Publications by authors named "Gerald Young"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparability and Validity of the Online and In-Person Administrations of the Inventory of Problems-29.

Psychol Inj Law 2021 Apr 5:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Alliant International University - San Diego, San Diego, CA USA.

While the psychometric equivalence of computerized versus paper-and-pencil administration formats has been documented for some tests, so far very few studies have focused on the comparability and validity of test scores obtained via in-person versus remote administrations, and none of them have researched a symptom validity test (SVT). To contribute to fill this gap in the literature, we investigated the scores of the Inventory of Problems-29 (IOP-29) generated by various administration formats. More specifically, Study 1 evaluated the equivalence of scores from nonclinical individuals administered the IOP-29 remotely ( = 146) versus in-person via computer ( = 140) versus in-person via paper-and-pencil format ( = 140). Study 2 reviewed published IOP-29 studies conducted using remote/online versus in-person, paper-and-pencil test administrations to determine if remote testing could adversely influence the validity of IOP-29 test results. Taken together, our findings suggest that the effectiveness of the IOP-29 is preserved when alternating between face-to-face and online/remote formats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12207-021-09406-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019979PMC
April 2021

Affective Benefits of Nature Contact: The Role of Rumination.

Front Psychol 2021 10;12:643866. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States.

Mounting evidence shows that nature contact is associated with affective benefits. However, the psychological mechanisms responsible for these effects are not well understood. In this study, we examined whether more time spent in nature was associated with higher levels of positive affect in general, and lower levels of negative affect and rumination in general. We also conducted a cross-sectional mediation analysis to examine whether rumination mediated the association of nature contact with affect. Participants ( = 617) reported their average time spent in nature each week, as well as their general levels of positive and negative affect, and the degree to which they typically engaged in rumination in daily life. We then used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. Our results support the hypothesis that nature contact is associated with general levels of affect, and that rumination mediates this association for negative affect, and marginally mediates this association for positive affect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.643866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988226PMC
March 2021

Testing in Psychological Injury and Law.

Authors:
Gerald Young

Psychol Inj Law 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Glendon College, York University, Toronto, Canada.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12207-021-09405-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7973799PMC
March 2021

Civil Forensic Evaluation in Psychological Injury and Law: Legal, Professional, and Ethical Considerations.

Psychol Inj Law 2020 Nov 24:1-27. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Glendon College, York University, Toronto, Canada.

Psychologists who work as therapists or administrators, or who engage in forensic practice in criminal justice settings, find it daunting to transition into practice in civil cases involving personal injury, namely psychological injury from the psychological perspective. In civil cases, psychological injury arises from allegedly deliberate or negligent acts of the defendant(s) that the plaintiff contends caused psychological conditions to appear. These alleged acts are disputed in courts and other tribunals. Conditions considered in psychological injury cases include posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, chronic pain conditions, and sequelae of traumatic brain injury. This article outlines a detailed case sequence from referral through the end of expert testimony to guide the practitioner to work effectively in this field of practice. It addresses the rules and regulations that govern admissibility of expert evidence in court. The article provides ethical and professional guidance throughout, including best practices in assessment and testing, and emphasizes evidence-based forensic practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12207-020-09398-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7683260PMC
November 2020

The Influence of Microaffirmations on Undergraduate Persistence in Science Career Pathways.

CBE Life Sci Educ 2019 09;18(3):ar40

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064.

The present studies aimed to advance the measurement and understanding of microaffirmation kindness cues and assessed how they related to historically underrepresented (HU) and historically overrepresented (HO) undergraduate student persistence in science-related career pathways. Study 1 developed and tested the dimensionality of a new Microaffirmations Scale. Study 2 confirmed the two-factor structure of the Microaffirmations Scale and demonstrated that the scale possessed measurement invariance across HU and HO students. Further, the scale was administered as part of a longitudinal design spanning 9 months, with results showing that students' reported microaffirmations did not directly predict higher intentions to persist in science-related career pathways 9 months later. However, scientific self-efficacy and identity, measures of student integration into the science community, mediated this relationship. Overall, our results demonstrated that microaffirmations can be measured in an academic context and that these experiences have predictive value when they increase students' integration into their science communities, ultimately resulting in greater intentions to persist 9 months later. Researchers and practitioners can use the Microaffirmations Scale for future investigations to increase understanding of the positive contextual factors that can ultimately help reduce persistence gaps in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics degree attainment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.19-01-0012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6755308PMC
September 2019

Emotion regulation choice: a broad examination of external factors.

