Publications by authors named "Getu Mosisa"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Time to Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Its Predictors Among Newly Diagnosed HIV-Positive People in Nekemte Town, Western Ethiopia: Claim of Universal Test and Treat.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2021 9;13:959-972. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Midwifery, Institutes of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: HIV continuum of care demands early ART initiation for all HIV-infected individuals. Early ART initiation reduces onward HIV transmission facilitating rapid viral suppression. Despite this, delayed ART use is a challenge among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals, and there is limited evidence on time to ART initiation among this group in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aimed to assess time to ART initiation and its predictors among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals in Nekemte town, Western Ethiopia.

Methods: An institution-based retrospective follow-up study was conducted on 518 newly diagnosed HIV-positive people from September 5, 2016 to December 20, 2020 at Nekemte town, Western Ethiopia. Data were collected from ART intake forms, registration log books and patient charts. The collected data were entered into Epi Data version 3.1 and STATA version 14.0 was used for analysis. Survival probability was checked graphically by Kaplan-Meier curve and statistically by Log rank test. Both bivariable and multivariable Cox Proportional hazards regression models were conducted to identify the predictors of ART initiation. Hazard ratio with 95% CI and p-value of <0.05 was used to declare a statistical significance.

Results: By the end of the follow-up, 371 (71.6%) individuals had initiated ART with an overall incidence rate of 51.9 per 1000 [95% CI: 54.07-66.32] person days; median time to ART initiation was 4 [IQR: 1-9] days. Being female (AHR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.06-1.67), urban dwellers (AHR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.37-2.97), having baseline OIs (AHR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.60-4.30); being tested via VCT (AHR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02-1.74); linked from OPD (AHR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47-0.85); disclosing HIV sero-status (AHR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.17-3.68); and college and above education level (AHR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.00-2.0) were identified as significant predictors of early initiation of ART.

Conclusion: The proportion and incidence of ART initiation was high; a short median time to ART initiation was revealed in this study. Strictly screening OIs, encouraging HIV sero-status disclosure and voluntary HIV testing are recommended to increase early ART initiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S327967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8519411PMC
October 2021

Determinants of Diarrhea in Under-Five Children Among Health Extension Model and Non-Model Families in Wama Hagelo District, West Ethiopia: Community-Based Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2021 5;14:2803-2815. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Public Health, Wollega University, Nekemte, Oromia Region, Ethiopia.

Background: Diarrhea is a major leading cause of under-five morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although the health extension program has been implemented for decades, diarrhea continues to be a major public health problem.

Objective: To determine determinants of diarrhea among under-five-year-old children in the health extension model and non-model families of Wama Hagelo District 2019.

Methods: A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 512 under-five children among 257 model and 255 non-model health extension families. A multi-stage sampling technique was used. Households with at least one under-five child were selected using a simple random sampling method. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Bivariate analysis was done to select candidate variables at ≤ 0.2. Determinants of childhood diarrhea were determined by a multivariable logistic regression model at -value less than 0.05.

Results: The two-week prevalence of diarrhea among under-five children in model and non-model families was 7.8% (95% CI=4.5-11.1%) and 27.8% (95% CI 22.3-33.3%), respectively. Unimproved water sources (AOR [95% CI] =5.5[2.2, 97.7]) and no vaccination against Rotavirus (AOR [95% CI] = 49.8 [4.2-94.8]) were associated with diarrhea among under-five children in model families. Family size > 5 (AOR [95% CI] = 5.2 [1.7-17.6]), using unimproved water sources (AOR [95% CI] = 7.2 [1.6-13.2]), not using latrine (AOR [95% CI] = 6 [1.8-20.6]), child not vaccinated against Rotavirus (AOR [95% CI] = 10.9 [2.9-41.1]), child not supplemented with vitamin A (AOR [95% CI] = 3.2 [1.4-7.2]), and not being health extension model families (AOR [95% CI] = 2.4 [1.15-4.99]) predict diarrhea among under-five children in non-model families.

Conclusion: Diarrhea was more frequent among non-model than model families. Family size, type of water source, using a latrine, place of childbirth, child vaccination against Rotavirus, and vitamin A supplementation were independently associated with the occurrence of diarrhea in under-five children. Encouraging all non-model families to become models in implementing all health extension packages by strengthening community participation is important to decrease childhood diarrhea in under-five children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S324846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8502695PMC
October 2021

Epidemiology of hypertension in selected towns of Wollega zones, Western Ethiopia, 2019: A community-based cross-sectional study.

SAGE Open Med 2021 12;9:20503121211024519. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Public Health, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Hypertension remains an emerging public health problem globally, particularly in developing countries. Age, income level, obesity, alcohol consumption, smoking, vegetables and fruit consumption, physical activity and chat chewing were some risk factors of hypertension. However, there are limited data on the epidemiology of hypertension in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess Epidemiology of Hypertension among the community of selected towns of Wollega zones.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 to 30 June 2019 in selected towns of Wollega zones. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 840 study participants. Data were collected using the WHO STEP wise approach. The data were coded and entered into EpiData 3, and exported to SPSS version 20.0 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. Statistical significance was declared at -value < 0.05.

