Publications by authors named "Gerhard Ehninger"

367 Publications

Midostaurin reduces relapse in FLT3-mutant acute myeloid leukemia: the Alliance CALGB 10603/RATIFY trial.

Leukemia 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

The prospective randomized, placebo-controlled CALGB 10603/RATIFY trial (Alliance) demonstrated a statistically significant overall survival benefit from the addition of midostaurin to standard frontline chemotherapy in a genotypically-defined subgroup of 717 patients with FLT3-mutant acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The risk of death was reduced by 22% on the midostaurin-containing arm. In this post hoc analysis, we analyzed the cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) on this study and also evaluated the impact of 12 4-week cycles of maintenance therapy. CIR analyses treated relapses and AML deaths as events, deaths from other causes as competing risks, and survivors in remission were censored. CIR was improved on the midostaurin arm (HR = 0.71 (95% CI, 0.54-0.93); p = 0.01), both overall and within European LeukemiaNet 2017 risk classification subsets when post-transplant events were considered in the analysis as events. However, when transplantation was considered as a competing risk, there was overall no significant difference between the risks of relapse on the two randomized arms. Patients still in remission after consolidation with high-dose cytarabine entered the maintenance phase, continuing with either midostaurin or placebo. Analyses were inconclusive in quantifying the impact of the maintenance phase on the overall outcome. In summary, midostaurin reduces the CIR.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01179-4DOI Listing
March 2021

Sorafenib or placebo in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia: long-term follow-up of the randomized controlled SORAML trial.

Leukemia 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I, Universitätsklinikum der Technischen Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Early results of the randomized placebo-controlled SORAML trial showed that, in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), sorafenib led to a significant improvement in event-free (EFS) and relapse-free survival (RFS). In order to describe second-line treatments and their implications on overall survival (OS), we performed a study after a median follow-up time of 78 months. Newly diagnosed fit AML patients aged ≤60 years received sorafenib (n = 134) or placebo (n = 133) in addition to standard chemotherapy and as maintenance treatment. The 5-year EFS was 41 versus 27% (HR 0.68; p = 0.011) and 5-year RFS was 53 versus 36% (HR 0.64; p = 0.035). Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo SCT) was performed in 88% of the relapsed patients. Four years after salvage allo SCT, the cumulative incidence of relapse was 54 versus 35%, and OS was 32 versus 50%. The 5-year OS from randomization in all study patients was 61 versus 53% (HR 0.82; p = 0.282). In conclusion, the addition of sorafenib to chemotherapy led to a significant prolongation of EFS and RFS. Although the OS benefit did not reach statistical significance, these results confirm the antileukaemic activity of sorafenib.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01148-xDOI Listing
February 2021

Characteristics and outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia and t(8;16)(p11;p13): results from an International Collaborative Study.

Br J Haematol 2021 Mar 2;192(5):832-842. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

In acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) t(8;16)(p11;p13)/MYST3-CREBBP is a very rare abnormality. Previous small series suggested poor outcome. We report on 59 patients with t(8;16) within an international, collaborative study. Median age was 52 (range: 16-75) years. AML was de novo in 58%, therapy-related (t-AML) in 37% and secondary after myelodysplastic syndrome (s-AML) in 5%. Cytogenetics revealed a complex karyotype in 43%. Besides MYST3-CREBBP, whole-genome sequencing on a subset of 10 patients revealed recurrent mutations in ASXL1, BRD3, FLT3, MLH1, POLG, TP53, SAMD4B (n = 3, each), EYS, KRTAP9-1 SPTBN5 (n = 4, each), RUNX1 and TET2 (n = 2, each). Complete remission after intensive chemotherapy was achieved in 84%. Median follow-up was 5·48 years; five-year survival rate was 17%. Patients with s-/t-AML (P = 0·01) and those with complex karyotype (P = 0·04) had an inferior prognosis. Allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) was performed in 21 (36%) patients, including 15 in first complete remission (CR1). Allo-HCT in CR1 significantly improved survival (P = 0·04); multivariable analysis revealed that allo-HCT in CR1 was effective in de novo AML but not in patients with s-AML/t-AML and less in patients exhibiting a complex karyotype. In summary, outcomes of patients with t(8;16) are dismal with chemotherapy, and may be substantially improved with allo-HCT performed in CR1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17336DOI Listing
March 2021

Decitabine treatment in 311 patients with acute myeloid leukemia: outcome and impact of mutations - a registry based analysis.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Jan 5:1-15. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I, Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus der TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

We performed a registry-based analysis of 311 AML patients treated with decitabine in a standard of care setting to assess response and survival data with a distinct focus on the impact of the mutation status. Median age was 73 years. 172 patients received decitabine first-line and 139 in r/r disease. The ORR (whole cohort) was 30% with a median overall survival of 4.7 months. First-line patients achieved better responses than r/r-patients (ORR: 38% vs. 21%) resulting in a median OS of 5.8 months vs. 3.9 months. NGS based mutation analysis was performed in 180 patients. 20 patients (11%) harbored a mutation. Response rates and survival did not differ significantly between mutated patients and wild-type patients. This analysis of a large cohort of AML patients provides response rates and OS data after decitabine treatment. Interestingly, outcome was not negatively influenced by a mutation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1864354DOI Listing
January 2021

Midostaurin in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and FLT3-TKD mutations: a subanalysis from the RATIFY trial.