Cogn Emot 2020 03 6;34(2):242-261. Epub 2019 May 6.

Department of Psychology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, USA.

Emotion regulation choices are known to be profoundly consequential across affective, cognitive, and social domains. Prior studies have identified two important external factors of emotion regulation choice: stimulus intensity and reappraisal affordances. However, whether there are other external factors of emotion regulation choice and how these factors contribute to emotion regulation choice when considered simultaneously is not yet clear. The current studies addressed these gaps by examining the relations between emotion regulation choice (distraction vs. reappraisal) and self-reported stimulus intensity, reappraisal affordances, and several other factors including discrete emotions and distraction affordances. Across three studies using different databases of standardised images to enhance generalizability, our results showed that in the context of our experiments, reappraisal affordances were strongly associated with emotion regulation choice (greater reappraisal affordances predicted higher use of reappraisal). Further, stimulus intensity was independently associated with emotion regulation choice in each study. Our results also demonstrated that the discrete emotion of disgust (but not other discrete emotions) is a previously unidentified external factor of emotion regulation choice. We discuss the implications of the current findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2019.1611544DOI Listing
March 2020

An investigation into the drivers of avolition in schizophrenia.

Psychiatry Res 2018 03 6;261:225-231. Epub 2018 Jan 6.

Department of Psychology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Over a century of research has documented that avolition is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, the drivers of avolition remain unclear. Conceptually, there are at least two potential mutually compatible drivers that could cause avolition in schizophrenia. First, people with schizophrenia might have differences in preferences that result in less goal-directed behavior than non-clinical populations (preference-differences). Second, people with schizophrenia might have difficulty translating their preferences into manifest behavior at rates similar to non-clinical populations (psychological-inertia). In the present work, we modified and validated a well-validated paradigm from the motivation/decision making literature to compare levels of preference-differences and psychological-inertia. To measure preference-differences, people with and without schizophrenia choose between a lower-valenced and higher-valenced image. We measured the rate at which the normatively lower-valenced image was preferred. To measure psychological-inertia, both groups were given the opportunity to volitionally switch from a lower-valenced image and view a higher-valenced image. Contrary to expectations, people with schizophrenia did not differ on either preference-differences or psychological-inertia. Statistical analysis revealed that the possibility of a Type II error for even a weak effect was small. The present data suggest new avenues for research investigating mechanisms underlying avolition and clinical interventions targeting avolition in schizophrenia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.01.001DOI Listing
March 2018

Emotion regulation choice: the role of environmental affordances.

Cogn Emot 2018 08 1;32(5):963-971. Epub 2017 Sep 1.

d Department of Psychology , Stanford University , Stanford , CA , USA.

Which emotion regulation strategy one uses in a given context can have profound affective, cognitive, and social consequences. It is therefore important to understand the determinants of emotion regulation choice. Many prior studies have examined person-specific, internal determinants of emotion regulation choice. Recently, it has become clear that external variables that are properties of the stimulus can also influence emotion regulation choice. In the present research, we consider whether reappraisal affordances, defined as the opportunities for re-interpretation of a stimulus that are inherent in that stimulus, can shape individuals' emotion regulation choices. We show that reappraisal affordances have stability across people and across time (Study 1), and are confounded with emotional intensity for a standardised set of picture stimuli (Study 2). Since emotional intensity has been shown to drive emotion regulation choice, we construct a context in which emotional intensity is separable from reappraisal affordances (Study 3) and use this context to show that reappraisal affordances powerfully influence emotion regulation choice even when emotional intensity and discrete emotions are taken into account (Study 4).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2017.1371003DOI Listing
August 2018

PTSD in Court III: Malingering, assessment, and the law.

Authors:
Gerald Young

Int J Law Psychiatry 2017 May - Jun;52:81-102. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Glendon Campus, York University, Canada. Electronic address:

This journal's third article on PTSD in Court focuses especially on the topic's "court" component. It first considers the topic of malingering, including in terms of its definition, certainties, and uncertainties. As with other areas of the study of psychological injury and law, generally, and PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder), specifically, malingering is a contentious area not only definitionally but also empirically, in terms of establishing its base rate in the index populations assessed in the field. Both current research and re-analysis of past research indicates that the malingering prevalence rate at issue is more like 15±15% as opposed to 40±10%. As for psychological tests used to assess PTSD, some of the better ones include the TSI-2 (Trauma Symptom Inventory, Second Edition; Briere, 2011), the MMPI-2-RF (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Second Edition, Restructured Form; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011), and the CAPS-5 (The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5; Weathers, Blake, Schnurr, Kaloupek, Marx, & Keane, 2013b). Assessors need to know their own possible biases, the applicable laws (e.g., the Daubert trilogy), and how to write court-admissible reports. Overall conclusions reflect a moderate approach that navigates the territory between the extreme plaintiff or defense allegiances one frequently encounters in this area of forensic practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2017.03.001DOI Listing
March 2018

PTSD in Court II: Risk factors, endophenotypes, and biological underpinnings in PTSD.

