Publications by authors named "German Cano-Sancho"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Associations between persistent organic pollutants and endometriosis: A multiblock approach integrating metabolic and cytokine profiling.

Environ Int 2021 Oct 11;158:106926. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

LABERCA, Oniris, INRAE, 44307 Nantes, France. Electronic address:

Humans are exposed daily to complex mixtures of chemical pollutants through their environment and diet, some of which have the potential to disrupt the bodies' natural endocrine functions and contribute to reproductive diseases like endometriosis. Increasing epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the association between endometriosis and certain persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like dioxins; however, little is known about the underlying linking mechanisms. The main objective of this study is to proof the methodological applicability and discovery potential of integrating ultra-trace mass spectrometry (MS) profiling of POP biomarkers and endogenous biomarker profiling (MS metabolomics and cytokines) in a case-control study for the etiological research of endometriosis. The approach is applied in a pilot clinical-based study conducted in France where women with and without surgically confirmed endometriosis were recruited. Serum samples were analysed with high-resolution MS for about 30 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). About 600 serum metabolites and lipids were identified with targeted metabolomics using tandem MS with the Biocrates MxP® Quant 500 Kit. A panel of 4 pro-inflammatory cytokines were analysed using ELISA-based 4-PLEX analyser. Statistical analysis included a battery of variable selection approaches, multivariate logistic regression for single-chemical associations, Bayesian kernel machine regressions (BKMR) to identify mixture effects of POPs and a multiblock approach to identify shared biomarker signatures among high risk clusters. The results showed the positive associations between some POPs and endometriosis risk, including the pesticide trans-nonachlor Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) 3.38 (2.06-5.98), p < 0.0001 and PCB 114 OR (95% CI) 1.83 (1.17-2.93), p = 0.009. The BKMR approach showed a tendency of a positive cumulative effect of the mixture, however trans-nonachlor exhibited significant associations within the mixture and interacted with other PCBs, strengthening the effects at highest concentrations. Finally, the multiblock analysis, relating the various blocks of data, revealed a latent cluster of women with higher risk of endometrioma presenting higher concentrations of trans-nonachlor, PCB 114 and dioxin-like toxic equivalents from PCBs, together with an increased inflammatory profile (i.e. elevated interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). It was also highlighted a specific metabolic pattern characterized by dysregulation of bile acid homeostasis and lipase activity. Further research will be required with larger sample size to confirm these findings and gain insight on the underlying mechanisms between POPs and endometriosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106926DOI Listing
October 2021

Detection of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Omental Adipose Tissue from Patients with Diffuse-Gastric Cancer: A Pilot Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Sep 29;13(19). Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Gastrointestinal Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Assistance Publique/Hôpitaux de Paris, F-75013 Paris, France.

The greater omentum represents a specific adipose tissue resected with gastric surgery for cancer. Diffuse gastric adenocarcinoma (diffuse-GC) is of major relevance among gastric cancers due to its unknown origin, aggressiveness, and metastasis in the peritoneal cavity. We postulated that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) could be detected in the greater omentum. Great omentum from patients with (i) diffuse-GC, or (ii) with other peritoneal metastatic cancer, and (iii) control group without cancer disease were analyzed for the distribution of a large panel of 96 POPs. POPs include polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), hexabromocyclododecanes, organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The widespread presence of a substantial list of POPs (PCDDs/Fs, PCBs, and brominated flame retardants) was found in the omentum from patients with aggressive diffuse-GC, with minor presence of some organochlorine pesticides and PAHs at the low analyzed levels. Some chemicals appeared in larger concentrations in diffuse-GC or other cancer groups, including some PCDDs, PCB105, 123, 138, PBDE209, and PBB153. Overall, the present pilot study provides novel information regarding POPs levels in the omental fat, which is an understudied fat depot in terms of POPs load, and diffuse-GC association.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13194874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8508119PMC
September 2021

Associations between human internal chemical exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) outcomes: Systematic review and evidence map of human epidemiological evidence.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 Oct 10;105:184-197. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

LABERCA, Oniris, INRAE, 44307, Nantes, France. Electronic address:

The impact of environmental chemicals like persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on reproductive health is still poorly understood, despite the high societal and economical costs. The aim of the present study was to systematically review and evaluate the human evidence on the associations between internal levels of POPs and in vitro Fertilization (IVF) outcomes among women. We applied a protocol based on the National Toxicology Program Office of Health Assessment and Translation's guidelines for the study search, selection and quality assessment. Fifteen studies were finally retained in the present work. The results showed that main families of POPs are still pervasive in follicular fluid and serum of women undergoing IVF treatments. Globally, we found inconsistent findings across studies for specific exposure-outcome dyads, suggesting that adverse effects of POPs on IVF outcomes cannot be ruled out. Specifically, there is evidence that POPs, notably some polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides, may impair embryo quality and pregnancy rates. Most studies have been performed in small cohorts (n<50) and focused on PCBs and OCPs, whereas major research gaps remain for emerging compounds (e.g. perfluoroalkylated substances) and the most clinically relevant outcome, live birth rate. The overall evidence presented 'serious' or 'very serious' risk of bias, mainly due to the lack of consideration of relevant confounding variables, low sample size or underreporting of methods. Globally, we judged the level of evidence being "low". Given the high economical and societal costs associated to infertility and IVF, further well-designed research is urged to fill the highlighted gaps.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2021.09.005DOI Listing
October 2021

Associations between Exposure to Organochlorine Chemicals and Endometriosis: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies and Integration of Epidemiological Evidence.

Environ Health Perspect 2021 Jul 26;129(7):76003. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Oniris, INRAE, UMR 1329 Laboratoire d'Étude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Nantes, France.

Background: Growing epidemiological evidence suggests that organochlorine chemicals (OCCs), including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo--dioxin (TCDD), may play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

Objectives: We aimed to systematically review the experimental evidence ( and ) on the associations between exposure to OCCs and endometriosis-related end points.

