Publications by authors named "Gerhard G Grabenbauer"

80 Publications

[Preoperative radiotherapy plus resection versus surgery alone in patients with primary retroperitoneal sarcoma (EORTC-62092: STRASS): a multicenter randomized phase III study].

Strahlenther Onkol 2021 03 5;197(3):264-265. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Strahlentherapie & Radioonkologie am Klinikum Coburg, Ketschendorfer Straße 33, 96450, Coburg, Deutschland.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-020-01734-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892695PMC
March 2021

Quality of life in rectal cancer patients with or without oxaliplatin in the randomised CAO/ARO/AIO-04 phase 3 trial.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Feb 28;144:281-290. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: The CAO/ARO/AIO trial has shown that oxaliplatin added to preoperative chemoradiotherapy and postoperative chemotherapy significantly improved disease-free survival in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Here, we present a post-hoc analysis of quality of life (QoL) in disease-free patients.

Patients And Methods: Between 2006 and 2010, 1236 patients with LARC were randomly assigned either to preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision and postoperative chemotherapy (N = 623) or combined with oxaliplatin (N = 613). QoL questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30, colorectal module CR38) were completed at baseline, after postoperative chemotherapy and during follow-up. Analysis was performed according intent-to-treat.

Results: Available questionnaires (baseline) were 82% (N = 512) in the control and 84% (N = 513) in the investigational group. Response rates were 49% (533 of 1086) at 1 year and 43% (403 of 928) at 3 years. Global health status (GHS) for disease-free patients was stable in both groups (range 0-100). At baseline: standard arm 62.0 (mean, SD 21.6; N = 491) versus oxaliplatin arm 63.2 (mean, SD 22; N = 503); at 3 years: 69.4 (SD 19.3; N = 187) versus 65.4 (SD 22.2; N = 202). After treatment and at 3 years, no significant differences (≥10 points) between groups were found in QoL subscales. Disease-free patients experiencing neurotoxic side-effects (grade 1-4) showed reduced GHS at 3 years versus patients without neurotoxicity (mean 59.2 versus 69.3; P < 0.001), while grade 3-4 rate was low.

Conclusion: The addition of oxaliplatin was not associated with worse overall QoL. This information is of interest to patients in many ongoing rectal cancer trials.

Trial Registration Information: NCT00349076.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.11.029DOI Listing
February 2021

[Intensity-modulated fractionated radiotherapy vs. stereotactic body radiotherapy for prostate cancer (PACE-B): acute toxicity findings from an international, randomized, open-label, phase 3, noninferiority trial].

Strahlenther Onkol 2020 Jul;196(7):674-675

Strahlentherapie & Radioonkologie am Klinikum Coburg, Ketschendorfer Straße 33, 96450, Coburg, Deutschland.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-020-01616-wDOI Listing
July 2020

Cytotoxic and immunosuppressive inflammatory cells predict regression and prognosis following neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

Radiother Oncol 2020 05 10;146:151-160. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany.

Background And Purpose: Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and tumour associated macrophages (TAM) play a key role in anticancer immunosurveillance. We studied their influence on response to neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT) and prognosis in patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC).

Materials And Methods: Between 10/2004 and 06/2018, pre-RCT biopsy-specimens were available from 76 patients with locally advanced, non-metastatic OAC scheduled for trimodality therapy. We evaluated intra- and peritumoural expression of FoxP3+-, CD8+-TIL and CD68+-, CD163+-TAM, contemplating cell density, cell ratios and cell-to-cell distances to determine a possible influence on tumour regression grade (TRG) and survival. Median follow-up time for all patients was 18 months (IQR 9-43), and 54 months (25-97) for surviving patients. Data were analysed using risk analysis, logrank test and Cox regression.

Results: Poor tumour regression was detected for cN+ (RR 0.77 [95% CI 0.66-0.90], p = 0.001), low intratumoural FoxP3+/CD8+ ratio (RR 0.75 [0.60-0.96], p = 0.020), high peritumoural CD163+/CD68+ ratio (RR 0.77 [0.60-0.99], p = 0.045) and high intratumoural TAM density (RD -0.44 [-0.82 to -0.06], p = 0.023). Apart from poor resection quality and TRG, pretherapeutic high peritumoural CD8+ infiltration (HR 2.36 [1.21-4.61], p = 0.012) and short intratumoural FoxP3+ to CD8+ cell-to-cell distances in middle ranged CD8+ density (HR 2.55 [1.00-6.52], p = 0.050) were significant unfavourable prognostic factors in multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: Immunologic parameters, such as CD8+-, FoxP3+-TIL and CD68+-, CD163+-TAM, were identified to be of independent predictive and prognostic value in patients with OAC. Further and independent validation of these biomarkers by a large size dataset may urgently be contemplated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2020.02.003DOI Listing
May 2020

Randomized phase-III-trial of concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced head and neck cancer comparing dose reduced radiotherapy with paclitaxel/cisplatin to standard radiotherapy with fluorouracil/cisplatin: The PacCis-trial.

Radiother Oncol 2020 03 7;144:209-217. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

J.W. Goethe University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; University Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: This multicenter, phase 3 trial investigates whether the incorporation of concurrent paclitaxel and cisplatin together with a reduced total dose of radiotherapy is superior to standard fluorouracil-cisplatin based CRT.

Materials And Methods: Patients with SCCHN, stage III-IVB, were randomized to receive paclitaxel/cisplatin (PacCis)-CRT (arm A; paclitaxel 20 mg/m on days 2, 5, 8, 11 and 25, 30, 33, 36; cisplatin 20 mg/m, days 1-4 and 29-32; RT to a total dose of 63.6 Gy) or fluorouracil/cisplatin (CisFU)-CRT (arm B; fluorouracil 600 mg/m; cisplatin 20 mg/m, days 1-5 and 29-33; RT: 70.6 Gy). Endpoint was 3-year-disease free survival (3y-DFS).

Results: A total of 221 patients were enrolled between 2010 and 2015. With a median follow-up of 3.7 years, 3y-DFS in the CisFU arm and PacCis arm was 58.2% and 48.4%, respectively (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.56-1.21, p = 0.52). The 3y-OS amounted to 64.6% in the CisFU arm, and to 59.2% in the PacCis arm (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.54-1.24, p = 0.43). In the subgroup of p16-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas, 3y-DFS and 3y-OS was 84.6% vs 83.9% (p = 0.653), and 92.3% vs. 83.5% (p = 0.76) in arm A and B, respectively. Grade 3-4 hematological toxicities were significantly reduced in arm A (anemia, p = 0.01; leukocytopenia, p = 0.003), whereas grade 3 infections were reduced in arm B (p = 0.01).