Blood Adv 2020 10;4(19):4945-4954

Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

The results from the RATIFY trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00651261; CALGB 10603) showed that midostaurin combined with standard chemotherapy significantly improved outcomes in patients with FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML), compared with placebo. In this post hoc subgroup analysis from the trial, we evaluated the impact of midostaurin in 163 patients with FLT3-tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) mutations. At a median follow-up of 60.7 months (95% CI, 55.0-70.8), the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rate was significantly higher in patients treated with midostaurin than in those treated with placebo (45.2% vs 30.1%; P = .044). A trend toward improved disease-free survival was also observed with midostaurin (67.3% vs 53.4%; P = .089), whereas overall survival (OS) was similar in the 2 groups. Patients with AML and NPM1mut/FLT3-TKDmut or core binding factor (CBF)-rearranged/FLT3-TKDmut genotypes had significantly prolonged OS with or without censoring at hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), compared with NPM1WT/CBF-negative AMLs. The multivariable model for OS and EFS adjusted for allogeneic HCT in first complete remission as a time-dependent covariable, revealed NPM1 mutations and CBF rearrangements as significant favorable factors. These data show that NPM1 mutations or CBF rearrangements identify favorable prognostic groups in patients with FLT3-TKD AMLs, independent of other factors, also in the context of midostaurin treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556122PMC
October 2020

Salvage treatment with plerixafor in poor mobilizing allogeneic stem cell donors: results of a prospective phase II-trial.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Mar 7;56(3):635-645. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, TU, Dresden, Germany.

We conducted a prospective clinical trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of plerixafor (P) in allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) donors with poor mobilization response to standard-dose granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), defined by <2 × 10 CD34 + cells/kg recipient body-weight (CD34+/kg RBW) after 1st apheresis. A single dose of 240 µg/kg P was injected subcutaneously at 10 p.m. on the day of the 1st apheresis. Thirty-seven allogeneic PBSC donors underwent study treatment. The median CD34+ count in peripheral blood was 15/µl on Day 1 after G-CSF alone, versus 44/µl on Day 2 after G-CSF plus P (p < 0.001). The median yield of CD34+ cells was 1.1 × 10 on Day 1 and 2.8 × 10 on Day 2. In contrast to a median yield of only 1.31 × 10 CD CD34+/kg RBW on Day 1, triggering study inclusion, a median of 3.74 × 10 CD CD34+/kg RBW were collected with G-CSF plus P on Day 2. Of 37 donors, 21 reached the target cell count of >4.5 × 10 CD34+/kg RBW (57%, 95%CI 40-73%). No donor experienced a severe adverse event requiring treatment. In conclusion, P might be considered on a case-by-case basis for healthy allogeneic donors with very poor stem cell mobilization success after G-CSF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01053-4DOI Listing
March 2021

Marriage does not relate to major histocompatibility complex: a genetic analysis based on 3691 couples.

Proc Biol Sci 2020 10 7;287(1936):20201800. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

DKMS gemeinnützige GmbH, Tübingen, Germany.

Optimization of chances for healthy offspring is thought to be one of the factors driving mate choice and compatibility of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is assumed to determine the offspring's fitness. While humans have been claimed to be able to perceive information of MHC compatibility via the olfactory channel, it remains unknown whether humans use such information for mate choice. By investigation of 3691 married couples, we observed that the high polymorphism of MHC leads to a low chance for homozygous offspring. MHC similarity between couples did not differ from chance, we hence observed no MHC effect in married couples. Hormonal contraception at the time of relationship initiation had no significant effect towards enhanced similarity. A low variety of alleles within a postcode area led to a higher likelihood of homozygous offspring. Based on this data, we conclude that there is no pattern of MHC dis-assortative mating in a genetically diverse Western society. We discuss the question of olfactory mate preference, in-group mating bias and the high polymorphism as potential explanations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.1800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7657850PMC
October 2020

Reevaluation of reference values for bone marrow differential counts in 236 healthy bone marrow donors.

Ann Hematol 2020 Dec 15;99(12):2723-2729. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Medical Department I, University Hospital Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.