Methods: A systematic review protocol was developed following the National Toxicology Program /Office of Health Assessment and Translation (NTP/OHAT) framework and managed within a web-based interface. studies designed to evaluate the impact of OCCs on the onset or progression of endometriosis and proliferation of induced endometriotic lesions were eligible. Eligible studies included single-cell and co-culture models to evaluate the proliferation, migration, and/or invasion of endometrial cells. We applied the search strings to PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus®. A final search was performed on 24 June 2020. Assessment of risk of bias and the level of evidence and integration of preevaluated epidemiological evidence was conducted using NTP/OHAT framework Results: Out of 812 total studies, 39 met the predetermined eligibility criteria (15 , 23 , and 1 both). Most studies () tested TCDD and other dioxin-like chemicals. evidence supported TCDD's promotion of endometriosis onset and lesion growth. evidence supported TCDD's promotion of cell migration and invasion, but there was insufficient evidence for cell proliferation. evidence further supported the roles of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and matrix metalloproteinases in mediating steroidogenic disruption and inflammatory responses. Estrogen interactions were found across studies and end points.

Conclusion: Based on the integration of a high level of animal evidence with a moderate level of epidemiological evidence, we concluded that TCDD was a known hazard for endometriosis in humans and the conclusion is supported by mechanistic evidence. Nonetheless, there is need for further research to fill in our gaps in understanding of the relationship between OCCs and their mixtures and endometriosis, beyond the prototypical TCDD. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8421.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP8421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312885PMC
July 2021

Sustained bloodstream release of persistent organic pollutants induced by extensive weight loss after bariatric surgery: Implications for women of childbearing age.

Environ Int 2021 06 18;151:106400. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Université Côte d'Azur, University Hospital of Nice, Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Reproduction, Nice, France; Université Côte d'Azur, INSERM U1065, C3M, Nice, France. Electronic address:

Background: Lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are stored in adipose tissues and released in case of weight loss.

Objectives: To analyze the kinetics and characteristics of this release during drastic weight loss after bariatric surgery and compare the results in case of women of childbearing age (WCBA) with critical blood concentration thresholds.

Methods: 100 morbidly obese patients (73 women including 53 of childbearing age and 27 men) were screened before and 3, 6 and 12 months after bariatric surgery for serum concentrations of 67 congeners or metabolites of banned or not yet banned organohalogenated persistent pollutants, including highly lipophilic polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and less lipophilic perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs).

Results: Circulating levels of all chemicals, except PFASs, increased progressively after surgery, reaching after one year an increase between 30 and 139% compared to initial pre-surgical levels; median levels increased for PCB153 from 36.8 to 86.4 ng/g lw (+130%), for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) from 59.8 to 136.1 ng/g lw (+120%), and for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from 9.8 to 20.3 ng/g lw (+110%). Weight loss averaging 30% of initial body weight at 12 months in both sexes (mean: 40.0 kg for men, 36.1 kg for women), was the main parameter related to the concentration increases (3.1 to 3.6% per kilogram weight loss). They were not dependent on initial BMI, presence of metabolic syndrome or type of surgical procedure but influenced by gender and biochemical properties such as degree of chlorination for PCBs and/or lipophilicity since PFASs did not increase at all. ∑PCB in blood after one year exceeded the critical concentration threshold for 24.5% women of childbearing age (13/53) versus 3.6% (2/53) before surgery.

Discussion: Massive weight loss within the first year following bariatric surgery is associated with a sustained increase of circulating lipophilic POPs. Short- and long-term consequences should be considered, mostly for childbearing age obese women, because of potential health risks for the future fetus and breastfeeding infant.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106400DOI Listing
June 2021

Environmental chemicals, breast cancer progression and drug resistance.

Environ Health 2020 11 17;19(1):117. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

INSERM UMR-S1124, 3TS, Toxicologie Pharmacologie et Signalisation Cellulaire, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common causes of cancer in the world and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Mortality is associated mainly with the development of metastases. Identification of the mechanisms involved in metastasis formation is, therefore, a major public health issue. Among the proposed risk factors, chemical environment and pollution are increasingly suggested to have an effect on the signaling pathways involved in metastatic tumor cells emergence and progression. The purpose of this article is to summarize current knowledge about the role of environmental chemicals in breast cancer progression, metastasis formation and resistance to chemotherapy. Through a scoping review, we highlight the effects of a wide variety of environmental toxicants, including persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptors, on invasion mechanisms and metastatic processes in BC. We identified the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer-stemness (the stem cell-like phenotype in tumors), two mechanisms suspected of playing key roles in the development of metastases and linked to chemoresistance, as potential targets of contaminants. We discuss then the recently described pro-migratory and pro-invasive Ah receptor signaling pathway and conclude that his role in BC progression is still controversial. In conclusion, although several pertinent pathways for the effects of xenobiotics have been identified, the mechanisms of actions for multiple other molecules remain to be established. The integral role of xenobiotics in the exposome in BC needs to be further explored through additional relevant epidemiological studies that can be extended to molecular mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-020-00670-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672852PMC
November 2020

Interactions between environmental pollutants and dietary nutrients: current evidence and implications in epidemiological research.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2021 02 6;75(2):108-113. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain.