Results: The study included a total of 838 respondents with a response rate of 99.7%. The prevalence of hypertension was found to be 189 (22.6%) (95% confidence interval = 19.9%-25.2%). Of this, 108 (12.9%) and 81 (9.7%) of female and male were hypertensive, respectively. Age groups of 30-44 years (adjusted odds ratio = 2.65 (1.43, 4.89)), 45-59 years (adjusted odds ratio = 3.55 (1.79, 7.04)), above 60 years (adjusted odds ratio = 2.97 (1.43, 6.18)), having history of alcohol consumption (adjusted odds ratio = 4.29 (2.4, 7.66)), involving in vigorous physical activity (adjusted odds ratio = 0.096 (0.028, 0.33)), not walking to and from the work (adjusted odds ratio = 13.12 (8.34, 20.67)), being overweight (adjusted odds ratio = 1.98 (1.21, 3.25)), inadequate fruits serving per day (adjusted odds ratio = 2.93 (1.75, 4.88)) were significantly associated with hypertension.

Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension was found to be high in the study area. Older age, alcohol consumption, not engaging in vigorous activity, physical inactivity, being overweight and inadequate intake of fruits were found to be risk factors for hypertension. Therefore, health care providers should provide extensive health education and promotion on recommended lifestyle modification to tackle the burden of hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/20503121211024519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202320PMC
June 2021

Magnitude and predictors of poor glycemic control among patients with diabetes attending public hospitals of Western Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(2):e0247634. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Pediatrics and Neonatal Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Diabetes is one of the most prevalent non-communicable diseases globally, which rapidly is increasing in developing countries. Ethiopia is also facing growing morbidity and mortality related to diabetes complications. Thus, dealing with glycemic control is essential for controlling the development of devastating acute and chronic complications related to diabetes. Therefore, this study aims to assess the magnitude and predictors of poor glycemic control among diabetic patients in western Ethiopia.

Methods: The cross-sectional study design was employed on a sample of 423 diabetic patients. A systematic random sampling method was employed. An interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used. The data entered into Epi data version 3.1 and exported into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences window version 24 for analysis. All variables significant at p-<0.25 in bivariate were entered into multivariate analysis. The multivariable logistic regressions were used to determine predictors' poor glycemic control by considering the Adjusted Odds Ratio at CI 95% and the significance level was set at p <0.05.

Results: The magnitude of poor glycemic control was 64.1%. Being females (AOR = 1.684,95%CI = 1.066,2.662), duration of diabetes >8years (AOR = 2.552,95%CI = 1.397, 4.665), presence of diabetes complication (AOR = 2.806,95%CI = 1.594,4.941), negligence of blood glucose test at home (AOR = 1.720, 95%CI = 1.078, 2.743), poor self-care behavior (AOR = 1.787, 95%CI = 1.083,2.959) and poor self-efficacy (AOR = 1.934, 95%CI = 1.078,3.469) were significant predictors of poor glycemic control.

Conclusion: The proportion of poor glycemic control was high which was nearly comparable to that reported from many countries. This could be due to factors that were significantly associated with poor glycemic control like lack of home blood glucose test, increased duration of diabetes, presence of diabetes complications, poor self-efficacy, and poor self-care behaviors. Each were significant independent predictors of poor glycemic control. Thus, we recommend patients with diabetes and health care providers enhancing self-monitoring practices, and preventing potential complications should be a priority concern to improve blood glucose levels. Further studies are also recommended to explore important factors which were not identified by the current study.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247634PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906479PMC
August 2021

Determinants of preterm birth among women delivered in public hospitals of Western Ethiopia, 2020: Unmatched case-control study.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(1):e0245825. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Worldwide, preterm birth accounts for 1 million deaths of infants each year and 60% of these deaths occur in developing countries. In addition to the significant health consequences on the infant, preterm birth can lead to economic costs. There was a lack of study in western Ethiopia, and most of those studies conducted in other parts of a country were based on card review with a cross-sectional study design. The risk factors of preterm birth may vary from region to region within the same country due to variation in socioeconomic status and health care service coverage. Therefore, this study aimed to identify determinants of preterm birth in western Ethiopia.

Methods: An institutional-based case-control study was conducted from February 15 to April 15, 2020, in western Ethiopia. The eligible 188 cases and 377 controls were randomly selected for this study. Cases were women who gave birth after 28 weeks and before 37 completed weeks of gestation, and controls were women who gave birth at and after 37 weeks of gestation from the first day of the last normal menstrual period. Data were collected by a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The collected data were entered into Epi info version 7 and exported to SPSS version 21 for analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify determinants of preterm birth at P-value <0.05.

