligo. However, a significant difference was only observed in RA group (<0.05). RF was related to KAtex false positivity.

Conclusion: RA was described as the autoimmune disease in which KAtex false positivity was higher than normal population. RF or its metabolic products may have role in false positivity of KAtex but this finding needs to be confirmed by more reliable and improved experiments. Overall, immune system products should be considered in attempts for modification of KAtex for boiling process removal.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5558074PMC
June 2017

Distribution pattern of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica in Western Afghanistan during 2013-2014.

Acta Trop 2017 Dec 25;176:22-28. Epub 2017 Jul 25.

National Health Coordinator (NHC) and Head of Herat WHO Sub-office, Herat Province, Afghanistan.

Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), caused by Leishmania tropica, is the main cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Herat province, Western Afghanistan. We investigated the role of environmental factors on ACL distribution in Herat. Epidemiological data from 2457 patients were retrieved from the local WHO sub-office. Shapefile layers of districts, cities, villages, land cover, soil type and digital elevation model (DEM) of the Herat province were used to assess, by logistic regression modelling, the effects of land cover, soil types, elevation, and proximity to the Harirud river on the distribution of ACL. The key determinants of distribution were: (i) close proximity to the Harirud river, (ii) elevation between 700 and 1200m, (iii) intensive and intermittent irrigated cultivated land, and (iv) Haplocalcids with Torriorthents and Torrifluvents soil types. No ACL cases were found below 700m, and a few cases were present at >1200m in irrigated areas around the Harirud river. These findings suggest that moist soil and the humidity from irrigated areas found between 700 and 1200m provide suitable breeding sites of Phlebotomus sergenti, the main sandfly vector of L. tropica in Afghanistan. The effect of elevation also explains the predominance of ACL over ZCL in this region. The present study showed that distribution of ACL is strongly associated with environmental factors in West Afghanistan where the political and socio-economic conditions may also affect the epidemiology of CL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.028DOI Listing
December 2017

Molecular Epidemiological Survey of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Two Highly Endemic Metropolises of Iran, Application of FTA Cards for DNA Extraction From Giemsa-Stained Slides.

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2016 Feb 15;9(2):e32885. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, IR Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, IR Iran.

Background: PCR has been used for confirmation of leishmaniasis in epidemiological studies, but complexity of DNA extraction and PCR approach has confined its routine use in developing countries.

Objectives: In this study, recent epidemiological situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in two hyper-endemic metropolises of Shiraz and Isfahan in Iran was studied using DNA extraction by commercial FTA cards and kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA)-PCR amplification for detection/identification of Leishmania directly from stained skin scraping imprints.

Patients And Methods: Fifty four and 30 samples were collected from clinically diagnosed CL patients referred to clinical laboratories of leishmaniasis control centers in Isfahan and Shiraz cities, respectively. The samples were examined by direct microscopy and then scrapings of the stained smears were applied to FTA cards and used directly as DNA source in a nested-PCR to amplify kDNA to detect and identify Leishmania species.

Results: Fifty four of 84 (64.2%) slides obtained from patients had positive results microscopically, while 79/84 (94%) of slides had positive results by FTA card-nested-PCR. PCR and microscopy showed a sensitivity of 96.4% and 64.2% and specificity of 100% and 100%, respectively. Interestingly, Leishmania major as causative agent of zoonotic CL was identified in 100% and 90.7% of CL cases from Isfahan and Shiraz cities, respectively, but L. tropica was detected from only 9.3% of cases from Shiraz city. All cases from central regions of Shiraz were L. tropica and no CL case was found in Isfahan central areas.

Conclusions: Filter paper-based DNA extraction can facilitate routine use of PCR for diagnosis of CL in research and diagnostic laboratories in Iran and countries with similar conditions. Epidemiologic changes including dominancy of L. major in suburbs of Shiraz and Isfahan metropolises where anthroponotic CL caused by L. tropica had been established, showed necessity of precise studies on CL epidemiology in old urban and newly added districts in the suburbs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.32885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4842251PMC
February 2016

Genetic diversity of Leishmania tropica strains isolated from clinical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural districts of Herat province, Western Afghanistan, based on ITS1-rDNA.

Infect Genet Evol 2016 07 5;41:120-127. Epub 2016 Apr 5.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran; Parasitology Department, School of Medicine, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran.