Despite the increasing role of molecular markers, differential counts and morphology of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow (BM) remain essential diagnostic criteria in hematological diseases. However, the respective reference values for BM myelogram commonly used came from small series with limited numbers of healthy individuals. We evaluated the myelograms of 236 healthy individuals who underwent unrelated bone marrow donation. Health check-ups were performed 4 weeks prior to harvest. Samples for this study, taken from the first aspiration, were stained according to the standard Pappenheim method. Three experienced investigators assessed cellularity, megakaryopoiesis, and differential counts independently. The median donor age was 31 (range 18-51) years. Predonation tests did not reveal any relevant morbidity. Thirty-seven out of 42 hypocellular marrow samples were from younger donors up to 39 years. Content of megakaryocytes was normal in 210 specimens (89%). Gender and body mass index had significant impact on hematopoiesis, whereas age had not. The number of erythroblasts was higher (about 32%) and the proportion granulopoiesis slightly lower (about 50%) compared with previous studies. Differential counts showed also some differences with respect to individual maturation stages in these lines. Interrater comparisons showed greater reliability for the assignment of cells to the different hematopoietic cell lines than for single-cell diagnoses. This study largely confirms the results for cell counts in normal human bone marrow available from previous reports and provides some insights into factors that affect individual cell populations. It also reveals substantial variability among even experienced investigators in cytological diagnoses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04255-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7683448PMC
December 2020

Sorafenib Maintenance After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia With -Internal Tandem Duplication Mutation (SORMAIN).

J Clin Oncol 2020 09 16;38(26):2993-3002. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Philipps University Marburg and University Hospital Gießen and Marburg, Campus Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

Purpose: Despite undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with internal tandem duplication mutation in the like tyrosine kinase 3 gene (ITD) have a poor prognosis, frequently relapse, and die as a result of AML. It is currently unknown whether a maintenance therapy using FLT3 inhibitors, such as the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib, improves outcome after HCT.

Patients And Methods: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase II trial (SORMAIN; German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00000591), 83 adult patients with ITD-positive AML in complete hematologic remission after HCT were randomly assigned to receive for 24 months either the multitargeted and FLT3-kinase inhibitor sorafenib (n = 43) or placebo (n = 40 placebo). Relapse-free survival (RFS) was the primary endpoint of this trial. Relapse was defined as relapse or death, whatever occurred first.

Results: With a median follow-up of 41.8 months, the hazard ratio (HR) for relapse or death in the sorafenib group versus placebo group was 0.39 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.85; log-rank = .013). The 24-month RFS probability was 53.3% (95% CI, 0.36 to 0.68) with placebo versus 85.0% (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.93) with sorafenib (HR, 0.256; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.65; log-rank = .002). Exploratory data show that patients with undetectable minimal residual disease (MRD) before HCT and those with detectable MRD after HCT derive the strongest benefit from sorafenib.

Conclusion: Sorafenib maintenance therapy reduces the risk of relapse and death after HCT for ITD-positive AML.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.03345DOI Listing
September 2020

Quantitative proteomics reveals specific metabolic features of acute myeloid leukemia stem cells.

Blood 2020 09;136(13):1507-1519

Genome Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg, Germany.

Acute myeloid leukemia is characterized by the accumulation of clonal myeloid blast cells unable to differentiate into mature leukocytes. Chemotherapy induces remission in the majority of patients, but relapse rates are high and lead to poor clinical outcomes. Because this is primarily caused by chemotherapy-resistant leukemic stem cells (LSCs), it is essential to eradicate LSCs to improve patient survival. LSCs have predominantly been studied at the transcript level, thus information about posttranscriptionally regulated genes and associated networks is lacking. Here, we extend our previous report on LSC proteomes to healthy age-matched hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and correlate the proteomes to the corresponding transcriptomes. By comparing LSCs to leukemic blasts and healthy HSPCs, we validate candidate LSC markers and highlight novel and potentially targetable proteins that are absent or only lowly expressed in HSPCs. In addition, our data provide strong evidence that LSCs harbor a characteristic energy metabolism, adhesion molecule composition, as well as RNA-processing properties. Furthermore, correlating proteome and transcript data of the same individual samples highlights the strength of proteome analyses, which are particularly potent in detecting alterations in metabolic pathways. In summary, our study provides a comprehensive proteomic and transcriptomic characterization of functionally validated LSCs, blasts, and healthy HSPCs, representing a valuable resource helping to design LSC-directed therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019003654DOI Listing
September 2020

Does time from diagnosis to treatment affect the prognosis of patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia?

Blood 2020 08;136(7):823-830

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I, Universitätsklinikum Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

In fit patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML), immediate treatment start is recommended due to the poor prognosis of untreated acute leukemia. We explored the relationship between time from diagnosis to treatment start (TDT) and prognosis in a large real-world data set from the German Study Alliance Leukemia-Acute Myeloid Leukemia (SAL-AML) registry. All registered non-acute promyelocytic leukemia patients with intensive induction treatment and a minimum 12 months of follow-up were selected (n = 2263). We analyzed influence of TDT on remission, early death, and overall survival (OS) in univariable analyses for each day of treatment delay, in groups of 0 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 15, and >15 days of TDT, adjusted for influence of established prognostic variables on outcomes. Median TDT was 3 days (interquartile range, 2-7). Unadjusted 2-year OS rates, stratified by TDT of 0 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 15, and >15 days, were 51%, 48%, 44%, and 50% (P = .211). In multivariable Cox regression analysis accounting for established prognostic variables, the TDT hazard ratio as a continuous variable was 1.00 (P = .617). In OS analyses, separately stratified for age ≤60 and >60 years and for high vs lower initial white blood cell count, no significant differences between TDT groups were observed. Our study suggests that TDT is not related to survival. As stratification in intensive first-line AML treatment evolves, TDT data suggest that it may be a feasible approach to wait for genetic and other laboratory test results so that clinically stable patients are assigned the best available treatment option. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03188874.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019004583DOI Listing
August 2020