Environmental pollutants and nutrients may be present in the same foodstuffs or dietary patterns; share internal mechanisms of transport, metabolism and cellular uptake; or target the same molecular signalling pathways and biological functions. Lipophilic pollutants and nutrients, like dioxins and polyunsaturated fatty acids, may often converge at all aforementioned levels and thus the interactions become more likely. Despite this fact, the topic seems overlooked in mainstream epidemiological research. In this essay, we illustrate different levels of documented interactions between pollutants and nutrients with experimental, interventional and epidemiological evidence, paying special attention to lipophilic chemicals. We first describe common pollutants and nutrients encountered in diets and the internal lipophilic interface such as adipose tissue and serum lipids. Next, we discuss the preventive effects of nutrients against absorption and the toxic effects of pollutants, as well as the pollutant-induced perturbation of nutrient metabolism. Finally, we discuss the implications of nutrient-pollutant interactions in epidemiology, providing some examples of negative confounding, modification effect and statistical interactions reported for different outcomes including fetal growth, diabetes and cancer. The evidence discussed in this essay supports that the health impacts of chemicals have likely been underestimated due to the high risk of residual and coexposure confounding in diseases where interactions between pollutants and nutrients may occur.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2020-213789DOI Listing
February 2021

Plasma concentration of brominated flame retardants and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study in the French E3N cohort.

Environ Health 2020 05 20;19(1):54. Epub 2020 May 20.

CESP, Faculté de médecine, Université Paris-Saclay, UVSQ, INSERM, Villejuif, France.

Background: Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are lipophilic substances with endocrine-disrupting properties. To date, only few investigations, mainly retrospective case-control studies, have explored the link between internal levels of BFRs and the risk of breast cancer, leading to conflicting results. We investigated the associations between plasma concentrations of two main groups of BFRs, PBDEs (pentabromodiphenyl ethers) and PBBs (polybrominated biphenyls), and the risk of breast cancer in a nested case-control study.

Methods: A total of 197 incident breast cancer cases and 197 controls with a blood sample collected in 1994-1999 were included. Plasma levels of PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE153, BDE-154) and of PBB-153 were measured by gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: Women were aged 56 years on average at blood draw. All cases, except for one, were diagnosed after menopause, with an average age at diagnosis of 68 years. Overall, we found no evidence of an association between plasma levels of PBDEs and PBB-153 and postmenopausal breast cancer risk (log-concentrations of BFRs yielding non-statistically significant ORs of 0.87 to 1.07). The analysis showed a non-linear inverse association for BDE-100 and BDE-153 and postmenopausal breast cancer risk; nevertheless, these findings were statistically significant only when the exposure was modeled as ng/L plasma (third vs. first quintile: OR = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.19-0.93 and OR = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.18-0.98, respectively) and not when modeled as ng/gr of lipids (OR = 0.58, 95%CI = 0.27-1.25 and OR = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.25-1.17). These results were unchanged in stratified analyses by tumor hormone receptor expression or body mass index.

Conclusions: Our results suggest no clear association between internal levels of PBDEs and PBB-153 and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. However, these findings need to be carefully interpreted, taking into account limitations due to the limited number of women included in the study, the lack of information concerning genetic susceptibility of cases, and the unavailability of exposure assessment during critical windows of susceptibility for breast cancer. More studies are warranted to further investigate the relationships between PBDE and PBB exposure and breast cancer risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-020-00607-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238573PMC
May 2020

Associations between persistent organic pollutants and endometriosis: A multipollutant assessment using machine learning algorithms.

Environ Pollut 2020 May 28;260:114066. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

LABERCA, Oniris, INRAE, 44307, Nantes, France. Electronic address:

Endometriosis is a gynaecological disease characterised by the presence of endometriotic tissue outside of the uterus impacting a significant fraction of women of childbearing age. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests a relationship between risk of endometriosis and exposure to some organochlorine persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, these chemicals are numerous and occur in complex and highly correlated mixtures, and to date, most studies have not accounted for this simultaneous exposure. Linear and logistic regression models are constrained to adjusting for multiple exposures when variables are highly intercorrelated, resulting in unstable coefficients and arbitrary findings. Advanced machine learning models, of emerging use in epidemiology, today appear as a promising option to address these limitations. In this study, different machine learning techniques were compared on a dataset from a case-control study conducted in France to explore associations between mixtures of POPs and deep endometriosis. The battery of models encompassed regularised logistic regression, artificial neural network, support vector machine, adaptive boosting, and partial least-squares discriminant analysis with some additional sparsity constraints. These techniques were applied to identify the biomarkers of internal exposure in adipose tissue most associated with endometriosis and to compare model classification performance. The five tested models revealed a consistent selection of most associated POPs with deep endometriosis, including octachlorodibenzofuran, cis-heptachlor epoxide, polychlorinated biphenyl 77 or trans-nonachlor, among others. The high classification performance of all five models confirmed that machine learning may be a promising complementary approach in modelling highly correlated exposure biomarkers and their associations with health outcomes. Regularised logistic regression provided a good compromise between the interpretability of traditional statistical approaches and the classification capacity of machine learning approaches. Applying a battery of complementary algorithms may be a strategic approach to decipher complex exposome-health associations when the underlying structure is unknown.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114066DOI Listing
May 2020

Simultaneous exploration of nutrients and pollutants in human milk and their impact on preterm infant growth: An integrative cross-platform approach.

Environ Res 2020 03 13;182:109018. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

LABERCA, Oniris, INRA, 44307, Nantes, France.