Conclusion: Paclitaxel/cisplatin-CRT with a reduced RT-dose is not superior to standard fluorouracil/cisplatin-CRT. Subgroup analyses indicate that a reduced radiation dose seems to be sufficient for p16+ oropharyngeal cancer or non-smokers.

Clinical Trial Information: NCT01126216; EudraCT Number 2005-003484-23.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2020.01.016DOI Listing
March 2020

Left breast irradiation with tangential intensity modulated radiotherapy (t-IMRT) versus tangential volumetric modulated arc therapy (t-VMAT): trade-offs between secondary cancer induction risk and optimal target coverage.

Radiat Oncol 2019 Sep 2;14(1):156. Epub 2019 Sep 2.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Coburg Cancer Center, Coburg, Germany.

Background: Adjuvant radiotherapy is the standard treatment after breast-conserving surgery. According to meta-analyses, adjuvant 3d-conventional irradiation reduces the risk of local recurrence and thereby improves long-term survival by 5-10%. However, there is an unintended exposure of organs such as the heart, lungs and contralateral breast. Irradiation of the left breast has been related to long-term effects like increased rates of coronary events as well as second cancer induction. Modern radiotherapy techniques such as tangential intensity modulated radiotherapy (t-IMRT) and tangential volumetric modulated arc therapy (t-VMAT) and particularly deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) technique have been developed in order to improve coverage of target volume and to reduce dose to normal tissue. The aim of this study was to compare t-IMRT-plans with t-VMAT-plans in DIBH position for left-sided breast irradiation in terms of normal tissue exposure, i.e. of lungs, heart, left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA), as well as homogeneity (HI) and conformity index (CI) and excess absolute risk (EAR) for second cancer induction for organs at risk (OAR) after irradiation.

Methods: Twenty patients, diagnosed with left-sided breast cancer and treated with breast-preserving surgery, were included in this planning study. For each patient DIBH-t-IMRT plan using 5 to 7 beams and t-VMAT plan using four rotations were generated to achieve 95% dose coverage to 95% of the volume. Data were evaluated on the basis of dose-volume histograms: Cardiac dose and LADCA (mean and maximum dose, D25% and D45%), dose to ipsilateral and contralateral lung (mean, D20%, D30%), dose to contralateral breast (mean dose), total monitor units, V5% of total body and normal tissue integral dose (NTID). In addition, homogeneity index and conformity index, as well as the excess absolute risk (EAR) to estimate the risk of second malignancy were calculated.

Results: T-IMRT showed a significant reduction in mean cardiac dose of 26% (p = 0.002) compared to t-VMAT, as well as a significant reduction in the mean dose to LADCA of 20% (p = 0.03). Following t-IMRT, mean dose to the left lung was increased by 5% (p = 0.006), whereas no significant difference was found in the mean dose to the right lung and contralateral breast between the two procedures. Monitor units were 31% (p = 0.000004) lower for t-IMRT than for t-VMAT. T-IMRT technique significantly reduced normal tissue integral dose (NTID) by 19% (p = 0.000005) and the V5% of total body by 24% (p = 0.0007). In contrast, t-VMAT improved CI and HI by 2% (p = 0.001) and 0.4% (p = 0.00001), respectively. EAR with t-IMRT was significantly lower, especially for contralateral lung and contralateral breast (2-5/10,000 person years) but not for ipsilateral lung.

Conclusion: Compared to t-VMAT, t-IMRT in left-sided breast irradiation significantly reduced dose to organs at risk as well as normal tissue integral dose, and V5% total body. EAR with t-IMRT was significantly lower for contralateral lung and contralateral breast. T-VMAT, however, achieved better homogeneity and conformity. This may be relevant in individual cases where sufficient coverage of medial lymphatic target volumes is warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-019-1363-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6721379PMC
September 2019

Randomized Phase II Trial of Chemoradiotherapy Plus Induction or Consolidation Chemotherapy as Total Neoadjuvant Therapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: CAO/ARO/AIO-12.

J Clin Oncol 2019 12 31;37(34):3212-3222. Epub 2019 May 31.

University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

Purpose: Total neoadjuvant therapy is a new paradigm for rectal cancer treatment. Optimal scheduling of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and chemotherapy remains to be established.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, phase II trial using a pick-the-winner design on the basis of the hypothesis of an increased pathologic complete response (pCR) of 25% after total neoadjuvant therapy compared with standard 15% after preoperative CRT. Patients with stage II or III rectal cancer were assigned to group A for induction chemotherapy using three cycles of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin before fluorouracil/oxaliplatin CRT (50.4 Gy) or to group B for consolidation chemotherapy after CRT. Secondary end points included toxicity, compliance, and surgical morbidity.

Results: Of the 311 patients enrolled, 306 patients were evaluable (156 in group A and 150 in group B). CRT-related grade 3 or 4 toxicity was lower (37% 27%) and compliance with CRT higher in group B (91%, 78%, and 76% 97%, 87%, and 93% received full-dose radiotherapy, concomitant fluorouracil, and concomitant oxaliplatin in groups A and B, respectively); 92% versus 85% completed all induction/consolidation chemotherapy cycles, respectively. The longer interval between completion of CRT and surgery in group B (median 90 45 days in group A) did not increase surgical morbidity. A pCR in the intention-to-treat population was achieved in 17% in group A and in 25% in group B. Thus, only group B ( < .001), but not group A ( = .210), fulfilled the predefined statistical hypothesis.

Conclusion: Up-front CRT followed by chemotherapy resulted in better compliance with CRT but worse compliance with chemotherapy compared with group A. Long-term follow-up will assess whether improved pCR in group B translates to better oncologic outcome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.00308DOI Listing
December 2019

Leukocytosis and neutrophilia as independent prognostic immunological biomarkers for clinical outcome in the CAO/ARO/AIO-04 randomized phase 3 rectal cancer trial.

