Publications by authors named "German Burgos"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Paternal and maternal mutations in X-STRs: A GHEP-ISFG collaborative study.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2020 05 5;46:102258. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Laboratório de Diagnóstico por DNA (LDD), Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The GHEP-ISFG organized a collaborative study to estimate mutation rates for the markers included in the Investigator Argus X-12 QS kit Qiagen. A total of 16 laboratories gathered data from 1,612 father/mother/daughter trios, which were used to estimate both maternal and paternal mutation rates, when pooled together with other already published data. Data on fathers and mothers' age at the time of birth of the daughter were also available for ∼93 % of the cases. Population analyses were computed considering the genetic information of a subset of 1,327 unrelated daughters, corresponding to 2,654 haplotypes from residents in several regions of five countries: Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Portugal and Spain. Genetic differentiation analyses between the population samples from the same country did not reveal signs of significant stratification, although results from Hardy-Weinberg and linkage disequilibrium tests indicated the need of larger studies for Ecuador and Brazilian populations. The high genetic diversity of the markers resulted in a large number of haplotype combinations, showing the need of huge databases for reliable estimates of their frequencies. It should also be noted the high number of new alleles found, many of them not included in the allelic ladders provided with the kit, as very diverse populations were analyzed. The overall estimates for locus specific average mutation rates varied between 7.5E-04 (for DXS7423) and 1.1E-02 (for DXS10135), the latter being a troublesome figure for kinship analyses. Most of the found mutations (∼92 %) are compatible with the gain or loss of a single repeat. Paternal mutation rates showed to be 5.2 times higher than maternal ones. We also found that older fathers were more prone to transmit mutated alleles, having this trend not been observed in the case of the mothers.
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May 2020

A report of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency in two 46,XX sisters.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2020 Jan 29;36(1):24-29. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Molecular Diagnostics and Clinical Genomics Laboratories, CGC Genetics, Porto, Portugal.

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of rare orphan disorders caused by mutations in seven different enzymes that impair cortisol biosynthesis. The 17α-hydroxylase deficiency (17OHD) is one of the less common forms of CAH, corresponding to approximately 1% of the cases, with an estimated annual incidence of 1 in 50,000 newborns. - two phenotypically female Ecuadorian sisters, both with primary amenorrhea, absence of secondary sexual characteristics, and osteoporosis. High blood pressure was present in the older sister. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism profile was observed: decreased cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), increased adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and normal levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, extremely high deoxycorticosterone (DOC) levels, and a tomography showed bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in both sisters. Consanguinity was evident in their ancestors. Furthermore, in the exon 7, the variant c.1216T > C, p.Trp406Arg was detected in homozygosis in the gene of both sisters. We report a homozygous missense mutation in the gene causing 17OHD in two sisters from Loja, Ecuador. According to the authors, this is the first time such deficiency and mutation are described in two members of the same family in Ecuador.
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January 2020

Consensus strategy in genes prioritization and combined bioinformatics analysis for preeclampsia pathogenesis.

BMC Med Genomics 2017 08 8;10(1):50. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Background: Preeclampsia is a multifactorial disease with unknown pathogenesis. Even when recent studies explored this disease using several bioinformatics tools, the main objective was not directed to pathogenesis. Additionally, consensus prioritization was proved to be highly efficient in the recognition of genes-disease association. However, not information is available about the consensus ability to early recognize genes directly involved in pathogenesis. Therefore our aim in this study is to apply several theoretical approaches to explore preeclampsia; specifically those genes directly involved in the pathogenesis.

Methods: We firstly evaluated the consensus between 12 prioritization strategies to early recognize pathogenic genes related to preeclampsia. A communality analysis in the protein-protein interaction network of previously selected genes was done including further enrichment analysis. The enrichment analysis includes metabolic pathways as well as gene ontology. Microarray data was also collected and used in order to confirm our results or as a strategy to weight the previously enriched pathways.

Results: The consensus prioritized gene list was rationally filtered to 476 genes using several criteria. The communality analysis showed an enrichment of communities connected with VEGF-signaling pathway. This pathway is also enriched considering the microarray data. Our result point to VEGF, FLT1 and KDR as relevant pathogenic genes, as well as those connected with NO metabolism.

Conclusion: Our results revealed that consensus strategy improve the detection and initial enrichment of pathogenic genes, at least in preeclampsia condition. Moreover the combination of the first percent of the prioritized genes with protein-protein interaction network followed by communality analysis reduces the gene space. This approach actually identifies well known genes related with pathogenesis. However, genes like HSP90, PAK2, CD247 and others included in the first 1% of the prioritized list need to be further explored in preeclampsia pathogenesis through experimental approaches.
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August 2017

A study of the molecular variants associated with lactase persistence in different Ecuadorian ethnic groups.

Am J Hum Biol 2016 11 6;28(6):774-781. Epub 2016 May 6.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de las Américas, José Queri and de los Granados Av, Quito, Ecuador.