Results: From a total of 565 eligible participants, 516 (172 cases and 344 controls) participated in this study with a response rate of 91.3%. The result of the multivariable analysis shows that mothers who developed pregnancy-induced hypertension (AOR = 3.13, 95% CI; 1.78, 5.50), only one time ANC visits (AOR = 5.99, 95% CI; 2.65, 13.53), experienced premature rupture of membrane (AOR = 3.57, 95% CI; 1.79, 7.13), birth interval less than two years (AOR = 2.96, 95% CI; 1.76, 4.98), developed anemia during the current pregnancy (AOR = 4.20, 95% CI; 2.13, 8.28) and didn't get dietary supplementation during the current pregnancy (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI; 1.51, 3.91) had statistically significant association with experiencing preterm birth.

Conclusion: Antenatal care service providers should focus on mothers with pregnancy-induced hypertension, premature rupture of membrane, and anemia during pregnancy, and refer to the senior experts for early management to reduce the risk of preterm delivery. Antenatal care services such as counseling the mother on the benefit of dietary supplementation during pregnancy, antenatal care follow up, and lengthening birth interval should be integrated into the existing health extension packages. New and inclusive strategies such as the establishment of comprehensive mobile clinic services should also be designed to reduce the burden of preterm birth among women living in the rural community. Lastly, we recommend future researchers to conduct longitudinal and community-based studies supplemented with qualitative methods.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245825PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833256PMC
June 2021

Postpartum modern contraception utilization and its determinants in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2020 14;15(12):e0243776. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Institutes of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Contraceptive use is the best and most cost-effective strategy to reduce feto-maternal adverse effects of short birth intervals. More than two-thirds of women in developing countries who do not want to conceive are not using contraception methods. Although there were various primary studies in different parts of the country, there is no nationally representative evidence on postpartum modern contraception utilization and its determinants in Ethiopia.

Objective: This review was aimed to determine the best available pieces of evidence to pool the magnitude of postpartum modern contraception utilization and find out its determinants.

Methods: Published studies were extensively searched by using electronic databases and unpublished studies were identified from the digital library. All observational studies conducted on the magnitude of postpartum modern contraception utilization and its determinants in Ethiopia were included. Data were extracted on the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using STATA 14.1 version. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled magnitude of postpartum modern contraception utilization with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Inverse variance (I2) was used to identify the presence of heterogeneity and forest plot was used to estimate the pooled magnitude of postpartum contraception utilization. The presence of publication bias was assessed by funnel plots and Egger's statistical tests. Sub-group analysis was computed to minimize underlying heterogeneity.

Findings: In this review, 19 primary studies were included. The pooled magnitude of postpartum modern contraception utilization in Ethiopia was 45.79% (95%CI 36.45%, 55.13%). The review found that having more than four Antenatal care visits(ANC), having postnatal care visit (PNC), having a formal education, history of family planning use, history of counseling on family planning, and having greater than four alive children as significant determinants of postpartum modern contraception utilization.

Conclusion: The magnitude of postpartum modern contraception utilization in Ethiopia was low. ANC visit, PNC visit, maternal educational status, history of previous family planning use, counseling on family planning, and number of alive children were found to be significant determinants of postpartum modern contraception utilization. Therefore, strengthening focused ANC and PNC services to encourage women in utilizing modern contraception during the postnatal period is needed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243776PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735615PMC
February 2021

Fertility desire and associated factors among people living with HIV in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Arch Public Health 2020 Nov 23;78(1):123. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Public health, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Increased Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) coverage improves health status and the survival of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as a result, reproductive health needs of the clients are increased. As part of continuum HIV care, understanding fertility desire and reproductive health care needs of HIV positive peoples will play paramount role in planning and delivering appropriate health services. The finding of studies conducted on the fertility desire and associated factors among People Living with HIV in Ethiopia presented inconclusive. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the pooled prevalence of fertility desire and associated factors among people living with HIV in Ethiopia.

Methods: A total of 26 studies conducted in Ethiopia were included in this Meta-analysis. Pub Med, HINARI, Google scholar and Google data bases were searched. Data from the included articles were extracted using a standardized data extraction tool. The included studies were analyzed using a random effects meta-analysis model. Analysis was done Using STATA version 14 statistical software. Heterogeneity was assessed statistically using the standard Chi-square, I The association between fertility desire and factors were examined using a random effects model.

Result: In this meta-analysis, the pooled prevalence of fertility desire in Ethiopia is 42.21% (95%CI 39.18, 45.25). Fertility desire is significantly associated with sex: being female (OR = 0.71,95%CI 0.57,0.86), partners desire (OR = 16.8, 95% CI: 9.45, 29.88), not having child (OR = 5.46 95%CI 4.24, 7.040), age < 30(OR = 2.34, 95%CI 2.10, 2.60), formal education (OR = 1.31 95%CI 1.09, 1.59)). However, use of family planning, residence, and Knowledge on Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission and disclosure status didn't show association with fertility desire.