Int J Cancer 2019 10 2;145(8):2282-2291. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

Peripheral blood leukocytosis and neutrophilia reflect cancer inflammation and have been proposed as prognostic immunological biomarkers in various malignancies. However, previous studies were limited by their retrospective nature and small patient numbers. Baseline peripheral blood leukocytes, neutrophils, hemoglobin, platelets, lactate dehydrogenase and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics, and clinical outcome in 1236 patients with rectal cancer treated with 5-FU-based preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) alone or with oxaliplatin followed by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy within the CAO/ARO/AIO-04 randomized phase 3 trial. Multivariable analyses were performed using Cox regression models. After a median follow-up of 50 months, baseline leukocytosis remained an independent adverse prognostic factor for disease-free survival (DFS; HR 1.457; 95% CI 1.163-1.825; p = 0.001), distant metastasis (HR 1.696; 95% CI 1.266-2.273; p < 0.001) and overall survival (OS; HR 1.716; 95% CI 1.264-2.329; p = 0.001) in multivariable analysis. Similar significant findings were observed for neutrophilia and high CEA levels. Conversely, treatment-induced leukopenia correlated with favorable DFS (p = 0.037), distant metastasis (p = 0.028) and OS (p = 0.012). Intriguingly, addition of oxaliplatin to 5-FU CRT resulted in a significant DFS improvement only in patients with neutrophilia and leukocytosis (p = 0.028 and p = 0.002). Our findings have important clinical implications and provide high-level evidence on the adverse prognostic role of leukocytes and neutrophils, and the impact of chemotherapy in the context of these biomarkers. These data could help guide patient stratification and should be further validated within prospective studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32274DOI Listing
October 2019

Adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus: neoadjuvant chemoradiation and radical surgery : Long-term results.

Strahlenther Onkol 2018 11 5;194(11):1007-1016. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Coburg Hospital, Ketschendorfer Str. 33, 96450, Coburg, Germany.

Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate long-term treatment results following neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) and radical surgery in patients with advanced adenocarcinoma (AC) of the oesophagus.

Patients And Methods: Between 2005 and 2015, a total of 102 consecutive patients with a median age of 64 years (range, 44-86 years) and AC of the oesophagus were evaluated of whom 84 received a full CRT. A group of 51 patients was treated with neoadjuvant intent followed by radical surgery. A total dose of 50.4 Gy with mostly weekly paclitaxel/fluorouracil chemotherapy was administered. Six to eight weeks following CRT, a transthoracic subtotal oesophageal and proximal gastric resection was performed. Survival curves for overall survival and no evidence of disease (NED) survival (primary endpoints) were calculated according to Kaplan-Meier, and possible prognostic factors were evaluated by the log-rank test as well as by a Cox regression analysis.

Results: Median follow-up time of the surviving patients was 48 months (range, 14-134 months). Overall and NED survival rates for patients of the study group (n = 51) were 40 and 32%, respectively, at 5 years. Age (p = 0.04), ypT category (p = 0.1) and the development of distant metastases (p = 0.05) were identified as (marginally) independent prognostic variables with impact on survival. Median survival time for patients of the study group (n = 51) was 45 ± 18 months (95%CI 9-81 months). Clear resection margins were achieved in 46/51 patients (92%). Regression rates with complete regression rare residual cancer and increased number of residual cells, but predominantly fibrosis were 33, 41, and 10%, respectively. Patterns of failure revealed local with distant recurrence in 2/51 (4%), regional recurrence alone in 2/51 (4%), and distant metastases in 27/51 (53%) patients.

Conclusion: Neoadjuvant CRT in patients with AC of the oesophagus followed by thoracoabdominal surgery is a locally very effective concept. A significant tumour regression in almost 75% of the patients may stimulate prospective trials on the omission of radical surgery for some elderly patients. Due to a high rate of distant metastases further investigations in terms of effective systemic therapy may be warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-018-1320-4DOI Listing
November 2018

[Extension of recurrence-free and overall survival in patients with ovarian cancer stage III using hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC)].

Strahlenther Onkol 2018 07;194(7):695-696

Strahlentherapie & Radioonkologie, Klinikum Coburg, Ketschendorfer Straße 33, 96450, Coburg, Deutschland.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-018-1311-5DOI Listing
July 2018

Tumor Regression Grading After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy as a Prognostic Factor and Individual-Level Surrogate for Disease-Free Survival in Rectal Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2017 12;109(12)

Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: We investigated tumor regression grading (TRG) as a prognostic marker and individual-level surrogate for disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with rectal carcinoma treated within the Chirurgische Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Onkologie/Arbeitsgemeinschaft Radiologische Onkologie/Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie (CAO/ARO/AIO)-04 randomized trial.

Methods: TRG was recorded prospectively using the Dworak classification in 1179 patients after preoperative fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with or without oxaliplatin. Multivariable analysis was performed using Cox regression models adjusted for treatment arm, resection status, and pathologic stage. Individual-level surrogacy of TRG for DFS was examined using the four Prentice criteria (PC1-4). All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: With a median follow-up of 50 months, the addition of oxaliplatin to fluorouracil-based CRT led to statistically significantly improved three-year DFS (75.9%, 95% CI = 72.3 to 79.5, vs 71.3%, 95% CI = 67.6 to 74.9, P = .04, PC 1) and a shift toward more advanced TRG groups ( P < .001, PC 2) compared with CRT with fluorouracil alone. The three-year DFS was 64.6% (95% CI = 57.3 to 71.9), 77.6% (95% CI = 74.5 to 80.7), and 92.3% (95% CI = 88.4 to 96.2) for TRG 0 + 1 (poor regression), TRG 2 + 3 (intermediate regression), and TRG 4 (complete regression), respectively ( P < .001, PC 3). TRG constituted an independent prognostic factor for DFS (TRG 2 + 3 vs TRG 0 + 1, HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.90, P = .007). Due to multicollinearity, TRG 4 and pathologic stage could not be tested within the same model. The treatment effect on DFS was captured by TRG, satisfying individual-level PC4.

Conclusions: Higher TRG after preoperative CRT predicted a favorable long-term outcome. At the individual patient level, TRG was a surrogate marker for DFS. Further phase III trials are needed to validate TRG as a surrogate at trial level.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djx095DOI Listing
December 2017

[30-day mortality after systemic anticancer treatment : Population-based observational study on breast and lung cancer].

Strahlenther Onkol 2017 08;193(8):673-676

Strahlentherapie & Radioonkologie Coburg, Ketschendorfer Str. 33, 96450, Coburg, Deutschland.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-017-1170-5DOI Listing
August 2017

Cardiac dose-sparing effects of deep-inspiration breath-hold in left breast irradiation : Is IMRT more beneficial than VMAT?