Objective: Lactase persistence (LP) is an adaptive trait that certain human populations have acquired in response to lactose consumption in adulthood. The T-13910 variant has been reported as a causal polymorphism in Europeans. The Ecuadorian population has been described as multicultural and multiethnic, comprised of three main ethnic groups (Mestizo, Native Amerindian, and Afro-Ecuadorian). The aim of the study was to identify the molecular basis of LP in these admixed populations for the first time and determine the association between the T-13910 marker and the European ancestry proportion of each ethnic group.

Methods: Genotyping was performed in 741 Ecuadorian individuals by sequencing a 576 bp region around the -13910 position upstream of the LCT gene. The ancestry proportions of Mestizo, Afro-Ecuadorian, and Native Amerindians were calculated using Ancestry Informative Markers and were compared with the diversity panel of the Human Genome Diversity Project.

Results: LP prevalence calculated from T-13910 allele frequency in Mestizo, Afro-Ecuadorian, and Native Amerindians was 24.4%, 16%, and 12.5%, respectively. The ancestry percentage correlated to the admixture proportion of each ethnic group, and the C/T-13910 genotype frequency was influenced by the European ancestry proportion.

Conclusions: The presence of the T-13910 polymorphism in the Ecuadorian population suggested that LP was a trait introduced by European migration and inherited by admixture that occurred during the colonization of South America. This variant was not fixed in a population with a history of admixture, and its allele frequency was proportional to the ancestry proportion of each Ecuadorian ethnic group. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:774-781, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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November 2016

Evaluating the X chromosome-specific diversity of Colombian populations using insertion/deletion polymorphisms.

PLoS One 2014 31;9(1):e87202. Epub 2014 Jan 31.

IPATIMUP - Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto, Porto, Portugal ; DNA Diagnostic Laboratory (LDD), State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The European and African contribution to the pre-existing Native American background has influenced the complex genetic pool of Colombia. Because colonisation was not homogeneous in this country, current populations are, therefore, expected to have different proportions of Native American, European and African ancestral contributions. The aim of this work was to examine 11 urban admixed populations and a Native American group, called Pastos, for 32 X chromosome indel markers to expand the current knowledge concerning the genetic background of Colombia. The results revealed a highly diverse genetic background comprising all admixed populations, harbouring important X chromosome contributions from all continental source populations. In addition, Colombia is genetically sub-structured, with different proportions of European and African influxes depending on the regions. The samples from the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts have a high African ancestry, showing the highest levels of diversity. The sample from the South Andean region showed the lowest diversity and significantly higher proportion of Native American ancestry than the other samples from the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts, Central-West and Central-East Andean regions, and the Orinoquian region. The results of admixture analysis using X-chromosomal markers suggest that the high proportion of African ancestry in the North Pacific coast was primarily male driven. These men have joined to females with higher Native American and European ancestry (likely resulting from a classic colonial asymmetric mating type: European male x Amerindian female). This high proportion of male-mediated African contributions is atypical of colonial settings, suggesting that the admixture occurred during a period when African people were no longer enslaved. In the remaining regions, the African contribution was primarily female-mediated, whereas the European counterpart was primarily male driven and the Native American ancestry contribution was not gender biased.
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October 2014

Comparison of the genetic background of different Colombian populations using the SNPforID 52plex identification panel.

Int J Legal Med 2014 Jan 12;128(1):19-25. Epub 2013 May 12.

IdentiGEN-Genetic Identification Laboratory and Research Group of Genetic Identification, School of Natural and Exact Sciences (FCEN), University of Antioquia, Calle 67, 53-108, Bloque 7-321, Medellin, Colombia.

Various strategies for analysing SNP markers and genotyping have been published with the goal of obtaining informative profiles from biological samples that contain only small amounts of template and/or degraded DNA. In this study, a multiplex assay of 52 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to analyse 438 individuals from urban populations from different regions of Colombia, as well as a sample of 50 Native American individuals of the Pastos ethnic group from Nariño. To determine if significant differences in these 52 SNPs exist between the distinct regions of Colombia, genetic distance and admixture analyses were performed based on the available data for 17 different Colombian population groups and for population groups from Africa, Europe and America. The results demonstrate significant differences between the populations from the Southwest Andean, Central-West Andean, Central-East Andean, Orinoquian and northern Colombian Pacific Coast regions. Most of the regions exhibited a European and Native American admixture. One exception is the population from the region of Chocó (on the northern Pacific Coast), which exhibits a high proportion of African admixture (54 %). From the observed genetic backgrounds, it is possible to conclude that a single reference database for the entire country would not be suitable for forensic purposes. The allele frequencies and the forensically relevant parameters were calculated for all of the markers in each Colombian region with significant values for the combined matching probability (power of discrimination ≥0.99999999999999990) and the combined probability of exclusion (≥0.9990) in trios that were obtained from all of the population groups.
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January 2014