Rapidly Switchable Universal CAR-T Cells for Treatment of CD123-Positive Leukemia.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2020 Jun 29;17:408-420. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

GEMoaB Monoclonals GmbH, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

Chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) targeting CD19 or B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) are highly effective against B cell malignancies. However, application of CAR-T to less differentially expressed targets remains a challenge due to lack of tumor-specific antigens and CAR-T controllability. CD123, a highly promising leukemia target, is expressed not only by leukemic and leukemia-initiating cells, but also by myeloid, hematopoietic progenitor, and certain endothelial cells. Thus, CAR-T lacking fine-tuned control mechanisms pose a high toxicity risk. To extend the CAR-T target landscape and widen the therapeutic window, we adapted our rapidly switchable universal CAR-T platform (UniCAR) to target CD123. UniCAR-T efficiently eradicated CD123 leukemia and . Activation, cytolytic response, and cytokine release were strictly dependent on the presence of the CD123-specific targeting module (TM123) with comparable efficacy to CD123-specific CAR-T . We further demonstrated a pre-clinical proof of concept for the safety-switch mechanism using a hematotoxicity mouse model wherein TM123-redirected UniCAR-T showed reversible toxicity toward hematopoietic cells compared to CD123 CAR-T. In conclusion, UniCAR-T maintain full anti-leukemic efficacy, while ensuring rapid controllability to improve safety and versatility of CD123-directed immunotherapy. The safety and efficacy of UniCAR-T in combination with TM123 will now be assessed in a phase I clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04230265).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2020.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240059PMC
June 2020

The clinical mutatome of core binding factor leukemia.

Leukemia 2020 06 2;34(6):1553-1562. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department of Medicine III, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

The fusion genes CBFB/MYH11 and RUNX1/RUNX1T1 block differentiation through disruption of the core binding factor (CBF) complex and are found in 10-15% of adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases. This AML subtype is associated with a favorable prognosis; however, nearly half of CBF-rearranged patients cannot be cured with chemotherapy. This divergent outcome might be due to additional mutations, whose spectrum and prognostic relevance remains hardly defined. Here, we identify nonsilent mutations, which may collaborate with CBF-rearrangements during leukemogenesis by targeted sequencing of 129 genes in 292 adult CBF leukemia patients, and thus provide a comprehensive overview of the mutational spectrum ('mutatome') in CBF leukemia. Thereby, we detected fundamental differences between CBFB/MYH11- and RUNX1/RUNX1T1-rearranged patients with ASXL2, JAK2, JAK3, RAD21, TET2, and ZBTB7A being strongly correlated with the latter subgroup. We found prognostic relevance of mutations in genes previously known to be AML-associated such as KIT, SMC1A, and DHX15 and identified novel, recurrent mutations in NFE2 (3%), MN1 (4%), HERC1 (3%), and ZFHX4 (5%). Furthermore, age >60 years, nonprimary AML and loss of the Y-chromosomes are important predictors of survival. These findings are important for refinement of treatment stratification and development of targeted therapy approaches in CBF leukemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-019-0697-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266744PMC
June 2020

Impact of NPM1/FLT3-ITD genotypes defined by the 2017 European LeukemiaNet in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

Blood 2020 01;135(5):371-380

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH.

Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring FLT3 internal tandem duplications (ITDs) have poor outcomes, in particular AML with a high (≥0.5) mutant/wild-type allelic ratio (AR). The 2017 European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommendations defined 4 distinct FLT3-ITD genotypes based on the ITD AR and the NPM1 mutational status. In this retrospective exploratory study, we investigated the prognostic and predictive impact of the NPM1/FLT3-ITD genotypes categorized according to the 2017 ELN risk groups in patients randomized within the RATIFY trial, which evaluated the addition of midostaurin to standard chemotherapy. The 4 NPM1/FLT3-ITD genotypes differed significantly with regard to clinical and concurrent genetic features. Complete ELN risk categorization could be done in 318 of 549 trial patients with FLT3-ITD AML. Significant factors for response after 1 or 2 induction cycles were ELN risk group and white blood cell (WBC) counts; treatment with midostaurin had no influence. Overall survival (OS) differed significantly among ELN risk groups, with estimated 5-year OS probabilities of 0.63, 0.43, and 0.33 for favorable-, intermediate-, and adverse-risk groups, respectively (P < .001). A multivariate Cox model for OS using allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in first complete remission as a time-dependent variable revealed treatment with midostaurin, allogeneic HCT, ELN favorable-risk group, and lower WBC counts as significant favorable factors. In this model, there was a consistent beneficial effect of midostaurin across ELN risk groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019002697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6993016PMC
January 2020