Strahlenther Onkol 2017 Oct 23;193(10):800-811. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Coburg Cancer Center, Ketschendorferstraße 33, 96450, Coburg, Germany.

Background: Given the reduction in death from breast cancer, as well as improvements in overall survival, adjuvant radiotherapy is considered the standard treatment for breast cancer. However, left-sided breast irradiation was associated with an increased rate of fatal cardiovascular events due to incidental irradiation of the heart. Recently, considerable efforts have been made to minimize cardiac toxicity of left-sided breast irradiation by new treatment methods such as deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and new radiation techniques, particularly intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DIBH irradiation on cardiac dose compared with free-breathing (FB) irradiation, while the secondary objective was to compare the advantages of IMRT versus VMAT plans in both the FB and the DIBH position for left-sided breast cancer.

Methods: In all, 25 consecutive left-sided breast cancer patients underwent CT simulation in the FB and DIBH position. Five patients were excluded with no cardiac displacement following DIBH-CT simulation. The other 20 patients were irradiated in the DIBH position using respiratory gating. Four different treatment plans were generated for each patient, an IMRT and a VMAT plan in the DIBH and in the FB position, respectively. The following parameters were used for plan comparison: dose to the heart, left anterior descending coronary artery (mean dose, maximum dose, D25% and D45%), ipsilateral, contralateral lung (mean dose, D20%, D30%) and contralateral breast (mean dose). The percentage in dose reduction for organs at risk achieved by DIBH for both IMRT and VMAT plans was calculated and compared for each patient by each treatment plan.

Results: DIBH irradiation significantly reduced mean dose to the heart and left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) using both IMRT (heart -20%; p = 0.0002, LADCA -9%; p = 0.001) and VMAT (heart -23%; p = 0.00003, LADCA -16%; p = 0.01) techniques as compared with FB radiation. There were no significant changes in left lung dose by IMRT; however, with VMAT planning, mean dose to the left lung was reduced by -4% (p = 0.0004). In addition, DIBH significantly increased the mean dose to the contralateral breast with IMRT (+14%, p = 0.002) and significantly reduced the dose to the contralateral breast with VMAT planning (-9%, p = 0.003) compared with the FB position. Additionally, in comparison with VMAT, the IMRT technique reduced mean heart dose both in the FB and the DIBH-position by -30% (p = 0.0004) and -26% (p = 0.002), respectively. Furthermore, IMRT increased the mean dose to the left lung in both the FB and the DIBH position (+5%, p = 0.003, p = 0.006), respectively. There were no significant changes in dose to the right lung and contralateral breast either in the FB or DIBH position between IMRT and VMAT techniques.

Conclusion: Left-sided breast irradiation is best performed in the DIBH position, since a considerable dose sparing to the heart and LADCA can be achieved by using either IMRT or VMAT techniques. A significant additional decrease in heart and LADCA dose by IMRT in both FB and DIBH irradiation was seen compared with VMAT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-017-1167-0DOI Listing
October 2017

Management of radiation and chemotherapy related acute toxicity in gastrointestinal cancer.

Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2016 Aug 25;30(4):655-64. Epub 2016 Jun 25.

Department of Gastrenterology, Lichtenfels Cancer Centre, Germany.

Possible toxic effects following radiation and chemotherapy of gastrointestinal tumours may cause a depletion of the mucosal barrier within the radiation volumes with severe mucositis. Diarrhoea, nausea, emesis and severe malabsorption followed by infections with dehydration and electrolyte disorders have to be encountered. For prevention and treatment of oropharyngeal mucositis an oral care protocol, oral cryotherapy together with benzydamine mouthwash may be recommended. Lower gastrointestinal diarrhoea is best treated by Octreotide (>100 μg s.c. bid) if loperamide is ineffective and amifostine (340 mg/m(2) IV) to prevent radiation proctitis. Enteral nutrition may be necessary with severe malnutrition or no enteral food intake for >7days or insufficient intake (<60%) for >10 days. With severe generalized mucositis or severe radiation induced enteritis parenteral nutrition will be initiated. Following the application of highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimen, 5-HT3 antagonists, dexamethasone and aprepitant, whereas in moderate risk levels 5-HT3 antagonist plus dexamethasone may be sufficient.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpg.2016.06.001DOI Listing
August 2016

Feasibility of a 12-month-exercise intervention during and after radiation and chemotherapy in cancer patients: impact on quality of life, peak oxygen consumption, and body composition.

Radiat Oncol 2016 Mar 16;11:42. Epub 2016 Mar 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology of the University Hospitals and Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that exercise is effective in treating many of the acute and chronic side effects of anti-cancer therapy. A recent meta-analysis supported the use of exercise to prevent or treat fatigue and lymphoedema and to improve functional status in breast cancer patients.

Patients And Methods: This trial was intended as a controlled, prospective feasibility study evaluating the impact of physical exercise (PE) in cancer patients during and after treatment with radio- and chemotherapy. Inclusion criteria were previous or ongoing treatment for cancer, motivation for PE of 0.5-1hour duration at least twice weekly for at least 3 months. Continuation of PE was encouraged thereafter. Every three months the following endpoints were assessed: Peak oxygen consumption as measured by supervised cardiopulmonary exercise test, body composition and quality of life.

Results: A total of 45 patients were included with a median age of 49 years. Forty were female and five male. Cancer types were: Breast cancer (n = 30/67 %), gastrointestinal cancer (n = 5/12 %), other types (n = 10/22 %). Thirty-eight (84 %) of the patients were included during curative treatment of their disease. Seven (16 %) were considered palliative. Adherence to the PE-programme longer than 6 months was noted for 41/45 (91 %) of the patients. Intensity of PE was thrice weekly in 32/45 (71 %), twice weekly in 11/45 (24 %). Two of 45 patients (5 %) had no PE. Mean peak oxygen consumption increased from 18.8 ± 5.6 ml/min/kg to 20.5 ± 3 ml/min/kg and 19.9 ± 4.7 ml/min/kg at 3 months (p = 0.005) and 12 months (p = 0.003), respectively. Median fat mass decreased from 30.7 ± 15 kg to 28.9 ± 15 kg and 29.5 ± 13 kg at 3 months (p = 0.001) and 12 months (p = 0.017), respectively. Global health status scores increased from a median baseline value of 54.9 ± 16.3 to 66.4 ± 14 % and 68.0 ± 20.3 % at 3 months (p = 0.001) and 12 months (p = 0.002), respectively.

