Publications by authors named "Get Bee Yvonne-Tee"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Pilot study and bioinformatics analysis of differentially expressed genes in adipose tissues of rats with excess dietary intake.

Mol Med Rep 2020 May 4;21(5):2063-2072. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

Excessive adipose tissue accumulation is an increasing health problem worldwide. The present study aimed to determine differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that are associated with the excessive accumulation of adipose tissues by PCR arrays in an excess dietary intake animal model. For this purpose, male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 2 groups: Control (given an ordinary diet) and experimental (given twice the amount of the ordinary diet). After 2 months of feeding, the abdominal cavities of the rats from each group were opened, then subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were removed. The adipose tissues collected were then used for total RNA extraction and then reverse transcribed to cDNA, which was then used as a template to identify the DEGs of 84 transcripts for rat obesity by RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays. The results showed significant downregulation of bombesin‑like receptor 3 (BRS3) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in visceral adipose tissues of experimental rats compared with those of the control rats, and differential gene expression analysis showed an association with fat cell differentiation and regulation of triglyceride sequestration, as well as fatty acid binding. The gene expression patterns observed in the present study, which may be associated with peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor‑γ (PPARG) on excessive visceral adipose tissue accumulation, may be useful in identifying a group of surrogate biomarkers for the early diet‑induced accumulation of visceral adipose tissue detection in humans. The biomarkers can also be the specific targets for drug development to reduce excessive visceral adipose tissue accumulation in the body and its associated diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.11012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115215PMC
May 2020

Alcohol Addiction- Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 5 and its Ligands: How They All Come Together?

Curr Drug Targets 2018 ;19(8):907-915

Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

In the past decade, many studies have highlighted the role of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) modulators in attenuating alcohol-related biological effects such as alcohol consumption, alcohol-seeking and relapse-like behaviors. Taken together, these findings suggest that pharmacological agents acting at mGlu5 could be promising tools in curbing inebriation. mGlu5s are present abundantly in brain regions known to be involved in emotion regulation, motivation and drug administration. On a cellular level, they are primarily located at the postsynaptic part of the neuron where the receptor is functionally linked to various downstream proteins that are involved in cell signaling and gene transcription that mediate the alcohol-induced neuroplasticity. As well, the discovery of a functional link between mGlu5 and a specific isozyme, Protein Kinase C epsilon (PKCε) in mediating the attenuating effects of selective negative allosteric modulators of mGlu5 such as methyl- 6(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) and 3-((2-methyl-4-thiazolyl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP) has sparked interesting speculations. In this article, we shall review the following: the effects of acute and chronic alcohol intake on mGlu5 signaling; the effects of mGlu5 ligands on alcohol-related neurobehavioral changes that are currently being studied both at pre-clinical and clinical stages; and the mechanisms underlying the pharmacological effects of these drugs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389450118666170511144302DOI Listing
October 2019

The effects of acute ethanol administration on ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like syndrome in rats: A biochemical study.

Alcohol 2016 Feb 14;50:9-17. Epub 2015 Nov 14.

BRAINetwork Centre for Neurocognitive Science, School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Withdrawal from long-term ethanol consumption results in overexcitation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the amygdala, which induces an anxiety-like syndrome. Most alcoholics that suffer from such symptoms frequently depend on habitual drinking as self-medication to alleviate their symptoms. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) and protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon have been reported to mediate acute and chronic effects of ethanol. This study explores the changes in mGlu5 and PKC epsilon in the amygdala following acute administration of ethanol during ethanol withdrawal (EW) induced anxiety. Male Wistar rats were fed a modified liquid diet containing low-fat cow milk, sucrose, and maltodextrin, with a gradual introduction of 2.4%, 4.8% and 7.2% ethanol for 20 days. Six hours into EW, the rats were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline and ethanol (2.5 g/kg, 20% v/v), and exposed to open-field and elevated plus maze tests. Then, amygdala tissue was dissected from the rat brain for Western blot and gene expression studies. EW-induced anxiety was accompanied by a significant increase in mGlu5, total PKC epsilon, and phosphorylated PKC epsilon protein levels, and also of mRNA of mGlu5 (GRM5) in the amygdala. Acute administration of ethanol significantly attenuated EW-induced anxiety as well as an EW-induced increase in GRM5. The acute challenge of ethanol to EW rats had little effect on the phosphorylated and total protein levels of PKC epsilon in the amygdala. Our results demonstrate that amygdala PKC epsilon may not be directly involved in the development of anxiety following EW.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.10.001DOI Listing
February 2016

Systemic and coronary levels of CRP, MPO, sCD40L and PlGF in patients with coronary artery disease.