Role of Age and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index in Myelodysplastic Patients Undergoing an Allotransplant: A Retrospective Study from the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 03 21;26(3):451-457. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Hopital St. Louis, Paris, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only potentially curative option for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) but is severely limited by nonrelapse mortality (NRM), especially in this mostly older population. Comorbidity assessment is crucial to predict NRM and often assessed with the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI). Moreover, the impact of age on NRM still remains a matter of debate. In recent years, the age at which transplants are made has been progressively increasing, and patients with comorbidities have become more common. Extricating the respective roles of age and comorbidities in toxic mortality is all the more important. This study by the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry included 1245 adult patients who underwent a first allogeneic stem cell transplantation for MDSs between 2003 and 2014. Overall, 4-year NRM and overall survival were 32% and 47%, respectively. When considered as continuous predictors, HCT-CI score and age were associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for NRM. In multivariate analysis, age band (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.25; P= .016), HCT-CI ≥3 (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.73; P = .022), and Karnofsky Performance Status ≤80 (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.52 to 2.73; P< .0001) were significantly predictive of a worse NRM. In our large cohort, both comorbidities, evaluated by the original HCT-CI score, and chronological age significantly affected NRM. Thus, age should be part of the transplant decision-making process and should be integrated in future scoring systems predicting outcomes of HSCT in MDSs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.10.015DOI Listing
March 2020

A theranostic PSMA ligand for PET imaging and retargeting of T cells expressing the universal chimeric antigen receptor UniCAR.

Oncoimmunology 2019;8(11):1659095. Epub 2019 Sep 7.

Department of Radioimmunology, Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden, Germany.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown impressive therapeutic potential. Due to the lack of direct control mechanisms, therapy-related adverse reactions including cytokine release- and tumor lysis syndrome can even become life-threatening. In case of target antigen expression on non-malignant cells, CAR T cells can also attack healthy tissues. To overcome such side effects, we have established a modular CAR platform termed UniCAR: UniCAR T cells per se are inert as they recognize a peptide epitope (UniCAR epitope) that is not accessible on the surface of living cells. Bifunctional adapter molecules termed target modules (TM) can cross-link UniCAR T cells with target cells. In the absence of TMs, UniCAR T cells automatically turn off. Until now, all UniCAR TMs were constructed by fusion of the UniCAR epitope to an antibody domain. To open up the wide field of low-molecular-weight compounds for retargeting of UniCAR T cells to tumor cells, and to follow in parallel the progress of UniCAR T cell therapy by PET imaging we challenged the idea to convert a PET tracer into a UniCAR-TM. For proof of concept, we selected the clinically used PET tracer PSMA-11, which binds to the prostate-specific membrane antigen overexpressed in prostate carcinoma. Here we show that fusion of the UniCAR epitope to PSMA-11 results in a low-molecular-weight theranostic compound that can be used for both retargeting of UniCAR T cells to tumor cells, and for non-invasive PET imaging and thus represents a member of a novel class of theranostics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2019.1659095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6791425PMC
September 2019

Modified DHAP regimen in the salvage treatment of refractory or relapsed lymphomas.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2019 Dec 28;145(12):3067-3073. Epub 2019 Sep 28.

Klinikum Chemnitz, Clinic for Internal Medicine III, Bürgerstr. 2, Küchwald, 09113, Chemnitz, Germany.

Background: The combination of dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin (DHAP) is an established salvage regimen for lymphoma patients. We hypothesized that a modified administration schedule for cisplatin and cytarabine results in lower toxicity and improved efficacy.

Methods: We retrospectively analysed 119 patients with relapsed or refractory, aggressive, or indolent B-cell lymphomas, mantle-cell lymphomas, peripheral T-cell lymphomas, or Hodgkin's lymphomas who were treated with the modified DHAP (mDHAP) regimen (dexamethasone 40 mg 15 min-i.v. infusion, days 1-4; cytarabine 2 × 0.5 g/m 1 h-i.v. infusion, days 1-4; cisplatin 25 mg/m 24 h-i.v. infusion, days 1-4). Responding and eligible patients underwent stem-cell transplantation.

Results: In total, 185 treatment cycles were evaluable. Severe myelosuppression was the main toxicity occurring in 90% of the cycles. Febrile neutropenia or documented infection was found in less than 40%. Two patients died related to treatment (TRM, 1.7%). Nephrotoxicity did not exceed CTC grade 3, which occurred in four cycles only (2.2%). Complete (CR) or partial (PR) responses after mDHAP were documented in 16% and 39% (overall response rate 55%). Harvest of autologous stem cells was successful in 94 (79%) patients and 85 patients (71%) proceeded to stem-cell transplantation. The median overall and progression-free survival was 50.8 and 25.8 months.