Conclusion: This exercise programme in cancer patients with 2-3 weekly supervised sessions over three months was well feasible and demonstrated measurable improvement of oxygen consumption, body composition and quality of life. In addition, a 90 %-adherence rate to the PE-programme beyond 6 months was encouraging. Further randomized prospective data in a larger patient population will be collected comparing the impact of two versus four months supervision.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-016-0619-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4793737PMC
March 2016

Oxaliplatin added to fluorouracil-based preoperative chemoradiotherapy and postoperative chemotherapy of locally advanced rectal cancer (the German CAO/ARO/AIO-04 study): final results of the multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2015 Aug 15;16(8):979-89. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Department of General, Visceral and Pediatric Surgery, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Background: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy with infusional fluorouracil, total mesorectal excision surgery, and postoperative chemotherapy with fluorouracil was established by the German CAO/ARO/AIO-94 trial as a standard combined modality treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. Here we compare the previously established regimen with an investigational regimen in which oxaliplatin was added to both preoperative chemoradiotherapy and postoperative chemotherapy.

Methods: In this multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study we randomly assigned patients with rectal adenocarcinoma, clinically staged as cT3-4 or any node-positive disease, to two groups: a control group receiving standard fluorouracil-based combined modality treatment, consisting of preoperative radiotherapy of 50·4 Gy in 28 fractions plus infusional fluorouracil (1000 mg/m(2) on days 1-5 and 29-33), followed by surgery and four cycles of bolus fluorouracil (500 mg/m(2) on days 1-5 and 29); or to an investigational group receiving preoperative radiotherapy of 50·4 Gy in 28 fractions plus infusional fluorouracil (250 mg/m(2) on days 1-14 and 22-35) and oxaliplatin (50 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, 22, and 29), followed by surgery and eight cycles of oxaliplatin (100 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 15), leucovorin (400 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 15), and infusional fluorouracil (2400 mg/m(2) on days 1-2 and 15-16). Randomisation was done with computer-generated block-randomisation codes stratified by centre, clinical T category (cT1-3 vs cT4), and clinical N category (cN0 vs cN1-2) without masking. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival, defined as the time between randomisation and non-radical surgery of the primary tumour (R2 resection), locoregional recurrence after R0/1 resection, metastatic disease or progression, or death from any cause, whichever occurred first. Survival and cumulative incidence of recurrence analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle; toxicity analyses included all patients treated. Enrolment of patients in this trial is completed and follow-up is ongoing. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00349076.

Findings: Of the 1265 patients initially enrolled, 1236 were assessable (613 in the investigational group and 623 in the control group). With a median follow-up of 50 months (IQR 38-61), disease-free survival at 3 years was 75·9% (95% CI 72·4-79·5) in the investigational group and 71·2% (95% CI 67·6-74·9) in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·79, 95% CI 0·64-0·98; p=0·03). Preoperative grade 3-4 toxic effects occurred in 144 (24%) of 607 patients who actually received fluorouracil and oxaliplatin during chemoradiotherapy and in 128 (20%) of 625 patients who actually received fluorouracil chemoradiotherapy. Of 445 patients who actually received adjuvant fluorouracil and leucovorin and oxaliplatin, 158 (36%) had grade 3-4 toxic effects, as did 170 (36%) of 470 patients who actually received adjuvant fluorouracil. Late grade 3-4 adverse events in patients who received protocol-specified preoperative and postoperative treatment occurred in 112 (25%) of 445 patients in the investigational group, and in 100 (21%) of 470 patients in the control group.

Interpretation: Adding oxaliplatin to fluorouracil-based neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy (at the doses and intensities used in this trial) significantly improved disease-free survival of patients with clinically staged cT3-4 or cN1-2 rectal cancer compared with our former fluorouracil-based combined modality regimen (based on CAO/ARO/AIO-94). The regimen established by CAO/ARO/AIO-04 can be deemed a new treatment option for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.

Funding: German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00159-XDOI Listing
August 2015

[Prof. Dr. med. Thomas G. Wendt Director of the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University Hospital Jena on his 65th birthday].

Strahlenther Onkol 2014 Oct;190(11):1088-90

Klinik für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Universitätsklinikum Jena, Bachstr.18, 07740, Jena, Deutschland,

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-014-0761-7DOI Listing
October 2014

Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy with gemcitabine/cisplatin and surgery versus immediate surgery in resectable pancreatic cancer: results of the first prospective randomized phase II trial.

Strahlenther Onkol 2015 Jan 25;191(1):7-16. Epub 2014 Sep 25.

Department of Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, Krankenhausstr. 12, 91054, Erlangen, Germany,

Background: In nonrandomized trials, neoadjuvant treatment was reported to prolong survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. As neoadjuvant chemoradiation is established for the treatment of rectal cancer we examined the value of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in pancreatic cancer in a randomized phase II trial. Radiological staging defining resectability was basic information prior to randomization in contrast to adjuvant therapy trials resting on pathological staging.

Patients And Methods: Patients with resectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head were randomized to primary surgery (Arm A) or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery (Arm B), which was followed by adjuvant chemotherapy in both arms. A total of 254 patients were required to detect a 4.33-month improvement in median overall survival (mOS).

Results: The trial was stopped after 73 patients; 66 patients were eligible for analysis. Twenty nine of 33 allocated patients received chemoradiotherapy. Radiotherapy was completed in all patients. Chemotherapy was changed in 3 patients due to toxicity. Tumor resection was performed in 23 vs. 19 patients (A vs. B). The R0 resection rate was 48% (A) and 52% (B, P = 0.81) and (y)pN0 was 30% (A) vs. 39% (B, P = 0.44), respectively. Postoperative complications were comparable in both groups. mOS was 14.4 vs. 17.4 months (A vs. B; intention-to-treat analysis; P = 0.96). After tumor resection, mOS was 18.9 vs. 25.0 months (A vs. B; P = 0.79).

Conclusion: This worldwide first randomized trial for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in pancreatic cancer showed that neoadjuvant chemoradiation is safe with respect to toxicity, perioperative morbidity, and mortality. Nevertheless, the trial was terminated early due to slow recruiting and the results were not significant. ISRCTN78805636; NCT00335543.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-014-0737-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4289008PMC
January 2015

Critical role of spatial interaction between CD8⁺ and Foxp3⁺ cells in human gastric cancer: the distance matters.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2014 Feb 30;63(2):111-9. Epub 2013 Oct 30.