Conclusion: In this finding, significant people of living with HIV have a desire to have a child. The finding showed the need to strengthen fertility desire and reproductive health care needs of HIV positive peoples. Therefore, strengthening the integration of fertility related issues with HIV continuum care will play a paramount role in averting risky sexual behaviors and Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission among peoples on ART.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13690-020-00504-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685622PMC
November 2020

The magnitude of adherence to option B plus program and associated factors among women in eastern African countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Public Health 2020 Nov 27;20(1):1812. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Public Health, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Despite coverage and benefits associated with the prevention of mothers to child transmission (PMTCT) services, mothers' adherence to option B plus is still a challenge. Though few primary studies are available on the magnitude of adherence to option B plus and factors associated in Eastern African countries, they do not provide strong evidence in helping policymakers to address suboptimal adherence to option B plus. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was intended to estimate the pooled magnitude of adherence to option B plus program and associated factors among women in Eastern African countries.

Methods: PubMed, Medline, HINARI, Cochrane library, the Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for studies reported on the magnitude of adherence to option B plus among women in Eastern African countries. The search terms used were "option B plus", "magnitude", "prevalence", "PMTCT", "ART adherence", "associated factors", "all lists of Eastern African countries" and their combination by Boolean operators. The effect sizes of the meta-analysis were the magnitude of adherence to option B plus and the odds ratio of the associated factors. STATA/SE V14 was used for statistical analysis, and publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger's test.

Results: Fourteen studies having total participants of 4883 were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Using the random effect model, the pooled prevalence of adherence to option B plus was 71.88% (95% CI: 58.54-85.23%). The factors associated with good adherence to option B plus PMTCT program were partner support (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 4.13; 95% CI: 2.78-6.15), received counseling services (AOR = 4.12, 95% CI: 2.81-6.02), disclosure of HIV status to partner (AOR = 4.38; 95% CI: 1.79-10.70), and clinical stage of HIV/AIDS I/II (AOR = 2.62; 95% CI: 1.53-4.46).

Conclusion: The level of adherence to option B plus program in Eastern African countries was generally sub-optimal. Thus, a coordinated effort is needed to raise the number of mothers to be tested, and early treatment initiation for HIV positive mothers before the disease advances. Furthermore, counseling services for couples on the importance of early treatment initiation and adherence to medications must be given due attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09903-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693523PMC
November 2020

Predictors of Adherence to Self-Care Behavior Among Patients with Diabetes at Public Hospitals in West Ethiopia.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2020 18;13:3277-3288. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Diabetes is a typical chronic disease that needs integrated and multifaceted approaches. Self-care practices are fundamental to achieve good blood glucose control and prevent long-term complications. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the level and predictors of adherence to self-care behavior among patients with diabetes on follow-up at public hospitals of western Ethiopia.

Patients And Methods: The cross-sectional study design was employed on a sample of 423 diabetic patients on follow-up at public hospitals of western Ethiopia. A systematic random sampling method was employed. The data were entered into Epi data version 3.1 and exported into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences window version 24 for analysis. All variables significant at p-value <0.05 in the bivariable were entered in multivariate regression analysis. Backward stepwise goodness of fit was used to ascertain the suitable variables in multiple linear regression analysis. Finally, multivariate linear regression analysis with adjusted B, CI at 95%, and the significance level was set at p <0.05. All predictive variables were reported in terms of adjusted R2.

Results: The overall mean and standard deviation of adherence to self-care behavior was 23.09 ±6.55. Among the study participants, 42.70% had good self-care behavior. Self-efficacy (B=0.106, p<0.001), home blood glucose test (B=0.075, p<0.001), exercise per week (0.035, P<0.002), meal planning (B=0.039, P<0.001), dietary restriction (B=0.077, P<0.001), duration of diabetes<4 years (B=0.030, P<0.013), non-pharmacological intervention (B=0.055, P<0.011), and good appetite (B=0.039, P<0.045) were significant variables associated with adherence to self-care behaviors.

Conclusion: The overall level of adherence to self-care behavior was low. Therefore, we recommended that it is better if the national health policymaker focused on dietary management modality that engages patients' behavior change to develop self-care practices and closely monitoring of glucose level. Also, we recommended an additional longitudinal study incorporating a qualitative study that focused on behavioral changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S266589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7520154PMC
September 2020

Perceived Self-Efficacy and Associated Factors Among Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at Public Hospitals of Western Ethiopia, 2020.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2020 24;14:1689-1698. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Public Health, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease and can be self-managed using five treatment approaches, including education, medical nutrition therapy, physical exercise, pharmacological intervention, and blood sugar monitoring. Improvement of patient compliance and self-efficacy are critical points that impact the self-care behavior in patients with type two diabetes mellitus in order to limit the morbidity and promote glycemic control. Therefore, the present study successfully assesses the effect of perceived self-efficacy and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus at public hospitals of western Ethiopia.