BMC Res Notes 2015 Nov 14;8:679. Epub 2015 Nov 14.

School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: Biomarkers play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and management of patients with acute coronary syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the differences in level of several biomarkers, i.e. C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, soluble CD40 ligand and placental growth factor, between acute coronary syndrome and chronic stable angina patients. The relationship between these biomarkers in the coronary circulation and systemic circulation was also investigated.

Methods: A total of 79 patients were recruited in this study. The coronary blood was sampled from occluded coronary artery, while the peripheral venous blood was withdrawn from antecubital fossa. The serum concentrations of C-reactive protein, soluble CD40 ligand and placental growth factor and plasma concentration of myeloperoxidase were measured using ELISA method.

Results: The systemic level of the markers measured in the peripheral venous blood was significantly increased in acute coronary syndrome compared to chronic stable angina patients. The concentrations of the C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase and soluble CD40 ligand taken from peripheral vein were closely similar to the concentration found in coronary blood of ACS patients. The level of placental growth factor was significantly higher in coronary circulation than its systemic level.

Conclusion: The concentration of these C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, soluble CD40 ligand and placental growth factor were significantly increased in acute coronary syndrome patients. The concentration of the markers measured in the systemic circulation directly reflected those in the local coronary circulation. Thus, these markers have potential to become a useful tool in predicting plaque vulnerability in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1677-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4650203PMC
November 2015

Method optimization on the use of postocclusive hyperemia model to assess microvascular function.

Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2008 ;38(2):119-33

Department of Biomedicine, School of Health Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Malaysia.

Introduction: Recent development had allowed non-invasive assessment of microvascular function in vivo; however, the method has not been fully optimized and standardized. In this study, we aimed to characterize the "effective" occlusion duration needed to elicit sufficient postocclusive hyperemia (PORH) responses in forearm skin using laser Doppler fluximetry (LDF), in subjects with differing age, gender and menstrual phases.

Materials And Methods: A total of 120 healthy subjects were studied (20 subjects each in the age ranges of 21-30, 31-40, 41-50 for both genders). Male subjects were randomized to receive 1, 2 or 3 min occlusion on three study days. Females attended six study days: the first three days (with different occlusion times) were performed during low estrogenic phase of menstrual cycle and subsequent three visits were done during high estrogenic phase. Skin perfusion was measured before, during and after occlusion using LDF. The magnitude and temporal courses of PORH were expressed as PORH max (absolute maximal increase in hyperemia perfusion) and Tp (time-to-peak), respectively.

Results: For PORH max analysis, the occlusion duration should be applied based on one's age, gender and menstrual phase. The PORH responses were more consistent during high estrogenic phase with 2 min found as the "effective" occlusion duration in all female groups. For Tp analysis, 3 min occlusion produced the significant change in all age ranges for both genders irrespective of menstrual phase.

Conclusion: This study revealed that for assessment of microvascular function using PORH+LDF model, the occlusion duration for PORH max is influenced by age, gender and menstrual phase. Measurement based on Tp is however independent of these factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
March 2008

Noninvasive assessment of cutaneous vascular function in vivo using capillaroscopy, plethysmography and laser-Doppler instruments: its strengths and weaknesses.

Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2006 ;34(4):457-73

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan.