Conclusions: An improvement in efficacy could not be observed after modified DHAP regimen; however, manageable toxicity and reduced renal complications suggest further investigation. The study, however, also underlines the need for new concepts in the management of advanced and high-risk lymphomas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-019-03027-6DOI Listing
December 2019

The prevalence of extramedullary acute myeloid leukemia detected by FDG-PET/CT: final results from the prospective PETAML trial.

Haematologica 2020 06 29;105(6):1552-1558. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Extramedullary (EM) disease in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a known phenomenon. Since the prevalence of EM AML has so far only been clinically determined on examination, we performed a prospective study in patients with AML. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of metabolically active EM AML using total body Fluorodesoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging at diagnosis prior to initiation of therapy. In order to define the dynamics of EM AML throughout treatment, PET-positive patients underwent a second FDG-PET/CT imaging series during follow up by the time of remission assessment. A total of 93 patients with AML underwent FDG-PET/CT scans at diagnosis. The prevalence of PET-positive EM AML was 19% with a total of 65 EM AML manifestations and a median number of two EM manifestations per patient (range, 1-12), with a median maximum standardized uptake value of 6.1 (range, 2-51.4). When adding those three patients with histologically confirmed EM AML who were FDG-PET/CT negative in the FDG-PET/CT at diagnosis, the combined prevalence for EM AML was 22%, resulting in 77% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Importantly, 60% (6 of 10) patients with histologically confirmed EM AML still had active EM disease in their follow up FDG-PET/CT. FDG-PET/CT reveals a high prevalence of metabolically active EM disease in AML patients. Metabolic activity in EM AML may persist even beyond the time point of hematologic remission, a finding that merits further prospective investigation to explore its prognostic relevance. (Trial registered ).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.223032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271590PMC
June 2020

Chromosomal Abnormalities and Prognosis in -Mutated Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Pooled Analysis of Individual Patient Data From Nine International Cohorts.

J Clin Oncol 2019 10 20;37(29):2632-2642. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.

Purpose: Nucleophosmin 1 () mutations are associated with a favorable prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) when an internal tandem duplication (ITD) in the fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 gene () is absent (-ITD) or present with a low allelic ratio (-ITD). The 2017 European LeukemiaNet guidelines assume this is true regardless of accompanying cytogenetic abnormalities. We investigated the validity of this assumption.

Methods: We analyzed associations between karyotype and outcome in intensively treated patients with /-ITD AML who were prospectively enrolled in registry databases from nine international study groups or treatment centers.

Results: Among 2,426 patients with /-ITD AML, 2,000 (82.4%) had a normal and 426 (17.6%) had an abnormal karyotype, including 329 patients (13.6%) with intermediate and 83 patients (3.4%) with adverse-risk chromosomal abnormalities. In patients with /-ITD AML, adverse cytogenetics were associated with lower complete remission rates (87.7%, 86.0%, and 66.3% for normal, aberrant intermediate, and adverse karyotype, respectively; < .001), inferior 5-year overall (52.4%, 44.8%, 19.5%, respectively; < .001) and event-free survival (40.6%, 36.0%, 18.1%, respectively; < .001), and a higher 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse (43.6%, 44.2%, 51.9%, respectively; = .0012). These associations remained in multivariable mixed-effects regression analyses adjusted for known clinicopathologic risk factors ( < .001 for all end points). In patients with adverse-risk chromosomal aberrations, we found no significant influence of the mutational status on outcome.

Conclusion: Karyotype abnormalities are significantly associated with outcome in /-ITD AML. When adverse-risk cytogenetics are present, patients with share the same unfavorable prognosis as patients with wild type and should be classified and treated accordingly. Thus, cytogenetic risk predominates over molecular risk in /-ITD AML.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.00416DOI Listing
October 2019

Anti-CAR-engineered T cells for epitope-based elimination of autologous CAR T cells.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2019 Sep 14;68(9):1401-1415. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Department of Radioimmunology, Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328, Dresden, Germany.

Although CAR T-cell therapy has demonstrated tremendous clinical efficacy especially in hematological malignancies, severe treatment-associated toxicities still compromise the widespread application of this innovative technology. Therefore, developing novel approaches to abrogate CAR T-cell-mediated side effects is of great relevance. Several promising strategies pursue the selective antibody-based depletion of adoptively transferred T cells via elimination markers. However, given the limited half-life and tissue penetration, dependence on the patients' immune system and on-target/off-side effects of proposed monoclonal antibodies, we sought to exploit αCAR-engineered T cells to efficiently eliminate CAR T cells. For comprehensive and specific recognition, a small peptide epitope (E-tag) was incorporated into the extracellular spacer region of CAR constructs. We provide first proof-of-concept for targeting this epitope by αE-tag CAR T cells, allowing an effective killing of autologous E-tagged CAR T cells both in vitro and in vivo whilst sparing cells lacking the E-tag. In addition to CAR T-cell cytotoxicity, the αE-tag-specific T cells can be empowered with cancer-fighting ability in case of relapse, hence, have versatile utility. Our proposed methodology can most probably be implemented in CAR T-cell therapies regardless of the targeted tumor antigen aiding in improving overall safety and survival control of highly potent gene-modified cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-019-02376-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6768917PMC
September 2019

Comparable Long-Term Outcome after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation from Sibling and Matched Unrelated Donors in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia Older Than 50 Years: A Report on Behalf of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 11 2;25(11):2251-2260. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; Acute Leukemia Working Party Office, Paris, France.