Department of Radiation Oncology of the University Hospitals, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Universitätsstraße 27, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.

Purpose: In various cancer types, an abundance of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) has been associated with an unfavorable outcome. Yet, the role of Treg on cancer immunity has been shown to be complex. In single cell marker technique, other tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) such as cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells (CTL) also influenced prognosis. This study for the first time investigates the concurrent spatial distribution pattern of CD8(+) and FoxP3(+) TILs and their prognostic impact in human gastric cancer.

Materials And Methods: Tumor tissue microarrays of 50 patients with surgically treated adenocarcinoma of the cardia were studied. An immunohistochemical double staining of CD8(+) and FoxP3(+) TILs was performed. Cell counts and cell-to-cell distances in tumor epithelium and stroma were evaluated with image-processing software. Metastasis-free survival, no-evidence-of-disease survival, and overall survival were investigated (mean follow-up time 6.9 years).

Results: High intraepithelial infiltration of CD8(+) and FoxP3(+) TIL was associated with the improved 10-year metastasis-free survival (83 vs. 54%, p = 0.04 and 85 vs. 59%, p = 0.09, respectively). Considering cell-to-cell distance and comparing patients with functional (30-110 μm) versus nonfunctional distances of CD8(+) and FoxP3(+) TILs, 10-year survival rates differed between 89 and 55% (p = 0.009), respectively.

Conclusion: Prognostic influence of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in gastric cancer critically depends on their cell-to-cell distance. FoxP3(+) TILs must be located within a distance between 30 and 110 μm of CD8(+) T cells to positively impact on prognosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-013-1491-xDOI Listing
February 2014

Preoperative chemoradiotherapy and postoperative chemotherapy with fluorouracil and oxaliplatin versus fluorouracil alone in locally advanced rectal cancer: initial results of the German CAO/ARO/AIO-04 randomised phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2012 Jul 23;13(7):679-87. Epub 2012 May 23.

Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy, total mesorectal excision surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy with fluorouracil is the standard combined modality treatment for rectal cancer. With the aim of improving disease-free survival (DFS), this phase 3 study (CAO/ARO/AIO-04) integrated oxaliplatin into standard treatment.

Methods: This was a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study in patients with histologically proven carcinoma of the rectum with clinically staged T3-4 or any node-positive disease. Between July 25, 2006, and Feb 26, 2010, patients were randomly assigned to two groups: a control group receiving standard fluorouracil-based combined modality treatment, consisting of preoperative radiotherapy of 50·4 Gy plus infusional fluorouracil (1000 mg/m(2) days 1-5 and 29-33), followed by surgery and four cycles of bolus fluorouracil (500 mg/m(2) days 1-5 and 29; fluorouracil group); and an experimental group receiving preoperative radiotherapy of 50·4 Gy plus infusional fluorouracil (250 mg/m(2) days 1-14 and 22-35) and oxaliplatin (50 mg/m(2) days 1, 8, 22, and 29), followed by surgery and eight cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with oxaliplatin (100 mg/m(2) days 1 and 15), leucovorin (400 mg/m(2) days 1 and 15), and infusional fluorouracil (2400 mg/m(2) days 1-2 and 15-16; fluorouracil plus oxaliplatin group). Randomisation was done with computer-generated block-randomisation codes stratified by centre, clinical T category (cT1-4 vs cT4), and clinical N category (cN0 vs cN1-2) without masking. DFS is the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints, including toxicity, compliance, and histopathological response are reported here. Safety and compliance analyses included patients as treated, efficacy endpoints were analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00349076.

Findings: Of the 1265 patients initially enrolled, 1236 were evaluable (613 in the fluorouracil plus oxaliplatin group and 623 in the fluorouracil group). Preoperative grade 3-4 toxic effects occurred in 140 (23%) of 606 patients who actually received fluorouracil and oxaliplatin during chemoradiotherapy and in 127 (20%) of 624 patients who actually received fluorouracil chemoradiotherapy. Grade 3-4 diarrhoea was more common in those who received fluorouracil and oxaliplatin during chemoradiotherapy than in those who received fluorouracil during chemoradiotherapy (73 patients [12%] vs 52 patients [8%]), as was grade 3-4 nausea or vomiting (23 [4%] vs nine [1%]). 516 (85%) of the 606 patients who received fluorouracil and oxaliplatin-based chemoradiotherapy had the full dose of chemotherapy, and 571 (94%) had the full dose of radiotherapy; as did 495 (79%) and 601 (96%) of 624 patients who received fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy, respectively. A pathological complete response was achieved in 103 (17%) of 591 patients who underwent surgery in the fluorouracil and oxaliplatin group and in 81 (13%) of 606 patients who underwent surgery in the fluorouracil group (odds ratio 1·40, 95% CI 1·02-1·92; p=0·038). In the fluorouracil and oxaliplatin group, 352 (81%) of 435 patients who began adjuvant chemotherapy completed all cycles (with or without dose reduction), as did 386 (83%) of 463 patients in the fluorouracil group.

Interpretation: Inclusion of oxaliplatin into modified fluorouracil-based combined modality treatment was feasible and led to more patients achieving a pathological complete response than did standard treatment. Longer follow-up is needed to assess DFS.

Funding: German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70187-0DOI Listing
July 2012

Adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction: neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and radical surgery : early results and toxicity.

Strahlenther Onkol 2011 Apr 24;187(4):231-7. Epub 2011 Mar 24.

Department of Surgery, Klinikum Coburg, Coburg, Germany.

Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate treatment results and toxicity following a combined approach consisting of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and radical surgery in advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction.

Patients And Methods: Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 41 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic adeno-carcinoma of the esophagus and the esophagogastric junction were evaluated, of whom 23 received neoadjuvant radiochemo-therapy (RCT). A total dose of 50.4 Gy with 2 cycles of simultaneous cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (FU) or Taxol/FU-chemotherapy were applied. A radical transthoracic subtotal esophageal and proximal gastric resection through a right thoracoabdominal laparotomy with intrathoracic anastomosis was performed 6-8 weeks following RCT. This was combined with a two-field lymphadenectomy of mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes. Standard histopathological evaluation included the application of regression grading according to Werner and Höfler. Toxicity was recorded on the basis of CTC criteria; survival curves were calculated according to Kaplan-Meier. V10, V15, and V20 data were correlated with pulmonary toxicity.