Early nutritional management including fortified human breastmilk is currently recommended to fulfil the energy demands and counterbalance risks associated to preterm birth. However, little is known about the potential adverse effects of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) carried in human milk on preterm infant growth. We conducted a pilot study proving the application of an integrative analytical approach based on mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to advanced statistical models, favouring the comprehensive molecular profiling to support the identification of multiple biomarkers. We applied this workflow in the frame of a preterm infants' cohort to explore environmental determinants of growth. The combination of high resolution gas and liquid chromatography MS platforms generated a large molecular profile, including 102 pollutants and nutrients (targeted analysis) and 784 metabolites (non-targeted analysis). Data analysis consisted in a preliminary examination of associations between the signatures of POPs and the normalised growth of preterm infants, using multivariate linear regression adjusting for known confounding variables. A second analysis aimed to identify multidimensional biomarkers using a multiblock algorithm allowing the integration of multiple datasets in the growth model of preterm infants. The preliminary results did not suggest an impairment of preterm growth associated to the milk concentrations of POPs. The multiblock approach however revealed complex interrelated molecular networks of POPs, lipids, metabolites and amino acids in breastmilk associated to preterm infant growth, supporting the high potential of biomarkers exploration of this proposed workflow. Whereas the present study intended to identify simultaneously pollutant and nutrient exposure profiles associated to early preterm infant growth, this workflow may be easily adapted and applied to other matrices (e.g. serum) and research settings, favouring the functional exploration of environmental determinants of complex and multifactorial diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.109018DOI Listing
March 2020

The challenging use and interpretation of blood biomarkers of exposure related to lipophilic endocrine disrupting chemicals in environmental health studies.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2020 01 1;499:110606. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

LABERCA, Oniris, INRA, 44307, Nantes, France.

The use of exposure biomarkers has been growing during the last decades, being considered the 'gold-standard' approach for individual exposure assessment to environmental chemicals. However, lipophilic endocrine disrupting chemicals (LEDC) have specific physicochemical and biological properties implying particular analytical challenges and interpretative caveats. The epidemiological literature is therefore afflicted by methodological inconsistencies and results divergences, in part due to recognised sources of exposure measurement error and misinterpretation of results. The aim of the present review is to identify external and endogenous sources of variability and uncertainty associated with the LEDC blood biomarkers in epidemiological studies. The dynamic nature of blood and an overview of the known mechanisms of transport, storage and partition of LEDCs in the organism are first described. The external sources of variability and uncertainty introduced at pre-analytical and analytical level are subsequently presented. Subsequently, we present some specific cases where the dynamics of lipids and LEDCs may be substantially modified and thus, the interpretation of biomarkers can be particularly challenging. The environmental obesogens as source of biomarkers variability is also discussed in the light of the most recent findings. Finally, different modelling approaches (statistical and pharmacokinetic models) proposed to improve the use and interpretation of biomarkers are appraised.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2019.110606DOI Listing
January 2020

Associations between persistent organic pollutants and risk of breast cancer metastasis.

Environ Int 2019 11 2;132:105028. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

INSERM UMR-S 1124, 45 rue des Saints-Pères, 75006 Paris, France; Université de Paris, 45 rue des Saints-Pères, 75006 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Breast cancer (BC) is a major public health concern with over 2 million new cases diagnosed and over 600,000 deaths in 2018 in women worldwide. When distant metastases are present at diagnosis, the 5-year survival rate is only 26%. Recent studies have suggested that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that accumulate in adipose tissue (AT) can influence tumor phenotype and stimulate cellular processes important for metastasis such as invasion. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that POP exposure is associated with BC metastasis.

Methods: We conducted an exploratory case-control study in which the concentrations of 49 POPs were measured in both AT and serum samples from BC patients, with or without lymph node metastasis, who underwent partial or total mastectomies, lymph node biopsies and sampling of the adipocytic tumor microenvironment. Adjusted, unconditional logistic models were used to study the associations between the POP concentrations and the risk of metastasis and other hallmarks of cancer aggressiveness.

Results: 2.3.7.8-TCDD concentrations in AT are positively associated with the risk of metastasis in 43 patients who have BMIs equal or higher than 25 kg/m2 (odds ratio: 4.48 (1.32-20.71)). Furthermore, the concentrations of 2.3.7.8-TCDD and two coplanar PCBs (77&169) in AT also were positively associated with the risk of lymph node metastasis and the tumor size.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that 2.3.7.8-TCDD and some PCBs contribute to the development of tumor metastasis and other hallmarks of cancer aggressiveness. While these results should be considered with caution, this is the first study to identify such potential risk factors. Larger longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results. Clinical Trial Protocol Record: 2013-A00663-42.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.105028DOI Listing
November 2019

Perfluorinated alkylated substances serum concentration and breast cancer risk: Evidence from a nested case-control study in the French E3N cohort.

Int J Cancer 2020 02 3;146(4):917-928. Epub 2019 May 3.

CESP, Fac. de médecine, Univ. Paris-Sud, Fac. de médecine - UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France.

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are proposed to increase breast cancer (BC) incidence. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), two perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs), are suspected to be ubiquitously present in the blood of human population worldwide. We investigated the associations between serum concentrations of these substances and BC risk. Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de l'Education Nationale is a cohort of 98,995 French women born in 1925-1950 and followed up since 1990. We sampled 194 BC cases and 194 controls from women with available blood samples. Serum concentrations of PFASs were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Adjusted conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two sided. While PFASs concentrations were not associated with BC risk overall, we found positively linear associations between PFOS concentrations and the risk of ER+ (3rd quartile: OR = 2.22 [CI = 1.05-4.69]; 4th quartile: OR = 2.33 [CI = 1.11-4.90]); P = 0.04) and PR+ tumors (3rd quartile: OR = 2.47 [CI = 1.07-5.65]; 4th quartile: OR = 2.76 [CI = 1.21-6.30]; P = 0.02). When considering receptor-negative tumors, only the 2nd quartile of PFOS was associated with risk (ER-: OR = 15.40 [CI = 1.84-129.19]; PR-: OR = 3.47 [CI = 1.29-9.15]). While there was no association between PFOA and receptor-positive BC risk, the 2nd quartile of PFOA was positively associated with the risk of receptor-negative tumors (ER-: OR = 7.73 [CI = 1.46-41.08]; PR-: OR = 3.44 [CI = 1.30-9.10]). PFAS circulating levels were differentially associated with BC risk. While PFOS concentration was linearly associated with receptor-positive tumors, only low concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were associated with receptor-negative tumors. Our findings highlight the importance of considering exposure to PFASs as a potential risk factor for BC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32357DOI Listing
February 2020

Associations between exposure to organochlorine chemicals and endometriosis in experimental studies: A systematic review protocol.