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is potentially curative therapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Marked improvement has been achieved with SCT from matched unrelated donors (MUDs) in recent years. However, there are limited data comparing the long-term outcomes (beyond 10 years) after SCT from sibling donors and MUDs in older patients with AML. We analyzed these outcomes in a large cohort of patients with AML (n = 1134), age ≥50 years, who were alive and leukemia-free 2 years after SCT from matched siblings (n = 848) or MUDs (n = 286), with a median follow-up of 8.9 years. The median age was 56 and 58 years after SCT from siblings and MUDs, respectively (P = .005). In the sibling group, 77%, 12%, and 11% were in first complete remission (CR1), second complete remission (CR2), and active leukemia at SCT compared with 50%, 25%, and 25% in the MUD group, respectively (P < .001). Sixty-one percent of siblings and 62% of MUDs had reduced-intensity conditioning (P = .78). The 10-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) of patients surviving leukemia-free 2 years after SCT was 72% and 62%, respectively (P = .30). Multivariate analysis identified active leukemia at SCT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.86; P = .0001) or CR2 (HR, 1.51; P = .02) compared with CR1, female recipients (HR, 0.71; P = .006), adverse cytogenetics (HR, 2.52; P = .01), and prior graft-versus-host disease (HR, 1.31; P = .04) as independent factors predicting LFS. Donor and conditioning type were not significant. The cumulative incidence was 15% and 17% (P = .97) for late relapse mortality and 13% and 21% for late nonrelapse mortality, respectively (P = .15). In conclusion, long-term LFS is similar, and patients who are leukemia-free 2 years after SCT can expect favorable outcomes with both donor types.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.06.031DOI Listing
November 2019

Outcome of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients Age >69 Years with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia: On Behalf of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 10 7;25(10):1975-1983. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Paris study office/CEREST-TC, Paris, France; Hematology Division and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel.

Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allows for the use of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in older patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). We compared outcomes between 713 patients age ≥70 years and 16,161 patients age 50 to 69 years who underwent HSCT between 2004 and 2014. A higher proportion of the older patients were male and had secondary AML, active disease, a peripheral blood stem cell graft, a matched unrelated donor, an RIC regimen, and a lower Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score (P< .001). In multivariate analysis, the incidences of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease and relapse were similar in the 2 age groups. Nonrelapse mortality at 2 years was 34% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31% to 38%) in patients age ≥70 years and 24% (95% CI, 25% to 32%) in those age 50 to 69 years (P< .001). Survival at 2 years in the 2 groups was 38% (95% CI, 34% to 42%) and 50% (95% CI, 49% to 50%), respectively (P< .001). In patients with active disease, the corresponding percentages were 35% (95% CI, 29% to 41%) in those age ≥70 years and 33% (95% CI, 31% to 34%) in those age <70 years (P = .36). In patients age ≥70 years, a KPS score of ≥80% was associated with improved survival (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.06; P = .003). In summary, patients age ≥70 years had worse outcomes, except for those with active AML.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.05.037DOI Listing
October 2019

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation improves outcome of adults with t(6;9) acute myeloid leukemia: results from an international collaborative study.

Haematologica 2020 01 19;105(1):161-169. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(6;9)(p22;q34) is a distinct entity accounting for 1-2% of AML cases. A substantial proportion of these patients have a concomitant -ITD. While outcomes are dismal with intensive chemotherapy, limited evidence suggests allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) may improve survival if performed early during first complete remission. We report on a cohort of 178 patients with t(6;9)(p22;q34) within an international, multicenter collaboration. Median age was 46 years (range: 16-76), AML was in 88%, -ITD was present in 62%, and additional cytogenetic abnormalities in 21%. Complete remission was achieved in 81% (n=144), including 14 patients who received high-dose cytarabine after initial induction failure. With a median follow up of 5.43 years, estimated overall survival at five years was 38% (95%CI: 31-47%). Allo-HCT was performed in 117 (66%) patients, including 89 in first complete remission. Allo-HCT in first complete remission was associated with higher 5-year relapse-free and overall survival as compared to consolidation chemotherapy: 45% (95%CI: 35-59%) and 53% (95%CI: 42-66%) 7% (95%CI: 3-19%) and 23% (95%CI: 13-38%), respectively. For patients undergoing allo-HCT, there was no difference in overall survival rates at five years according to whether it was performed in first [53% (95%CI: 42-66%)], or second [58% (95%CI: 31-100%); n=10] complete remission or with active disease/relapse [54% (95%CI: 34-84%); n=18] (=0.67). Neither -ITD nor additional chromosomal abnormalities impacted survival. In conclusion, outcomes of t(6;9)(p22;q34) AML are poor with chemotherapy, and can be substantially improved with allo-HCT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.208678DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6939530PMC
January 2020

Umbilical cord blood versus unrelated donor transplantation in adults with primary refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia: a report from Eurocord, the Acute Leukemia Working Party and the Cord Blood Committee of the Cellular Therapy and Immunobiology Working Party of the EBMT.