Methods: The cross-sectional study design was employed on a sample of 423 diabetic patients. A systematic random sampling method was employed. An interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used. The data entered into Epi data version 3.1 and exported into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences window version 24 for analysis. All variables significant at p <0.25 in bivariate were entered into multivariate analysis. The multivariable logistic regressions were used to determine factors associated with perceived self-efficacy by considering adjusted odds ratio at CI 95% and the significance level was set at p <0.05.

Results: Out of 423 participants sampled, 398 participated in the study giving a response rate of 94.1%. The level of perceived good self-efficacy among diabetes patients was 52.5%. Being married (AOR=1.611, 95% CI = 1.003, 2.587), home blood glucose test (AOR=3.359, 95% CI = 1.912,5.903), doing exercise (AOR=11.412, 95% CI = 2.488,52.346), having good appetite (AOR=2.587, 95% CI = 1.454,4.606), having special diet (AOR=4.902, 95% CI= 1.202, 19.992), and good self-care behavior (AOR=10.320, 95% CI= 5.657, 18.824) were significantly associated with good self-efficacy.

Conclusion: The level of perceived self-efficacy was high. Home blood glucose tests, good self-care behavior, married, doing exercise, good appetite, having a special diet were significantly associated with high perceived self-efficacy. The national policymaker focused on patients' behavioral change to develop perceived self-efficacy for confidently managing the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S275887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7522517PMC
September 2020

Magnitude of Needlestick and Sharp Injury and Its Associated Factors Among Nurses Working at Health Institutions in Western Ethiopia, 2020.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2020 15;13:1589-1602. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Oromia Regional Health Bureau, Nekemte Health Center, Nekemte Town, Ethiopia.

Background: Needlestick and sharp injury represent a major occupational hazard in the healthcare environment with nurses experiencing a large proportion of the burden. It is a potential for transmission of bloodborne pathogens including the human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C virus. Needlestick and sharp injuries are neglected and are often not reported. Few studies have been conducted in Ethiopia, and no study was conducted particularly in the Western part of a country. Therefore, this study aimed to assess needlestick and sharp injuries and associated factors among nurses working at health institutions in western Ethiopia, 2020.

Methods: An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on 297 nurses, from January 15 to 30, 2020. The study participants were selected by a simple random sampling method and data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associated factors of needlestick and sharp injury. The association between needle stick and sharp injury and associated factors were measured using the odds ratio at a 95% confidence interval. The statistical significance was made at a p-value of less than 0.05.

Results: Out of 297 nurses who participated in the study, 100 (33.7%) had encountered needlestick and sharp injury in the past 12 months. Recapping the needle (AOR=3.99 95% CI: 2.20, 7.21), non-utilization of infection prevention guideline (AOR= 2.69, 95% CI: 1.29, 5.60), not taking injection safety training (AOR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.22, 4.13) and having job-related stress (AOR= 1.93, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.41) were significantly associated with the needlestick and sharp injury.

Conclusion: In this study, the magnitude of needlestick and the sharp injury was high. The nurse should not recap the needles, should utilize infection prevention guidelines, should minimize stress, and routine injection safety training should be given to minimize needlestick and sharp injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S254641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7501985PMC
September 2020

Food Insecurity among People Living with HIV/AIDS on ART Follower at Public Hospitals of Western Ethiopia.

Int J Food Sci 2020 25;2020:8825453. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Food insecurity and HIV/AIDS are intertwined in a vicious cycle through nutritional, mental health, and behavioral pathways. Food insecurity is a potentially important barrier to the success of antiretroviral treatment, increased hospitalizations, and higher morbidity among HIV-infected individuals in resource-poor settings particularly in sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS on follow up at public hospitals of western Ethiopia.

Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study design was conducted on a sample of 428 among people living with HIV/AIDS on follow up at public hospitals of western Ethiopia. A systematic random sampling technique was used to include all participants. Data was collected using interviewer-administered structured questionnaires. The data were entered into Epi data version 3.1 and then exported into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences window version 21 for analysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed. Bivariable logistic and multivariable logistic analyses were used with AOR at CI 95% and < 0.05 were used.

Result: The finding of the study revealed that the majority of the respondents 221(53.1%) were female. The mean age of the respondents was 32.92 ± 7.304 years and 197 (47.4%) of the study participants were between 30 to 39 years' age group. The level of food insecurity among PLWHA receiving ART therapy was 68.8% which was partitioned as mild (23.32%), moderate (29.09%), and severe (16.35%) food in secured. Being single [AOR = 3.507(1.377, 8.934)], illiterate [AOR = 5.234(1.747, 15.686)], cigarette smoking [AOR = 3.577(2.104, 6.081)], presence of anemia (AOR = 2.650(1.563, 4.493)], and inadequate dietary diversity [AOR = 2.870(1.088, 7.569)] were predictors of food insecurity.