Environ Int 2019 03 22;124:400-407. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

LABERCA, Oniris, INRA, Université Bretagne-Loire, 44307 Nantes, France. Electronic address:

Background: Endometriosis is a hormone-dependent gynaecological disease characterised by the presence and growth of endometrial tissues outside of the uterus. There is growing experimental evidence that suggests environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals, specifically organochlorine chemicals (OCCs), may play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, but to date, there are no studies attempting to gather and synthesise the published literature systematically.

Objectives: The main objective of this SR is to evaluate the associations between the exposure to OCCs and endometriosis in experimental models (in vivo and in vitro).

Methods: The SR framework has been developed following the guidelines established in National Toxicology Program/ Office of Health Assessment and Translation (NTP/OHAT) Handbook for Conducting a Literature-Based Health Assessment, which provides a standardised methodology to implement the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to environmental health assessments. The review process will be managed and documented through HAWC, an open-source content management system, to guarantee transparency.

Eligibility Criteria: Only experimental studies, in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro, exploring associations between controlled exposures to OCCs and endometriosis and related outcomes will be included. Eligible studies will include peer reviewed articles of any publication date which are sources of primary data. Only studies published in English will be considered.

Information Sources: We will apply the search strings to the scientific literature databases NCBI PubMed, Web of Science and SCOPUS. Manual searches will be performed through the list of references of included articles.

Data Extraction And Synthesis Or Results: Data will be extracted according to a pre-defined set of forms and synthesised in a narrative report. Given sufficient commensurate data, a meta-analysis may also be performed.

Risk Of Bias: A quality assessment will be performed for in vivo and in vitro studies using the NTP/OHAT Risk of Bias Rating Tool for Human and Animal Studies.

Level Of Evidence Rating: Following a comprehensive assessment of the quality of evidence for both in vivo and in vitro studies, a confidence rating will be assigned to the body of literature and subsequently translated into a rating on the level of evidence (high, moderate, low, or inadequate) regarding the research question. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42018102618.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.12.063DOI Listing
March 2019

Human epidemiological evidence about the associations between exposure to organochlorine chemicals and endometriosis: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Environ Int 2019 02 6;123:209-223. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

LABERCA, Oniris, INRA, Université Bretagne-Loire, 44307 Nantes, France.

Background: Endometriosis is a gynaecological disease characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue that affects women during their reproductive years, having a strong impact on their lives, fertility and healthcare costs. The aetiology remains largely unknown, but current evidence suggests that it is multi-causal and oestrogen-dependent. Many epidemiologic studies have explored associations between organochlorine chemicals (OCCs) and endometriosis, but the findings are inconsistent.

Objectives: A systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis were conducted to gather and synthesize all the available evidence from human epidemiological studies about the associations between OCCs and endometriosis.

Data Sources: The searches were conducted in PubMed and Web of Science in June 2016 with a final follow-up in August 2018.

Study Eligibility Criteria: Only human epidemiological studies were considered, independent of participant age, body mass index or life-stage. Studies reporting individual measures of exposure to OCCs were included, considering but not limited to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), or organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The primary health outcome was presence of endometriosis, including all sub-types. Eligibility criteria excluded articles not written in English, conference papers, reviews and studies with overlapping information.

Study Appraisal And Synthesis Methods: A SR protocol pre-registered at PROSPERO was applied in duplicate to gather and extract all eligible original papers from PUBMED and Web of Science databases. Odds ratios were pooled using the inverse variance method for random effects meta-analysis for each group of OCCs. Risk of bias was assessed using the National Toxicology Program/Office of Health Assessment and Translation (NTP/OHAT) Risk of Bias Rating Tool for Human and Animal Studies adapted to the review question. The confidence in the body of evidence and related level of evidence was measured by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) based NTP/OHAT framework. The results were structured and presented in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.

Results: Of the 51 studies retained for the full-text screening, 17 provided effect sizes and metrics sufficient for pooling estimates through meta-analysis. The overall odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 1.65 (1.14; 2.39) for dioxins (n = 10), 1.70 (1.20; 2.39) for PCBs (n = 9), and 1.23 (1.13; 1.36) for OCPs (n = 5). Despite being statistically significant, these estimates should be considered with caution given the notable heterogeneity and small estimated effect size. Misclassification of exposure, due to varying laboratory detection rate capabilities, and disease status, due to varying definitions of endometriosis, were identified as major sources of uncertainty.

Limitations, Conclusions, And Implications Of Key Findings: The level of evidence was considered to be "moderate" with "serious" risk of bias according the NTP/OHAT criteria, supporting the need for further well-designed epidemiological research to fill lingering data gaps. Given the complexity of endometriosis and lack of known biomarkers suitable for population-based research, carefully designed observational studies play an important role in better understanding the aetiology of endometriosis, as will evolving mixture modeling approaches capable of handling various environmental chemical exposures. Attention to critical windows of exposure will shed further light on the possible developmental origin of endometriosis. Considering the high economic and societal cost associated with endometriosis, further research on this field is urged.

Systematic Review Registration Number: CRD42018080956.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.11.065DOI Listing
February 2019

The role of mycotoxins in the human exposome: Application of mycotoxin biomarkers in exposome-health studies.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Nov 21;121:504-518. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Applied Mycology Unit, Food Technology Department, University of Lleida, UTPV-XaRTA, Agrotecnio Center, Av. Rovira Roure 191, 25198, Lleida, Spain.