Blood Cancer J 2019 04 12;9(4):46. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

EBMT Paris Study Office/CEREST-TC, Paris, France.

The role of umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with active disease at allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) remains poorly investigated. In this study, we compared transplantation outcomes of 2963 patients with primary refractory or relapsed AML given CBT, 10/10 HLA-matched UD, or 9/10 HLA-matched UD allo-HCT from 2004 to 2015 at EBMT-affiliated centers. Neutrophil engraftment and complete remission rates in CBT, UD 10/10, and UD 9/10 recipients were 75 and 48%, 93 and 69%, and 93 and 70%, respectively. In multivariate Cox analyses, in comparison with CBT (n = 285), UD 10/10 recipients (n = 2001) had a lower incidence of relapse (HR = 0.7, P = 0.001), a lower incidence of non relapse mortality (HR = 0.6, P < 0.001), better GVHD-free and leukemia-free survival (GRFS, HR = 0.8, P < 0.001) and better survival (HR = 0.6, P < 0.001). Further, in comparison with CBT, 9/10 UD recipients (n = 677) also had a lower incidence of relapse (HR = 0.8, P = 0.02), a lower incidence of nonrelapse mortality (HR = 0.7, P = 0.008), better GRFS (HR = 0.8, P = 0.01) and better survival (HR = 0.7, P < 0.001). In summary, these data suggest that in AML patients with active disease at transplantation, allo-HCT with UD results in better transplantation outcomes than CBT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-019-0204-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461673PMC
April 2019

Tonic Signaling and Its Effects on Lymphopoiesis of CAR-Armed Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells.

J Immunol 2019 03 6;202(6):1735-1746. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Medical Clinic and Policlinic I, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

Long-term survival of adoptively transferred chimeric Ag receptor (CAR) T cells is often limited. Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transduced to express CARs could help to overcome this problem as CAR-armed HSCs can continuously deliver CAR multicell lineages (e.g., T cells, NK cells). In dependence on the CAR construct, a variable extent of tonic signaling in CAR T cells was reported; thus, effects of CAR-mediated tonic signaling on the hematopoiesis of CAR-armed HSCs is unclear. To assess the effects of tonic signaling, two CAR constructs were established and analyzed 1) a signaling CAR inducing a solid Ag-independent tonic signaling termed CAR-28/ζ and 2) a nonstimulating control CAR construct lacking intracellular signaling domains termed CAR-Stop. Bone marrow cells from immunocompetent mice were isolated, purified for HSC-containing LincKit cells or the LincKit Sca-1 subpopulation (LinSca-1cKit), and transduced with both CAR constructs. Subsequently, modified bone marrow cells were transferred into irradiated mice, in which they successfully engrafted and differentiated into hematopoietic progenitors. HSCs expressing the CAR-Stop sustained normal hematopoiesis. In contrast, expression of the CAR-28/ζ led to elimination of mature CAR T and B cells, suggesting that the CAR-mediated tonic signaling mimics autorecognition via the newly recombined immune receptors in the developing lymphocytes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1801004DOI Listing
March 2019

Unmanipulated haploidentical versus HLA-matched sibling allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia: a retrospective study on behalf of the ALWP of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 09 4;54(9):1499-1510. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Acute Leukemia Working Party of EBMT, Paris, France.

Refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (R/R-AML) has poor prognosis. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) may provide cure in this scenario. We compared outcomes of HSCT from HLA-identical (HLA-id, n = 1654) sibling or haploidentical (Haplo, n = 389) donors in patients with R/R-AML, performed during the period 2007-2015. The Haplo group included patients receiving an unmanipulated graft (post-transplant cyclophosphamide, n = 278; in vivo T-cell depletion, n = 95; or both, n = 16). Median age at HSCT was 52 (range 18-74) years. Median follow-up was 16 and 22 months for HLA-id sibling and Haplo recipients, respectively (p = 0.11). Compared to MSD, Haplo HSCT were performed more recently (2013 vs 2011, p < 0.01), at longer interval from diagnosis (7 vs 5 months, p < 0.01), more frequently using bone marrow as stem cell source (47% vs 8%, p < 0.01) and with a reduced intensity conditioning regimen (50% vs 43%, p = 0.03). Engraftment was higher (93% vs 83%, p < 0.01) in HLA-id sibling. In multivariate analysis, Haplo HSCT was associated with lower GVHD/relapse-free survival, inferior LFS and OS and higher NRM, mainly due to a higher rate of infections (41% vs 25%, p < 0.01). For R/R-AML, HLA-id sibling donors remain the gold standard, when available, due to higher mortality in Haplo without significant gain in disease control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0459-7DOI Listing
September 2019