Despite the high incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Afghanistan, there is a little information concerning epidemiological status of the disease and phylogenetic relationship and population structure of causative agents. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of CL cases and investigate the Leishmania tropica population structure in rural districts of Heart province in the West of Afghanistan in comparison to neighboring foci. Overall, 4189 clinically suspected CL cases from 177 villages (including 12 districts) in Herat province were enrolled in the referral laboratory of WHO sub-office in Herat city from January 2012 to December 2013. 3861 cases were confirmed as CL by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained slides. ITS1 PCR-RFLP analysis showed dominance of L. tropica (more than 98%) among 127 randomly chosen samples. Analysis of the ITS1 sequences revealed 4 sequence types among the 21 L. tropica isolates. Comparison of sequence types from Herat rural districts with the representatives of L. tropica from Iran, India, and Herat city showed two main population groups (cluster A and B). All isolates from Herat province, India and Southeast, East, and Central Iran were found exclusively in cluster A. The close proximity of West Afghanistan focus and Birjand county as the capital of Southern Khorasan province in East Iran can explain relatively equal to the genetic composition of L. tropica in these two neighboring regions. In addition, two populations were found among L. tropica isolates from Herat rural districts. Main population showed more similarity to some isolates from Birjand county in East Iran while minor population probably originated from the Southeast and East Iranian L. tropica. Recent study provided valuable information concerning the population structure of L. tropica and epidemiology of ACL in the West of Afghanistan, which could be the basis for molecular epidemiology studies in other regions of Afghanistan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2016.03.031DOI Listing
July 2016

Visceral Leishmaniasis in Southwestern Iran: A Retrospective Clinico-Hematological Analysis of 380 Consecutive Hospitalized Cases (1999-2014).

PLoS One 2016 4;11(3):e0150406. Epub 2016 Mar 4.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic parasitic disease and remains as a major health concern in southwestern Iran. The current study describes clinico-hematological, epidemiological and therapeutic features of VL cases, admitted to university-affiliated hospitals, during 1999-2014 in Fars province, southwestern Iran. A total of 380 VL cases were recorded during a 16 years period, giving an average annual admission of 23.75 cases/year in which 217 (57.1%) were male and 163 (42.9%) were female. Mean age of the patients was 3.7 years. The majority of the cases (91.5%) were ≤ 5 years old. Bone-marrow aspiration detected Leishmania amastigotes only in 26.6% of cases. Fever (98.1%), abdominal protrusion (65.1%) and hepatosplenomegaly (63.7%) were the most common clinical presentations of the patients. Pancytopenia was noted in 43.1, anemia in 87.3 and thrombocytopenia in 64% of cases. Increase in the level of AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), alkaline phosphatase, LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) and CRP (C-Reactive Proteins) were seen in 84.9, 53.6, 44.4, 72.5 and 83.1% of cases, respectively. Mortality was noted in 5.3% of cases. Deranged haemato-biochemical parameters including total and direct bilirubin, PLT (platelet) and pancytopenia were significantly contributed to mortality from VL. Moreover, clinical features such as severe splenomegaly as well as bacterial infections were meaningfully contributed to death from VL. The majority of patients (74.9%) were treated with meglumine antimoniate. Amphotericin B was administrated in 59 of cases, 11 of them were initially treated with meglumine antimoniate with a shift to amphotericin B, because of treatment failure. Findings of the current study demonstrated that VL is present in southwest of Iran with a fairly continual rate during the last 16 years period. Deranged haemato-biochemical parameters along with severe splenomegaly contributed to mortality from VL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0150406PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4778872PMC
July 2016

Phylogenetic structure of Leishmania tropica in the new endemic focus Birjand in East Iran in comparison to other Iranian endemic regions.

Acta Trop 2016 Jun 17;158:68-76. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran; Parasitology Department, School of Medicine, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran. Electronic address:

Iran has been identified being among the countries with the highest number of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases. South Khorasan province in East Iran is an emerging focus of CL. Species identification of sixty clinical samples by ITS1 PCR-RFLP presented evidence for the dominance of Leishmania tropica (90%) in this region. Analysis of the ITS1 sequence of 19 L. tropica isolates revealed seven closely related sequence types. In addition, ITS1 sequences available in GenBank from other Iranian regions were compiled for comparison with the studied isolates. Iranian L. tropica was distributed in two main clusters. All East Iranian sequence types were grouped with strains from foci from Southeast and Central regions in cluster A, showing highly similar sequences. The highest similarity was observed between most L. tropica from East and all isolates from Southeast regions and from Savojbolagh county in Central Iran. Southwest L. tropica was shown to be paraphyletic as the isolates were distributed in both clusters A and B. All Northeastern L. tropica were part of cluster B, however they showed significant heterogeneity and were distributed in different subclusters. Distribution of L. tropica populations was to some extent congruent with genetic lineages of Phlebotomus sergenti in Iran and may be an evidence for parasite-vector co-evolution. Southeast-East L. tropica was also similar to strains from Herat province in Afghanistan at the East border of Iran. This is the first comprehensive study on population structure of L. tropica in Iran that provides a guideline for appropriate sampling for further molecular based epidemiological studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.02.010DOI Listing
June 2016

Heterogeneity of the internal transcribed spacer region in Leishmania tropica isolates from southern Iran.