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi that may contaminate different foods intended for human consumption, resulting in a widespread exposure worldwide. The novel exposome paradigm has the ambition to decipher the different environmental insults threating human health throughout the entire lifespan. Given the large potential impact of mycotoxins in terms of human exposure and related health effects, the ambition of this review is to present this group of chemical compounds and the high interest to be included in exposome projects. Furthermore, we also attempt to approach the novel exposome paradigm to more traditional disciplines such as mycotoxin exposure assessment and mycotoxicology, introducing the new methodological challenges and translational needs. Hence, we provide an overview of major biomarkers currently developed, biological matrices where these may be found, an overview of internal exposure levels and potential co-occurrence with environmental chemicals and finally an overview of major health effects with the illustrative example of the potent xenoestrogen zearalenol. Conversely, these new approaches may be an excellent opportunity to fill many research gaps on mycotoxins research as the identification of associations with human health, elucidation of join effect with other environmental exposures or the decipher of underlying molecular mechanisms by using advanced OMICs technologies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.09.039DOI Listing
November 2018

The challenging use and interpretation of circulating biomarkers of exposure to persistent organic pollutants in environmental health: Comparison of lipid adjustment approaches in a case study related to endometriosis.

Chemosphere 2018 Jun 21;200:388-396. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

LABERCA, Oniris, INRA, Université Bretagne-Loire, 44307, Nantes, France.

The gold-standard matrix for measuring the internal levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is the adipose tissue, however in epidemiological studies the use of serum is preferred due to the low cost and higher accessibility. The interpretation of serum biomarkers is tightly related to the understanding of the underlying causal structure relating the POPs, serum lipids and the disease. Considering the extended benefits of using serum biomarkers we aimed to further examine if through statistical modelling we would be able to improve the use and interpretation of serum biomarkers in the study of endometriosis. Hence, we have conducted a systematic comparison of statistical approaches commonly used to lipid-adjust the circulating biomarkers of POPs based on existing methods, using data from a pilot case-control study focused on severe deep infiltrating endometriosis. The odds ratios (ORs) obtained from unconditional regression for those models with serum biomarkers were further compared to those obtained from adipose tissue. The results of this exploratory study did not support the use of blood biomarkers as proxy estimates of POPs in adipose tissue to implement in risk models for endometriosis with the available statistical approaches to correct for lipids. The current statistical approaches commonly used to lipid-adjust circulating POPs, do not fully represent the underlying biological complexity between POPs, lipids and disease (especially those directly or indirectly affecting or affected by lipid metabolism). Hence, further investigations are warranted to improve the use and interpretation of blood biomarkers under complex scenarios of lipid dynamics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.02.120DOI Listing
June 2018

Association between Exposure to '-DDT and Its Metabolite '-DDE with Obesity: Integrated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Environ Health Perspect 2017 09 18;125(9):096002. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis , Davis, California, USA.

Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing in all countries, becoming a substantial public health concern worldwide. Increasing evidence has associated obesity with persistent pollutants such as the pesticide DDT and its metabolite '-DDE.

Objectives: Our objective was to systematically review the literature on the association between exposure to the pesticide DDT and its metabolites and obesity to develop hazard identification conclusions.

Methods: We applied a systematic review-based strategy to identify and integrate evidence from epidemiological, , and studies. The evidence from prospective epidemiological studies was quantitatively synthesized by meta-analysis. We rated the body of evidence and integrated the streams of evidence to systematically develop hazard identification conclusions.

Results: We identified seven epidemiological studies reporting prospective associations between exposure to -DDE and adiposity assessed by body mass index (BMI) -score. The results from the meta-analysis revealed positive associations between exposure to -DDE and BMI -score (β=0.13 BMI -score (95% CI: 0.01, 0.25) per log increase of -DDE). Two studies constituted the primary evidence. Both studies reported positive associations between exposure to -DDT and increased adiposity in rodents. We identified 19 studies and 7 studies that supported the biological plausibility of the obesogenic effects of -DDT and -DDE.

Conclusions: We classified -DDT and -DDE as "presumed" to be obesogenic for humans, based on a moderate level of primary human evidence, a moderate level of primary evidence, and a moderate level of supporting evidence from and studies. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP527.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915185PMC
September 2017

Associations between internal exposure levels of persistent organic pollutants in adipose tissue and deep infiltrating endometriosis with or without concurrent ovarian endometrioma.

Environ Int 2017 11 3;108:195-203. Epub 2017 Sep 3.

LUNAM Université, Oniris, UMR 1329 Laboratoire d'Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Nantes, France; INRA Centre Angers-Nantes, Nantes F-44307, France.

Endometriosis is a gynaecological disease characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue. Histologically, it appears as different sub-types, being peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometrioma (OvE) and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE), which are of major relevance due to their varying clinical presentations. A number of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with the onset of endometriosis, yet the overall set of existing studies remains fairly divergent. In this preliminary case-control study we aimed to assess the potential associations between the internal exposure to POPs and the presence of DIE with or without concurrent OvE. Adipose tissue and serum samples were collected from surgically confirmed cases (n=55) and controls (n=44) enrolled during 2013 and 2015 in Pays de la Loire, France. Targeted pollutants (76 historical or more emerging POPs including dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were quantified by chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from unconditional logistic regression adjusted for known confounding variables. The results showed significant associations between DIE and adipose tissue levels of 1.2.3.7.8 - PeCDD, OCDF, PCB 105, 114, 118 and 123, PBDE 183, PBB 153, and several OCPs including trans‑nonachlor, cis‑heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, β-hexachlorocyclohexane and hexachlorobenzene. The largest associations were observed for OCDF followed by cis‑heptachlor epoxide, exhibiting adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 5.42 (2.73-12.85) and 5.36 (2.44-14.84) per 1-SD increase, respectively. The stratified analysis comparing both disease sub-types suggested that adipose tissue exposure markers may be more associated with DIE concurrent with OvE, however these results need to be confirmed in a larger population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.08.019DOI Listing
November 2017

Triphenyl phosphate enhances adipogenic differentiation, glucose uptake and lipolysis via endocrine and noradrenergic mechanisms.