Authors:
Gerald Young

Int J Law Psychiatry 2017 Mar - Apr;51:1-21. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Glendon Campus, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

The second article in the series of three for the journal on "PTSD in Court" especially concerns the biological bases that have been found to be associated with PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). The cohering concepts in this section relate to risk factors; candidate genes; polygenetics; "gene×environment" interactions; epigenetics; endophenotypes; biomarkers; and connective networks both structurally and functionally (in terms of intrinsic connectivity networks, ICNs, including the DMN, SN, and CEN; that is, default mode, salience, and central executive networks, respectively). Risk factors related to PTSD include pre-event, event- and post-event ones. Some of the genes related to PTSD include: FKBP5, 5-HTTLPR, and COMT (which are, respectively, FK506-binding protein 5 gene, serotonin-transporter linked polymorphic region, catechol-O-methyl-transferase). These genetic findings give an estimate of 30% for the genetic influence on PTSD. The typical brain regions involved in PTSD include the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex, along with the insula. Causal models of behavior are multifactorial and biopsychosocial, and these types of models apply to PTSD, as well. The paper presents a multilevel systems model of psychopathology, including PTSD, which involves three levels - a top-down psychological construct one, a bottom-up symptom connection one, and a middle one involving symptom appraisal. Legally, causality refers to the event at issue needing to meet the bar of being materially contributory to the outcome. Finally, this section of the article reviews empirically-supported therapies for PTSD and the dangers of not receiving treatment for it.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2017.02.002DOI Listing
January 2018

Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

Authors:
Gerald Young

Int J Law Psychiatry 2016 Nov - Dec;49(Pt B):214-220. Epub 2016 Oct 29.

York University, Glendon Campus, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2016.10.008DOI Listing
January 2018

Psychiatric/Psychological Injury and Law: Introduction.

Authors:
Gerald Young

Int J Law Psychiatry 2016 Nov - Dec;49(Pt B):161-162

Glendon College, York University.

This special issue on psychiatric/psychological injury and law covers major developments in the field, and illustrates the complexities for mental health professionals in dealing with psychiatric/psychological injuries in court. The articles vary in the range of topics covered, and include ones on posttraumatic stress disorder, other trauma reactions, dissociation, disability, pain, and traumatic brain injury, in particular but also new areas, such as the effects of early penile injury. Work in the area of psychiatric/psychological injury and law needs to be scientifically-informed, comprehensive, and impartial, and the series of articles to follow will help workers in the area meet this standard.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2016.11.001DOI Listing
January 2018

PTSD in Court I: Introducing PTSD for Court.

Authors:
Gerald Young

Int J Law Psychiatry 2016 Nov - Dec;49(Pt B):238-258. Epub 2016 Nov 8.

Glendon Campus, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

The first part of the series of three articles on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Court to appear in the journal reviews the history of the construct of PTSD and its presentation in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and the ICD-11 (International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition; World Health Organization, 2018). There are 20 symptoms of PTSD in the DSM-5. PTSD symptoms are arranged into a four-cluster model, which has received partial support in the literature. Other four-factor models have been found that fit the data even better than that of the DSM-5. There is a five-factor dysphoria model and two six-factor models that have been found to fit better the DSM-5 PTSD symptoms. Finally, research is providing support for a hybrid seven-factor model. An eighth factor on dissociation seems applicable to the minority of people who express the dissociative subtype. At the epidemiological level, individuals can expect trauma exposure to take place about 70% over one's lifetime. Also, traumatic exposure leads to traumatic reactions in about 10% of cases, with PTSD being a primary diagnosis for trauma. Once initiated, PTSD becomes prolonged in about 10% of cases. Polytrauma and comorbidities complicate these prevalence statistics. Moreover, the possibility of malingered PTSD presents confounds. However, the estimate for malingered PTSD varies extensively, from 1 to 50%, so that the estimate is too imprecise for use in court without further research. This first article in the series of three articles appearing in the journal on PTSD in Court concludes with discussion of complications related to comorbidities and heterogeneities, in particular. For example, PTSD and its comorbidities can be expressed in over one quintillion ways. This complexity in its current structure in the DSM-5 speaks to the individual differences involved in its expression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2016.10.012DOI Listing
January 2018

Causality in Psychiatry: A Hybrid Symptom Network Construct Model.