Given that functional abnormalities of the microcirculation are one of the primary abnormalities in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis, various noninvasive clinical tools have been developed recently to assess the microvascular function, particularly at the skin. The common techniques used to assess cutaneous microvascular function in vivo include capillaroscopy, venous occlusion plethysmography, and laser-Doppler instruments (laser-Doppler fluximetry and laser-Doppler imaging). These noninvasive techniques can be used as an early measure of functional abnormalities within the microvascular tree, predominantly in population at high risk for cardiovascular events. This review discusses some underlying application principle of these techniques, including its clinical significance, method reproducibility and limitations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
September 2006

Reproducibility of different laser Doppler fluximetry parameters of postocclusive reactive hyperemia in human forearm skin.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2005 Sep-Oct;52(2):286-92. Epub 2005 Jan 11.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Introduction: Postocclusive reactive hyperemia in forearm skin is a commonly used model for studying microvascular reactivity function, particularly in the assessment of vascular effect of topically applied pharmacological substances. In this study, we investigated the reproducibility of several different laser-Doppler-derived parameters in the measurement of postocclusive reactive hyperemia at forearm skin in healthy subjects.

Methods: Eighteen young healthy male volunteers were recruited and studied in a supine position while fasted. Forearm blood flow was occluded at suprasystolic pressure for 3 min. Microvascular perfusion was measured continuously using laser Doppler fluximetry. Parameters studied were maximum increase in hyperemia perfusion (PORHmax), time-to-peak (Tp), amplitude of peak perfusion (PORHpeak), percentage of hyperemic response (PORH%) and mean velocity of the hyperemia increase (PORHmax/Tp). Measurement was performed twice within each study day for 2 study days. Coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; with 95% confidence interval) were calculated for each parameter. An ICC value above 0.75 was interpreted as "excellent reproducibility".

Results: ICC analysis showed that all studied parameters, except for PORH%, demonstrated excellent reproducibility for both within- and between-day measurements. Satisfactory intraday and interday coefficients of variation (<10%) were also obtained for these parameters.

Conclusion: Laser-Doppler-derived PORHmax, Tp, PORHpeak and PORHmax/Tp were highly reproducible parameters for measuring microvascular reactivity during reactive hyperemia, with PORHmax shown as the most reproducible index. PORH% is, however, less reproducible. These findings have implications for the use of laser Doppler fluximetry coupled with 3-min-occlusion PORHmax as a useful and reliable noninvasive clinical measurement index of microvascular function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vascn.2004.11.003DOI Listing
June 2006

Dependence of human forearm skin postocclusive reactive hyperemia on occlusion time.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2004 Jul-Aug;50(1):73-8

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Introduction: Human postocclusive forearm skin reactive hyperemia is not only a potential means of identifying early signs of cardiovascular diseases, it can also be used in the assessment of local microvascular response to topically applied compounds on skin. The method is not fully characterized. In this study, we investigated the influence of occlusion time on postocclusive forearm skin reactive hyperemia using laser Doppler fluximetry (LDF).

Methods: Twenty healthy male volunteers were studied on three separate days (at least 24 h apart) via a randomized design. Volunteers were studied in a supine position while fasted. Laser Doppler probes were placed on the volar surface of the antebrachium. In preliminary studies, 3 min of upper arm blood flow occlusion at suprasystolic pressure was found to be the upper limit of tolerability. Subsequently, volunteers were randomized to receive 1, 2, or 3 min occlusion on 3 different days. Skin blood flux was measured before, during, and after occlusion using LDF. The primary outcome calculated was maximal change in skin blood flux before and after occlusion, expressed in arbitrary units (AU).

Results: Skin blood flux changes (mean+/-S.E.M.) after 1, 2, and 3 min occlusion period were 15.39+/-1.27 AU, 24.84+/-1.62 AU, and 32.14+/-1.73 AU, respectively. Using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), significant difference (P<.05) in skin blood flux changes were revealed between these three occlusion durations, where 3 min occlusion produced significantly greater in skin blood flux occlusion change compared to 1 and 2 min occlusion.

Discussion: Three minutes of occlusion produces the greater postocclusive reactive hyperemia. It is recommended that studies using postocclusive forearm skin reactive hyperemia should occlude the forearm for at least 3 min.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vascn.2004.02.002DOI Listing
January 2005