Conclusion: The prevalence of food insecurity was high. Educational status, marital status, cigarette smoking, presence of anemia, opportunistic infection, and inadequate dietary diversity were the major significant factors affecting food insecurity. We recommended a national health policy maker to integrate food and nutrition interventions as part of a package of care, treatment, and support services for people living with HIV and ART follower patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8825453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7416256PMC
July 2020

Adherence to Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment Among Pediatric Patients at Nekemte Specialized Hospital, Western Ethiopia.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2020 24;14:1259-1265. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Institute of Health Science, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Non-adherence to tuberculosis treatment is the most challenging and hindering factor for successful tuberculosis therapy. The long duration of tuberculosis treatment and the undesirable effects of anti-tuberculosis drugs result in non-adherence to treatment among pediatric patients. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate pediatrics adherence status among tuberculosis pediatric patients on anti-tuberculosis treatment at Nekemte Specialized Hospital.

Methods: A health facility-based cross-sectional study design was used to recruit pediatric TB patients who were receiving their treatment between February 15 and March 15, 2019. Adherence to tuberculosis therapy was evaluated using data obtained from face-to-face interviews of their respective caregivers. The collected data were entered into EPI-manager 4.0.2 software and analyzed using SPSS version 24. Logistic regression was used to analyze the variables and variables with p-value <0.05 had a statistically significant association with the adherence to anti TB treatment.

Results: Among 202 participants involved in the study, 120 (59.4%) of them were males and 119 (58.9%) were in the age category of 11-15 years. A total of 166 (82.2%) of the patients had extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and 174 (86.1%) of them were in the intensive phase. Of the pediatric tuberculosis patients, 48 (73.3%) of them have adhered to the treatment regimen. Female gender [AOR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.52-7.2], younger age (0-5 years) [AOR: 5.96 95% CI: 1.81-19.6], living in urban area [AOR: 3.73, 95% CI: 1.67-8.36], and patients who did not experience side effect [AOR: 2.87, 95% CI: 1.41-5.81] were predictors of good adherence to tuberculosis treatment up on multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Conclusion: The level of adherence observed in our study area was low. Age, sex, residence, and side effect experience showed an association with tuberculosis treatment adherence. Therefore, health care providers should educate all patients with tuberculosis before the initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S258292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7386810PMC
July 2020

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and associated factors among Human immunodeficiency virus positive patients accessing treatment at Nekemte referral hospital, west Ethiopia, 2019.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(5):e0232703. Epub 2020 May 11.

School of Nursing and midwifery, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Antiretroviral therapy has a remarkable clinical effect in reducing the progress of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. The clinical outcome of Anti-Retroviral therapy depends on strict adherence. Poor adherence reduces the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy and increases viral replication. With changes in service delivery over time and differences in socio-demographic status from region to region, it is essential to measure adherence. Therefore, this study aimed to assess adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients accessing treatment at Nekemte referral hospital, West Ethiopia.

Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on 311 HIV/AIDS patients from March 01 to March 30, 2019. The study participants were selected by a simple random sampling method and interviewed using structured questionnaires. Bivariable logistic regression was conducted to find an association between each independent variable and adherence to antiretroviral medication. Multivariable logistic regression was used to find the independent variables which best predict adherence. The statistical significance was measured using odds ratio at a 95% confidence interval with a p-value of less than 0.05.

Results: Out of a total of 311 patients sampled, 305 were participated in the study, making a response rate of 98.07%. From these 305 study participants,73.1% (95% CI = 68.2, 78.0) were adherent to their medication. Having knowledge about HIV and its treatment (AOR = 8.24, 95% CI: 3.10, 21.92), having strong family/social support (AOR = 6.21, 95% CI: 1.39, 27.62), absence of adverse drug reaction (AOR = 5.33, 95% CI: 1.95, 14.57), absence of comorbidity of other chronic diseases (AOR = 5.72, 95% CI: 1.91, 17.16) and disclosing HIV status to the family (AOR = 5.08, 95% CI: 2.09, 12.34) were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of adherence to antiretroviral medication.

Conclusion: The level of adherence to antiretroviral therapy was found low compared to WHO recommendation. The clinician should emphasize reducing adverse drug reaction, detecting and treating co-morbidities early, improving knowledge through health education, and encouraging the patients to disclose their HIV status to their families.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232703PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7213685PMC
July 2020

Magnitude and Determinants of Uncontrolled Blood Pressure Among Adult Hypertensive Patients on Follow-Up at Nekemte Referral Hospital, Western Ethiopia.

Integr Blood Press Control 2020 21;13:49-61. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Nursing, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopa.