Exp Parasitol 2014 Sep 14;144:44-51. Epub 2014 Jun 14.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Most of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occur in only 7 countries, including Iran. Leishmania tropica is the main cause of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. In order to study the heterogeneity and phylogeny of L. tropica in southern Iran, a total of 61 isolates were obtained from Bam district and the cities Kerman and Shiraz. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) from the ribosomal DNA locus was amplified and then analysed by sequencing. Analysis of the ITS sequences showed four haplotypes in the isolates, including 3 haplotypes among the 58 isolates from the south eastern region, including Bam district and Kerman city, and 2 haplotypes among the 3 isolates from Shiraz city. The results showed a monophyletic structure for the south eastern population. In comparison to GenBank sequences of L. tropica from different countries, most of the southeast Iranian and Indian isolates are comprised in one cluster, while isolates from other countries and few other Iranian isolates group in a different cluster. Analysis of ITS sequences of south eastern L. tropica showed a homogeneous population which could be the basis for other molecular epidemiology studies using more discriminative markers and tracing possible changes in the population structure of L. tropica.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2014.06.003DOI Listing
September 2014

Spatial correlations of population and ecological factors with distribution of visceral leishmaniasis cases in southwestern Iran.

J Vector Borne Dis 2013 Sep;50(3):179-87

Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman, Iran.

Background & Objectives: Leishmaniasis as a dynamic disease may be markedly influenced by demographic and ecological factors. A geospatial information system study was developed to determine the distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases in relation to population, climatic and environmental factors in Fars province, southwest of Iran.

Methods: The dwelling addresses of 217 VL patients were obtained from hospital files. A hazard map produced by unifying buffers (5 km) around nomads travel routes (NTR) was developed to survey the effect of close proximity to NTR on the distribution of VL. Mean annual rainfall (MAR), mean annual temperature (MAT), four months temperature mean (T4), elevation, slope and landcover were climatic and environmental factors that have been analysed. Finally, data of dwelling foci were extracted from maps and analysed using logistic regression models.

Results: Close proximity to NTR was the most important factor influenced on the disease distribution. Climatic factors were in second rank. Among them, temperature especially T4 is the most effective variable and rainfall was also shown to be another effective climatic agent. Most cases of VL were reported from temperate and semiarid areas in western and central regions while arid condition was a confined factor. The environmental factor of landcovers including urban, dry farm and thin forest regions was revealed as the third rank effective factor. Altitude importance was only shown when its effect was studied independently from other factors.

Interpretation & Conclusion: These findings present the distribution of VL in Fars province is influenced by combination of ecological and nomads demographical variables although closeness to NTR and nomads role in distribution and continuance of kala-azar are the most important factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
September 2013

Improvement of the newly developed latex agglutination test (Katex) for diagnosis of visceral lieshmaniasis.

J Clin Lab Anal 2009 ;23(4):202-5

Department of Parasitology and Mycology/Parasitology and Mycology Research Center, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Introduction: Different methods are available for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), among them the urine-based antigen detection assay, latex agglutination test (Katex), is a recently developed one. The main drawback of the test is false-positive reactivity in some of healthy individuals. The false positivity of the test can be removed by boiling the urine sample for 5 min before testing. In this study an attempt was made to improve Katex by removing unpleasant boiling process, which also decreases field applicability of the test.

Methods: False-positive and true-positive urine samples were collected from VL patients and healthy individuals. Both samples were then treated by reagents including, sodium dodecyl sulfate, trichloroacetic acid, dithiothreitol (DTT), sulphosalicylic acid and also heating at 56 degrees C.

Results: Findings of this study showed that DTT pretreatment significantly reduced the rate of false-positive reactivity of Katex where 73% of false-positive urine samples changed to negative after DTT treatment. However, the DTT treatment reduced the rate of true positivity by 14%.

Conclusion: These data indicate that DTT can be used to eliminate nonspecific reactivity in the Katex. This will improve the performance of Katex and make it a more convenient and field applicable test.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.20312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6649050PMC
October 2009