Results: Overall survival for all 23 patients was 61% at 3 years. Of the original 23 patients, 18 (78%) patients proceeded to radical surgery. Reasons for no surgery included advanced age of 79, 82, and 86 years (n = 3), severe comorbidity (n = 1), and progression during radiochemotherapy (n = 1). Surgical morbidity (grade 3-4) and mortality rates were 35% and 6%, respectively. Resurgery was necessary in 3 cases (18%). Clear resection margins were achieved in 17 of 18 patients (94%). Twelve of 18 (67%) patients initially diagnosed with T3 tumors and 3 of 3 patients with T4 tumors experienced downstaging. The ypN0 rate was 12 of 18 patients (67%). Out of a total of 18 patients, regression grading revealed < 10% viable cells in 8 (44%) including 3 cases (17%) with complete regression, 10-50% viable cells in 9 (50%) and > 50% viable cells in 1 patient. During the postoperative course or thereafter, 8 of 23 (35%) patients experienced pulmonary complications including pneumonia and/or pneumonitis. V10 > 20% (p = 0.019), V15 > 13% (p = 0.008), and V20 > 10% (p = 0.008) were associated with a significant increase in the rate of pulmonary toxic effects.

Conclusion: Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy in patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction followed by thoracoabdominal surgery is a feasible concept. Significant tumor regression in 44% of the patients and an ypN0 rate in 67% of the patients may favor this approach due to its high efficacy. However, to avoid toxic pulmonary effects constraints for low-dose radiation volume parameters need specific attention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-011-2171-4DOI Listing
April 2011

Inflammation in gastric adenocarcinoma of the cardia: how do EBV infection, Her2 amplification and cancer progression influence tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes?

Virchows Arch 2011 Apr 26;458(4):403-11. Epub 2011 Feb 26.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Universitätsstr. 27, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in gastric adenocarcinoma show a strong compartmentalization with high numbers of lymphocytes in the stroma and low intraepithelial lymphocyte counts. Our previous study has shown stromal regulatory T cells (Treg) to be associated with a beneficial outcome in intestinal type cancer of the cardia. We undertook the present study to further evaluate the immunogenic and inflammatory environment in intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma of the cardia. We assessed CXCR3 expression, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status, Her2/ERBB2 status and overexpression/amplification using tissue microarrays (immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization) of 52 patients. The data were correlated to different TIL subset counts (CD3, CD8, GranzymeB, FoxP3 and CD20) and to infiltrating histiocytes (CD68) both in the tumor and the surrounding stromal tissue that were reported earlier. Her2/ERBB2 overexpression/amplification showed no correlation to tumor stage. Moreover, for the first time, we show here that Her2/ERBB2 overexpression/amplification has no correlation to overall or subset-specific TIL infiltration. EBV infection was seen in four cases and showed a strong association with intratumoral CD8(+) T cell infiltration as well as a moderate correlation to stromal CD8(+) T cell accumulation. Intratumoral CD8(+) T cell infiltration was significantly correlated to intratumoral FoxP3(+) Treg infiltration, and to a lesser extent, to stromal FoxP3(+) Treg counts. Stromal CXCR3(+) T cell infiltration showed an inverse correlation to T category. This highlights the importance of stromal immune processes for cancer growth and suggests a subversion of Th1 immunoresponse in cancer progression and underlines the important role of inflammation for early carcinogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-011-1058-1DOI Listing
April 2011

Growth hormone therapy and the risk of tumor recurrence after brain tumor treatment in children.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2010 Sep;23(9):935-42

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Saarland University Hospital, Homburg/Saar, Germany.

To assess the effect of human growth hormone (hGH) therapy and other factors on tumor recurrence after treatment of pediatric brain tumors (BTs), we retrospectively analyzed data from 108 craniopharyngioma, medulloblastoma, and ependymoma patients. Risk factors were identified using multifactorial univariate regression analysis. Recurrences occurred in 41 and second malignant neoplasms in 4 patients. There were significant correlations for completeness of tumor removal and recurrence-free survival (RFS). 13/44 hGH-treated and 28/59 non-hGH-treated children relapsed. This difference was found only for medulloblastomas and accounted for by higher rates of incomplete tumor removal in non-hGH patients. Craniopharyngioma recurrence correlated only with RFS. Malignant BT recurrence correlated with completeness of tumor removal, chemotherapy, and RFS. 4 children developed SMNs, 3/4 after hGH therapy. Our regression model yielded accurate within-sample prediction of recurrence for 90% of the study population. We conclude that hGH therapy after treatment of pediatric BTs does not increase tumor recurrence risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem.2010.150DOI Listing
September 2010

[Geriatrics and radiation oncology. Part 1: How to identify high-risk patients and basic treatment principles].

Strahlenther Onkol 2010 Aug 29;186(8):411-22. Epub 2010 Jul 29.

DiaCura Coburg, Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Klinikum Coburg, Coburg, Germany.

Background: Until the mid of this century, 33% of the Western population will be > or = 65 years old. The percentage of patients being > or = 80 years old with today 5% will triple until 2050. Therefore, radiation oncologists must be familiar with special geriatric issues to meet the increasing demand for multidisciplinary cooperation and to offer useful and individual treatment concepts.

Patients And Methods: This review article will provide basic data on the definition, identification and treatment of geriatric cancer patients.

Results: The geriatric patient is defined by typical multimorbidity (15 items) and by age-related increased vulnerability. Best initial identification of geriatric patients will be provided by assessment including the Barthel Index evaluating self-care and activity in daily life, by the Mini-Mental Status Test that will address cognitive pattern, and by the Timed "Up&Go" Test for evaluation of mobility. As for chemotherapy, standard treatment was associated with increased toxicity, consequently, dose modifications and supportive treatment are of special importance.

Conclusion: Geriatric cancer patients need to be identified by special assessment instruments. Due to increased toxicity following chemotherapy, supportive measures seem important. Radiation treatment as a noninvasive and outpatient-based treatment remains an important and preferable option.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-010-2045-1DOI Listing
August 2010

Phase I/IIa study of cilengitide and temozolomide with concomitant radiotherapy followed by cilengitide and temozolomide maintenance therapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

J Clin Oncol 2010 Jun 3;28(16):2712-8. Epub 2010 May 3.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 46, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Purpose: Invasion and migration are key processes of glioblastoma and are tightly linked to tumor recurrence. Integrin inhibition using cilengitide has shown synergy with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in vitro and promising activity in recurrent glioblastoma. This multicenter, phase I/IIa study investigated the efficacy and safety of cilengitide in combination with standard chemoradiotherapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

Patients And Methods: Patients (age > or = 18 to < or = 70 years) were treated with cilengitide (500 mg) administered twice weekly intravenously in addition to standard radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Treatment was continued until disease progression or for up to 35 weeks. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months.