Background: Hypertension is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among non-communicable diseases. The rate of blood pressure (BP) control among hypertensive patients is poor and the reasons for poor control of BP remain poorly understood globally. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the magnitude and determinants of uncontrolled blood pressure among adult hypertensive patients on follow-up at Nekemte referral hospital (NRH).

Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2018 at NRH. BP control status was determined by the average consecutive BP recordings across the 3 months. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 and p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Out of 297 study participants included, the majority were females, 181 (60.9%), and the mean age of the patients was 59.4 ±10.4 years. About half, 137 (46.12%), of the patients had at least one comorbidity and the most common class of anti-hypertensive medication was angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (88.2%). The mean of systolic blood pressure was 132.41± 15.61mmHg, while the mean of diastolic blood pressure was 84.37± 9.32 mmHg. The proportion of participants with optimally controlled BP was 63.6% and 36% were adherent to their medications. Male sex (Adjusted Odd Ratio [AOR]: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.09-4.84), illiteracy (AOR= 1.56, 95% CI: 1.22-6.78), duration of hypertension diagnosis > 10 years (AOR= 2.01, 95% CI: 1.04-16.11), non-adherence (AOR= 3.14, 95% CI: 1.35-10.76) and lack of physical exercise (AOR= 2.8, 95% CI: 1.16-6.74) were positively associated with uncontrolled BP status. Whereas age older than 55 years (AOR= 0.38, 95% CI: 0.11-0.92) was negatively associated with uncontrolled BP.

Conclusion: BP control was relatively achieved in about two-third of pharmacologically treated patients. We recommend better health education and care of patients to improve the rate of BP control status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IBPC.S245068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183335PMC
April 2020

Adherence to Combined Antiretroviral Therapy and Associated Factors Among People Living with HIV Attending Nekemte Specialized Hospital, Oromia, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2020 9;12:97-106. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Institute of Health Science, Wollega University, Nekemte, Oromia, Ethiopia.

Background: For people living with HIV, to have sustainable viral suppression and better clinical outcomes, they should have a high level of adherence to antiretroviral therapy. In the treatment of human immune deficiency, antiretroviral therapy adherence became the major challenge in both developed and developing countries. The level of antiretroviral therapy differs across the settings. This study aimed to assess the level of combined ART adherence and associated factors among adult people living with HIV attending Nekemte Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia.

Methods: The institution-based cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted from August 2017 to September 2017. A total number of 284 clients participated in the study and a simple random sampling technique was used to allocate study participants. Data were entered into Excel and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate analysis was conducted to identify candidate variables for multivariate analysis at p-value <0.2. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the predictors of non-adherence to ART. P-value <0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.

Results: About 81% of the study participants adhered to combined anti-retroviral therapy. Mentioned reasons for missing ART medications were simply forgot to take medication (44.4%), lack of transportation (21%), to avoid side effects (11.4%), do not want significant others to notice taking medication (11.4%) and felt sick (11.4%). Not using reminder (AOR=4.98 (1.65, 15.02)), poor knowledge on ART (AOR=2.79 (1.49, 5.25)), and engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse (AOR=2.16 (1.15, 4.05)) were significantly associated with non-adherence to combined ART.

Conclusion: About 81% of study participants adhered to combined ART, and poor knowledge about ART, engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse and not using the reminder were significantly associated with nonadherence to combined ART. Efforts to increase adherence levels should be encouraged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S239995DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071940PMC
March 2020

Health-related quality of life and associated factors among epileptic patients on treatment follow up at public hospitals of Wollega zones, Ethiopia, 2018.

BMC Res Notes 2019 Oct 22;12(1):679. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess health-related quality of life and its associated factors among epileptic patients in public hospitals of Wollega zones, Ethiopia. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on 402 epileptic patients, from March 01 to March 30, 2018. Multiple linear regression with backward elimination was used, and all analyses were conducted at the 0.05 significance level.

Results: The overall mean total score on the WHOQOL-BREF scale was 60.47 with ± 23.07 SD. Monthly income ≤ 500 EB (β = - 12.49, P < 0.001), living alone (β = - 7.11, P = 0.007), adverse drug reaction (β = - 10.86, P < 0.001), comorbidity of anxiety (β = - 12.99, P < 0.001), perceived social stigma (β = - 9.73, P < 0.001) and frequency of seizure once per week (β = - 8.41, P = 0.001) were negatively associated with quality of life of epileptic patients. The mean quality of life of patients living with epilepsy in this study was low. The clinician should early recognize and treat drug side effects, detect and manage comorbidity, and control seizure in order to increase quality of life of epileptic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4720-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6805515PMC
October 2019

Relationship between nurses' perception of ethical climates and job satisfaction in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Oromia region, south west Ethiopia.

BMC Nurs 2019 29;18:39. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

1School of Nursing and midwifery, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: The ethical climate is one aspect of an organization which refers to the shared perceptions of ethically correct behaviors and way of handling ethically deviated behaviors. Increased awareness of the complexity of ethical issues in the health care setting has fueled interest in nursing ethics. However; there is limited information on the relationship between nurses' perception of ethical climate and job satisfaction globally and no study was done on this issue particularly in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the relationship between nurses' perception of ethical climates and job satisfaction in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, southwest Ethiopia, 2016.

Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on 266 nurses in Jimma University Specialized Hospital from March to April 2016. The study participants were invited by using simple random sampling method. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and were entered into Epidata 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the correlation between each dimension of the hospital ethical climate and job satisfaction of nurses. Variables significant at bivariate analysis ( < 0.25) were considered as a candidate for the multivariable linear regression analysis. All analyses were conducted at the 0.05 significance level.

Results: The percentage mean score for ethical climate and job satisfaction were 53.4 and 51.3% respectively. Law and code climate significantly influenced job satisfaction (β = 1.53,  = 0.000). Caring climate also significantly influenced nurses job satisfaction (β = 0.99,  = 0.000). The result also showed that an independence climate significantly influenced job satisfaction (β = 0.62,  = 0.041). On the other hand, rule climate and instrumental climate did not significantly affect job satisfaction (β = 0.380,  = 0.409 and β = - 0.208,  = 0.290 respectively). The adjusted R square was 0.601, indicating that 60.1% of the variations in job satisfactions was explained by ethical climate variables.

Conclusion: The different dimensions of ethical climates have a negative or positive impact on nurses' job satisfaction and maintaining a positive ethical climate is key to increasing nurses' job satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12912-019-0365-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6716886PMC
August 2019

Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes among stroke patients hospitalized to Nekemte referral hospital, western Ethiopia.

J Clin Neurosci 2020 Jan 27;71:170-176. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

School of Pharmacy, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Objectives: Stroke is the brain equivalent of a heart attack. It is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and is a prominent cause of death, disability and dementia in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes among hospitalized stroke patients at Nekemte referral hospital (NRH).

Patients And Methods: Retrospective cross sectional study design was conducted on randomly selected stroke patients admitted to medical wards of NRH from 2013 to 2017.

Results: Among 364 patients included in the study, 208 (57.1%) were males and the mean age of the patients was 59.66 ± 13.4 years. Regarding types of stroke, 192 (52.7%) were diagnosed as having ischemic stroke. During admission 132 (36.3%) patients complained left side body weakness (hemiparesis) and the major risk factor identified was hypertension 230 (63.2%). Overall, 65.4% of patients had poor outcome while 34.6% of patients had good out comes (improved). Being illiterate /unable to read and write (AOR = 3.94, 95% CI: 1.31-11.76, P = 0.01), attending secondary school (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.4-9.17, P = 0.007) and length of hospital stay >5 days (AOR = 2, 95% CI: 1.04-3.86, P = 0.037) were independent predictors of poor treatment outcome.

Conclusion: About two third of the patients had poor treatment outcome. Educational status and mean length of hospital stays were independent predictors of poor treatment out-comes. An emergency care setup capable of early patient evaluation, identification and management of stroke complications is crucial to overcome early stroke related mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2019.08.075DOI Listing
January 2020

Risky sexual behavior and associated factors among antiretroviral therapy attendees in Nekemte Referral Hospital, Western Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2018 10;10:125-131. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: HIV/AIDS remains a major public health problem. Practice of risky sexual behaviors is the major effective driver of the HIV epidemic among HIV-positive individuals. This behavior exposes their partners to HIV, and for those that are already positive it exposes them to a risk of suprainfection by other strains.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and associated factors among people living with HIV attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic at Nekemte Referral Hospital.

Methods: An institution-based based cross-sectional study was conducted at the ART clinic of Nekemte Referral Hospital from March to April 2016. A total of 337 people living with HIV on ART for at least 3 months were selected by consecutive sampling technique. Data were collected through face-to-face interview. Data were entered into Epi-data Version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Variables significant on bivariate logistic regression analysis at <0.25 were considered as candidates for the multivariable logistic regression analysis, and statistical significance was set at <0.05.

Results: Approximately one third (32.9%) of the study participants were engaged in risky sexual behavior in the past 3 months prior to the study. Having multiple sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =6.38, 95% CI: 1.65, 24.74), being with a positive sero-status partner (AOR =2.68, 95% CI: 1.31, 5.5), not disclosing sero-status (AOR =5.99, 95% CI: 1.36, 26.35), having a desire for a child (AOR =2.6, 95% CI: 1.5, 4.51), having experience of perceived stigma (AOR =2.63, 95% CI: 1.5, 4.62), and lack of education on importance of protecting self from strain (AOR =5.64, 95% CI: 3.19, 9.96) were significantly associated with risky sexual behavior.

Conclusion And Recommendation: The prevalence of risky sexual behavior was high, and approximately one third of study participants were engaged in risky sexual behavior. Efforts to increase awareness through health education and counseling are highly recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S159670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6044365PMC
July 2018
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