Authors:
Gerald Young

Front Psychiatry 2015 20;6:164. Epub 2015 Nov 20.

York University , Toronto, ON , Canada.

Causality or etiology in psychiatry is marked by standard biomedical, reductionistic models (symptoms reflect the construct involved) that inform approaches to nosology, or classification, such as in the DSM-5 [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; (1)]. However, network approaches to symptom interaction [i.e., symptoms are formative of the construct; e.g., (2), for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)] are being developed that speak to bottom-up processes in mental disorder, in contrast to the typical top-down psychological construct approach. The present article presents a hybrid top-down, bottom-up model of the relationship between symptoms and mental disorder, viewing symptom expression and their causal complex as a reciprocally dynamic system with multiple levels, from lower-order symptoms in interaction to higher-order constructs affecting them. The hybrid model hinges on good understanding of systems theory in which it is embedded, so that the article reviews in depth non-linear dynamical systems theory (NLDST). The article applies the concept of emergent circular causality (3) to symptom development, as well. Conclusions consider that symptoms vary over several dimensions, including: subjectivity; objectivity; conscious motivation effort; and unconscious influences, and the degree to which individual (e.g., meaning) and universal (e.g., causal) processes are involved. The opposition between science and skepticism is a complex one that the article addresses in final comments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4653276PMC
December 2015

Causality in criminal forensic and in civil disability cases: Legal and psychological comparison.

Authors:
Gerald Young

Int J Law Psychiatry 2015 Sep-Dec;42-43:114-20. Epub 2015 Aug 29.

Department of Psychology, Glendon College, York University, York Hall 140, 2275 Bayview Ave., Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Causality (or causation) is central to every legal case, yet its underlying philosophical, legal, and psychological definitions and conceptions vary. In the criminal context, it refers to establishing the responsibility of the perpetrator of the criminal act at issue in terms of the person's mental state (mens rea), and whether the insanity defense applies. In the forensic disability and related context, it refers to whether the index event is a material or contributing cause in the multifactorial array that led to the psychological condition at issue. In both the criminal and tort contexts, the legal test is a counterfactual one. For the former, it refers to whether the outcome involved would have resulted absent the act (e.g., in cases of simultaneous criminal lethal action, which one is the but-for responsible one). For the latter, it concerns whether the claimed psychological condition would be present only because of the incident at issue. The latter event at issue is distinguished from the criminal one by its negligence compared to the voluntary intent in the criminal case. The psychological state of the perpetrator of criminal conduct can be analyzed from a biopsychosocial perspective as much as the civil one. In this regard, in the civil case, such as in forensic disability and related assessments, pre-existing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors need to be considered causally, with personal and social resilience and protective factors added, as well. In the criminal context, the same biopsychosocial model applies, but with mental competence and voluntariness added as a critical factor. The advent of neurolaw has led to use of neuroscience in court, but it risks reducing the complexity of criminal cases to unifactorial, biological models.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2015.08.015DOI Listing
October 2016

Mathematical modelling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm growth and treatment in the cystic fibrosis lung.

Math Med Biol 2014 Jun 21;31(2):179-204. Epub 2013 Mar 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA.

Lung failure due to chronic bacterial infection is the leading cause of death for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It is thought that the chronic nature of these infections is, in part, due to the increased tolerance and recalcitrant behaviour of bacteria growing as biofilms. Inhalation of silver carbene complex (SCC) antimicrobial, either encased in polymeric biodegradable particles or in aqueous form, has been proposed as a treatment. Through a coordinated experimental and mathematical modelling effort, we examine this proposed treatment of lung biofilms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms grown in a flow-cell apparatus irrigated with an artificial CF sputum medium are analysed as an in vitro model of CF lung infection. A 2D mathematical model of biofilm growth within the flow-cell is developed. Numerical simulations demonstrate that SCC inactivation by the environment is critical in aqueous SCC, but not SCC-polymer, based treatments. Polymer particle degradation rate is shown to be an important parameter that can be chosen optimally, based on environmental conditions and bacterial susceptibility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/imammb/dqt003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4571485PMC
June 2014

Development of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa mushroom morphology and cavity formation by iron-starvation: a mathematical modeling study.