Results: Fifty-two patients (median age, 57 years; 62% male) were included. Six- and 12-month PFS rates were 69% (95% CI, 54% to 80%) and 33% (95% CI, 21% to 46%). Median PFS was 8 months (95% CI, 6.0 to 10.7 months). Twelve- and 24-month overall survival (OS) rates were 68% (95% CI, 53% to 79%) and 35% (95% CI, 22% to 48%). Median OS was 16.1 months (95% CI, 13.1 to 23.2 months). PFS and OS were longer in patients with tumors with O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation (13.4 and 23.2 months) versus those without MGMT promoter methylation (3.4 and 13.1 months). The combination of cilengitide with temozolomide and radiotherapy was well tolerated, with no additional toxicity. No pharmacokinetic interactions between temozolomide and cilengitide were identified.

Conclusion: Compared with historical controls, the addition of concomitant and adjuvant cilengitide to standard chemoradiotherapy demonstrated promising activity in patients with glioblastoma with MGMT promoter methylation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2009.26.6650DOI Listing
June 2010

Validation of histologic changes induced by external irradiation in mandibular bone. An experimental animal model.

J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2010 Jan 1;38(1):47-53. Epub 2009 Dec 1.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Glueckstrasse 11, 91054 Erlangen, Germany.

The present experimental study sought to determine the effect of high-dose irradiation on the rat mandible in order to establish an experimental model of radiogenic bone damage. The left mandibles of 20 adult Wistar rats were irradiated (single fraction 1500cGy, total dose 60Gy) by means of a hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (hfSRT) over a period of 6 weeks. Follow-up was 6 weeks (group 1, n=10) and 12 weeks (group 2, n=10). The contralateral mandibles as well as 5 non-irradiated animals served as controls. Primary endpoints were fibrosis, loss of cell count, decreased immunohistochemical labelling for bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and osteocalcin as well as increased expression of transforming growth factor (TGF-beta). Cell loss, progressive fibrosis, and focal necrosis were detected in all irradiated sites. Quantitative measurement revealed 32.0+/-8.7% and 37.3+/-9.5% empty osteocyte lacunae for groups 1 and 2 resp., compared to 16.3+/-4.7% and 18.9+/-4.9% on the contralateral side and 7.9+/-1.7% for unirradiated controls (Mann-Whitney U test; p<.01). BMP-2 and osteocalcin labelling showed a marked decrease in irradiated and contralateral sides while TGF-beta was expressed strongly in irradiated sites only (for all p<.05). External hypofractionated irradiation with a total dose of 60Gy is feasible in rats and yields all histologic changes attributed to osteoradionecrosis (ORN) after a follow-up of 6 weeks. The irradiation protocol is suitable for an assessment of regenerative options in severe radiogenic bone damage. As a split mouth design entails major inaccuracies healthy animals have to be used as controls.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms.2009.07.011DOI Listing
January 2010

Downstaging of pancreatic carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

Strahlenther Onkol 2009 Sep 12;185(9):557-66. Epub 2009 Sep 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Background And Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation could improve survival in patients with pancreatic cancer because of a higher rate of R0 resections, lower rate of nodal metastasis (ypN) and of local recurrence. This approach was tested in a cohort to estimate its effect on survival.

Patients And Methods: Three-dimensional, conformal radiation to the primary tumor (55.8 Gy) and the lymphatics (50.4 Gy) was combined with chemotherapy. Resection was performed 6 weeks after completion of chemoradiation.

Results: 38 of 120 patients with locally advanced cancer underwent tumor resection thereafter. Three patients (8%) had pathologic complete response. Median tumor-specific survival was 29 months and overall survival 25 months. Patients with clear margins (35/38; 89%) had a 3-year disease-specific survival rate of 51% versus 0% with positive margins (p = 0.008). Nodal disease rate decreased from 50% at pretherapeutic imaging to 32% at resection. Patients with ypN0 status (n = 26/38) had a 3-year tumor-specific survival rate of 50% compared to 31% in patients with ypN1 status. At multivariate analysis, resection status and nodal spread significantly predicted tumor-specific survival. Chemoradiation was generally well tolerated.

Conclusion: The current results support randomized testing of neoadjuvant chemoradiation to prove survival prolongation. Compared to the literature this approach seems to reduce the number of positive nodes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-009-1977-9DOI Listing
September 2009

Stromal regulatory T-cells are associated with a favourable prognosis in gastric cancer of the cardia.

BMC Gastroenterol 2009 Sep 4;9:65. Epub 2009 Sep 4.

Institute for Pathology, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Recent evidence suggests that CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Treg) may be responsible for the failure of host anti-tumour immunity by suppressing cytotoxic T- cells. We assessed the prognostic significance of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in intestinal-type gastric cardiac cancer.

Methods: Tumour infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) subsets and tumour infiltrating macrophages (TIM) were investigated in 52 cases using tissue microarrays. The interrelationship between the cell populations (CD3+, CD8+, CD20+, CD68+, GranzymeB+, FoxP3+) in different compartments and NED-survival was investigated (median follow-up time: 61 months).

Results: Intraepithelial infiltration with TIL and TIM including Treg was generally low and not related to NED-survival. However, patients with large numbers of FoxP3+ Treg in the tumour stroma (>125.9 FoxP3+TILs/mm2) had a median survival time of 58 months while those with low FoxP3+ TIL counts (<125.9 FoxP3+TILs/mm2) had a median survival time of 32 months (p = 0.006). Patients with high versus low stromal CD68+/FoxP3+ cell ratios in primary tumour displayed median survivals of 32 and 55 months, respectively (p = 0.008).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that inflammatory processes within the tumour stroma of gastric intestinal-type adenocarcinomas located at the gastric cardia may affect outcome in two ways. Tumour-infiltrating macrophages are likely to promote carcinogenesis while large numbers of Treg are associated with improved outcome probably by inhibiting local inflammatory processes promoting carcinogenesis. Thus, inhibition of Treg may not be a feasible treatment option in gastric adenocarcinoma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-230X-9-65DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2749861PMC
September 2009