Toxicol In Vitro 2017 Apr 3;40:280-288. Epub 2017 Feb 3.

Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, USA. Electronic address:

The use of triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) as a flame retardant or plasticizer has increased during the last decade, resulting in widespread human exposure without commensurate toxicity assessment. The main objectives of this study were to assess the in vitro effect of TPhP and its metabolite diphenyl phosphate (DPhP) on the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, as well as glucose uptake and lipolysis in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. TPhP increased pre-adipocyte proliferation and subsequent adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, coinciding with increased transcription in the CEBP and PPARG pathway. Treatment of mature adipocytes with TPhP increased the basal- and insulin stimulated- uptake of the glucose analog 2-[N (-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa1, 3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-NBDG). This effect was ablated by inhibition of PI3K, a member of the insulin signaling pathway. DPhP had no significant effect on cell proliferation and, compared to TPhP, a weaker effect on adipogenic differentiation and on 2-NBDG uptake. Both TPhP and DPhT significantly enhanced the isoproterenol-induced lipolysis, most likely by increasing the expression of lipolytic genes during and after differentiation. This study suggests that TPhP increases adipogenic differentiation, glucose uptake, and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells through endocrine and noradrenergic mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2017.01.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377152PMC
April 2017

Oral bioaccessibility of arsenic, mercury and methylmercury in marine species commercialized in Catalonia (Spain) and health risks for the consumers.

Food Chem Toxicol 2015 Dec 25;86:34-40. Epub 2015 Sep 25.

Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201, Reus, Catalonia, Spain.

This study was aimed at characterizing the bioaccessibility of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in commercial fish and seafood species widely consumed by the population of Catalonia (Spain). An accurate evaluation on how bioaccessibility estimations may affect the outcomes of exposure assessment studies was also conducted. The concentrations of As, Hg, and MeHg in samples of fish and seafood incubated in a 3-compartmental (mouth, stomach, and small intestine) in vitro gastrointestinal model, were quantified and compared with the levels of these elements in cooked samples. Arsenic showed a high bioaccessibility in all the fish and seafood species, ranging from 72% (mackerel) to 89% (sardine). In contrast, the bioaccessibility of Hg was rather lower, being <50% for most species, while MeHg could be only quantified in swordfish and tuna. This study elucidates the potential overestimation of health risks to consumers, when the effects of bioaccessibility and cooking procedures are not taken into account in the risk assessment. Unlike As, whose risk is not generally overestimated, Hg and MeHg showed a lower and variable bioaccessibility in marine species, meaning an overestimation of health risks for the adult population. Further studies should assess the bioaccessibility of mercurial species for children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2015.09.012DOI Listing
December 2015

Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood--European database on contaminant levels.

Environ Res 2015 Nov 27;143(Pt B):29-45. Epub 2015 Jun 27.

Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Animal Sciences Unit - Fisheries, Ankerstraat 1, 8400 Oostende, Belgium.

Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2015.06.011DOI Listing
November 2015

Exposure of the population of Catalonia (Spain) to musk fragrances through seafood consumption: Risk assessment.

Environ Res 2015 Nov 23;143(Pt B):116-22. Epub 2015 Apr 23.

Department of Analytical Chemistry and Organic Chemistry, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain.

The occurrence of ten synthetic musks in samples of 10 widely consumed fish and shellfish species from Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain) was determined. The most used nitro and polycyclic musks, as well as a well-known transformation product in tissues, were analyzed. Furthermore, the human health risks derived from the musk exposure through seafood consumption were characterized. None of the nitro musks were detected in any of the analyzed samples. In contrast, most of the polycyclic musks were found, being galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) present in all the samples. HHCB was the greatest contributor, with maximum levels in sardine and mackerel (367 and 304 ng g(-1) (d.w.) (dry weight), respectively). The highest exposure to individual musks was estimated for HHCB and HHCB-Lactone, with average values of 19.7 and 6.8 ng kg(-1)bw day(-1), respectively, in adults. A notably lower mean exposure was calculated for AHTN, cashmeran (DPMI) and traseolide (ATII), being ranged between 1.1 and 3.7 ng kg(-1)bw day(-1). The current concentrations of musks in fish and shellfish should not mean human health risks for the adult population living in Tarragona. However, a continuous monitoring would be desirable to assure that the exposure does not follow increasing temporal trends.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2015.04.007DOI Listing
November 2015

Consumers' health risk-benefit perception of seafood and attitude toward the marine environment: Insights from five European countries.

Environ Res 2015 Nov 10;143(Pt B):11-9. Epub 2015 Apr 10.

Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.

This research classifies European consumers into segments based on their health risk-benefit perception related to seafood consumption. The profiling variables of these segments are seafood consumption frequency, general attitude toward consuming fish, confidence in control organizations, attitude toward the marine environment, environmental concern and socio-demographics. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample of 2824 participants. A cluster analysis was performed based on risk-benefit perception related to seafood and the profiles of the segments were determined by a robust 2-way ANOVA analysis accounting for country effects. Although this study confirms consumers' positive image of consuming seafood, gradients are found in health risk-benefit perception related to seafood consumption. Seafood consumption frequency is mainly determined by country-related traditions and habits related to seafood rather than by risk-benefit perceptions. Segments with a higher benefit perception, irrespective of their level of risk perception, show a more positive attitude toward consuming seafood and toward the marine environment; moreover, they report a higher concern about the marine environment and have a higher involvement with seafood and with the marine environment. Consequently, information campaigns concentrating on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise the involvement with seafood and the marine environment as this is associated with a higher environmental concern. This research underpins that in such information campaigns a nationally differentiated rather than a pan-European or international information strategy should be aimed for because of significant cultural differences between the identified segments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2015.02.029DOI Listing
November 2015

Integrated risk index for seafood contaminants (IRISC): Pilot study in five European countries.