J Theor Biol 2012 Sep 4;308:68-78. Epub 2012 Jun 4.

Integrated Bioscience, University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA.

We present a mathematical model of mushroom-like architecture and cavity formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. We demonstrate that a proposed disparity in internal friction between the stalk and cap extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) leads to spatial variation in volumetric expansion sufficient to produce the mushroom morphology. The capability of diffusible signals to induce the formation of a fluid-filled cavity within the cap is then investigated. We assume that conversion of bacteria to the planktonic state within the cap occurs in response to the accumulation or depletion of some signal molecule. We (a) show that neither simple nutrient starvation nor signal production by one or more subpopulations of bacteria is sufficient to trigger localized cavity formation. We then (b) demonstrate various hypothetical scenarios that could result in localized cavity formation. Finally, we (c) model iron availability as a detachment signal and show simulation results demonstrating cavity formation by iron starvation. We conclude that iron availability is a plausible mechanism by which fluid-filled cavities form in the cap region of mushroom-like structures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2012.05.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3410399PMC
September 2012

In vitro antimicrobial studies of silver carbene complexes: activity of free and nanoparticle carbene formulations against clinical isolates of pathogenic bacteria.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2012 Jan 3;67(1):138-48. Epub 2011 Oct 3.

Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, PO Box 5640, Building 21, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA.

Objectives: Silver carbenes may represent novel, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that have low toxicity while providing varying chemistry for targeted applications. Here, the bactericidal activity of four silver carbene complexes (SCCs) with different formulations, including nanoparticles (NPs) and micelles, was tested against a panel of clinical strains of bacteria and fungi that are the causative agents of many skin and soft tissue, respiratory, wound, blood, and nosocomial infections.

Methods: MIC, MBC and multidose experiments were conducted against a broad range of bacteria and fungi. Time-release and cytotoxicity studies of the compounds were also carried out. Free SCCs and SCC NPs were tested against a panel of medically important pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Results: All four SCCs demonstrated strong efficacy in concentration ranges of 0.5-90 mg/L. Clinical bacterial isolates with high inherent resistance to purified compounds were more effectively treated either with an NP formulation of these compounds or by repeated dosing. Overall, the compounds were active against highly resistant bacterial strains, such as MRSA and MRAB, and were active against the biodefence pathogens Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis. All of the medically important bacterial strains tested play a role in many different infectious diseases.

Conclusions: The four SCCs described here, including their development as NP therapies, show great promise for treating a wide variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens that are not easily killed by routine antimicrobial agents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkr408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3236053PMC
January 2012

Causes in the construction of causal law: A psycho-ecological model.

Authors:
Gerald Young

Int J Law Psychiatry 2010 Mar-Apr;33(2):73-83. Epub 2009 Dec 31.

York University, Canada.

The article presents an integrated psycho-ecological model of the construction of law, with implications for practice in law and mental health. The model is based on a series of concentric circles, each representing a layer of influence on the construction of law. The circle furthest removed from the center represents the influence of culture, society and industry, in particular, and the circle at the center of the circle represents the case at hand, for example, about individual complainant or mass action. The article begins by arguing that basic terms in relation to cause need clarification and also work is needed to disambiguate the concepts involved. After dealing with these issues, the article examines science and mental health. Is the scientific evidence presented by the expert sufficiently reliable and valid to meet admissibility standards of good compared to poor or junk science? Is the research undertaken for court or presented to court biased, with factors hidden, such as links to industry. Are individual evaluations conducted with biased science serving to justify partial conclusions? The dangers of powerful influences on the construction of law are highlighted, for example, related to the individual complainant malingering and the insurance industry protecting its financial interests at the expense of genuinely injured patients. In conclusion, suggestions for empirical research are offered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2009.12.009DOI Listing
May 2010

Cannabis smoking is for dopes--not for nurses.

Authors:
Gerald Young

Nurs Times 2003 May 27-Jun 2;99(21):19

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
July 2003

Risperidone was effective for aggression in adolescents with disruptive behaviour disorders and below average intelligence.

Authors:
J Gerald Young

Evid Based Ment Health 2002 Feb;5(1):11

New York University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ebmh.5.1.11DOI Listing
February 2002