Environ Res 2015 Nov 18;143(Pt B):109-15. Epub 2015 Mar 18.

Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain.

Consumption of seafood is one of the most relevant pathways of exposure to environmental pollutants present in food. The list of toxic compounds in seafood is very extensive, including heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to quantify the importance of the problem, tools to combine and simplify large data collections are mandatory for risk managers and decision-makers. In this study, the development of a prioritization setting focusing on chemical hazards taken up through seafood was aimed. For this purpose, the toxicity data of several chemicals was integrated with concentration and seafood consumption data, building an integrated risk index for seafood contaminants (IRISC) able to draw a map of risk for each chemical and family of chemicals. A pilot trial was performed on a sample of 74 pollutants, four seafood species and five European countries (Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain). The preliminary results revealed that Portugal and Spain presented the highest IRISC, while Belgium was the region with the lowest IRISC. The contribution of each group of contaminants to the IRISC was very similar among countries, with heavy metals being the major contributor, followed by PCBs, PCDD/Fs and endocrine disrupting compounds. When the contribution of different seafood species to the Risk Indexes (RIs) was compared, the results elucidated the high input from sardines, showing the highest rates (54.9-76.1) in the five countries. The IRISC provides a friendly approach to the chemical risk scene in Europe, establishing normalized prioritization criteria considering toxicity and consumption as well as concentration of each chemical.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2015.03.006DOI Listing
November 2015

Effect of food processing on exposure assessment studies with mycotoxins.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2013 4;30(5):867-75. Epub 2013 Jun 4.

Applied Mycology Unit, Food Technology Department, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain.

The goals of the present work were, on the one hand, to assess the effect of baking on the stability of zearalenone (ZEA) and deoxynivalenol (DON), as well as the transfer of DON from pasta to boiling water, and, on the other hand, to quantify the impact of DON depletion, during cooking of pasta, on overall exposure estimates. Therefore, the bread-making process was simulated on a pilot-plant scale by using naturally contaminated flour with DON and ZEA. Transfer of DON from pasta to water was evaluated at different boiling times. Pasta was prepared on a pilot-plant scale by using naturally contaminated durum wheat flour; subsequently, it was boiled simulating home cooking. The experiments examined the stability of DON and ZEA during the bread-making process, including fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and baking at 200°C. Our results showed a high transfer of DON from pasta to boiling water, reaching depletion levels of almost 75%, which correlated with levels found in water. Accordingly, these cooking depletion rates were computed through a stochastic exposure model to weight their impact on the final exposure estimates. Finally, statistically significant differences were found in most of the parameters and populations assessed, but these were not enough to consider the process as protective because the contribution of pasta to the overall DON intake was commonly low.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2013.793824DOI Listing
January 2014

Determination of aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in wheat and oat based bran supplements sold in the Spanish market.

Food Chem Toxicol 2013 Mar 28;53:133-8. Epub 2012 Nov 28.

Applied Mycology Unit, Food Technology Department, University of Lleida, UTPV-XaRTA, Agrotecnio, Av. Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain.

The aflatoxins (AFs), deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA) are mycotoxins produced by fungal species which can contaminate, alone or simultaneously, cereal-based raw materials. Usually, the higher mycotoxins concentrations in cereals are found in the external layers of the grain (bran). Nowadays bran is increasingly consumed for its high fibre concentration. The objectives of this study were determining the concentration of these mycotoxins in bran samples intended for direct human consumption and to study the influence of some characteristics of the samples that may affect the mycotoxins content, there are not studies about fibre for direct human consumption. 67 bran samples from shops and supermarkets from two different Spanish cities were analyzed, being 37 samples of wheat bran and the remaining of oat bran. The results showed a major presence of DON in the analyzed samples, with levels above the EU legislation in some samples. Presence of DON was more frequent in wheat samples, compared to oats ones (p<0.05). Extruded or toasted samples, subjected to a heat treatment during processing, presented a significantly lower concentration of OTA, and differences between the organically and conventionally produced samples were also detected in OTA, which showed higher levels in the organic samples. Co-occurrence was frequently found between the Fusarium mycotoxins (ZEA and DON). Due to the high levels of DON in the analyzed samples, a calculation of DON intake has been made and it has been demonstrated that bran can account for an important percentage of DON exposure in the total diet.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.11.020DOI Listing
March 2013

Occurrence of aflatoxin M₁ and exposure assessment in Catalonia (Spain).

Rev Iberoam Micol 2010 Sep 16;27(3):130-5. Epub 2010 Jun 16.

Food Technology Department, University of Lleida, XaRTA-UTPV, Lleida, Spain.

Background: Aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) is the main monohydroxylated derivative of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) formed in liver and excreted into milk. Although AFM₁ is less toxic than AFB₁, it has been classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B agent by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

Objectives: The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the occurrence of AFM₁ in the main dairy products consumed in Catalonia region (Spain), and (ii) to assess the exposure of Catalonian population to aflatoxin M₁ through deterministic and probabilistic method.

Methods: Occurrence of Aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) was determined in 72 composites of milk, 72 composites of cheese and 72 composites of yoghurt from Catalonia. AFM₁ content was analysed using an Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay commercial kit. Three approaches to exposure assessment were conducted: one deterministic method and two probabilistic models with Monte Carlo simulations.

Results: AFM₁ was detected in 94.4% (68/72) of whole UHT milk samples, in 2.8% (2/72) of yoghurt samples and not detected in cheese. The maximum level was detected in one yoghurt sample with 51.58 ng/kg, only this sample being over the legal EU limit of 50 ng/kg. Milk, cheese and yoghurt mean concentrations were 9.29±2.61, <12.5 and 13.22±4.82 ng/kg, respectively.

Conclusions: According to these values, it should be expected Catalonian population is not exposed to a significant risk from aflatoxin M₁ including average and high consumers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.riam.2010.05.003DOI Listing
September 2010
-->