Publications by authors named "Gerald C Timmis"

5 Publications

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Electrocardiographic responses to deer hunting activities in men with and without coronary artery disease.

Am J Cardiol 2007 Jul 4;100(2):175-9. Epub 2007 Jun 4.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology (Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Laboratories), William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan, USA.

To evaluate the cardiac demands of hunting deer, continuous ambulatory electrocardiograms were obtained in men with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) and compared with their responses to maximal treadmill testing. A volunteer sample of 25 middle-aged men (mean +/- SD 55 +/- 7 years of age), 17 of whom had known CAD, completed the study. Peak heart rate (HR) during 7 different deer hunting activities was expressed as the mean percentage of the maximal HR (HRmax) attained during treadmill testing. Periods of sustained sinus tachycardia were identified. Arrhythmias and ST-segment depression during deer hunting that were not apparent during treadmill testing were documented. Overall, 22 of 25 subjects demonstrated HR responses >85% HRmax for 1 to 65 minutes. Ten subjects exceeded the HRmax achieved during treadmill testing for 1 to 5 minutes. The relative HR response during ambulatory activity in the field was inversely related to cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed as METs (r = -0.59; p = 0.0020). Three subjects had ischemic electrocardiograms during deer hunting, but not during treadmill testing. Complex arrhythmias in the field not detected by treadmill testing included ventricular bi-trigeminy, ventricular couplets, and 8 runs of ventricular tachycardia (3 to 28 beats) in 3 subjects with documented CAD. In conclusion, deer hunting can evoke sustained HRs, ischemic ST-segment depression, and threatening ventricular arrhythmias in excess of those documented during maximal treadmill testing. The strenuous nature of deer hunting coupled with presumed hyperadrenergia and superimposed environmental stresses may contribute to the excessive cardiac demands associated with this activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2007.02.076DOI Listing
July 2007

The torch passes.

Authors:
Gerald C Timmis

J Interv Cardiol 2005 Jun;18(3):145-6

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-8183.2005.00036.xDOI Listing
June 2005

Optimal glycemic control is associated with a lower rate of target vessel revascularization in treated type II diabetic patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2004 Jan;43(1):8-14

Division of Cardiology and Biostatistics, Mid America Heart Institute, St. Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri, USA.

Objectives: We examined the association between glycemic control determined by preprocedural hemoglobin A1c (A1c) and the incidence of target vessel revascularization (TVR) in diabetic patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased rates of restenosis and a worse clinical outcome after PCI than patients without DM.

Methods: A total of 239 patients (60 without DM and 179 with DM) were enrolled in this study. Optimal glycemic control was defined as A1c < or =7%, and suboptimal control was defined as A1c >7%. Follow-up was performed at six and 12 months after the index intervention.

Results: Diabetic patients with optimal glycemic control had a rate of 12-month TVR similar to that of nondiabetic patients (15% vs. 18%, p = NS). Diabetic patients with A1c >7% had a significantly higher rate of TVR than those with A1c <7% (34% vs. 15%, p = 0.02). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, A1c >7% was a significant independent predictor of TVR (odds ratio 2.87, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 7.24; p = 0.03). Optimal glycemic control was associated with a lower rate of cardiac rehospitalization (15% vs. 31%, p = 0.03) and recurrent angina (13% vs. 37%, p = 0.002) at 12-month follow-up.

Conclusions: In diabetic patients undergoing elective PCI, optimal glycemic control (A1c < or =7%) is associated with a lower rate of TVR, cardiac rehospitalization, and recurrent angina. These data suggest that aggressive treatment of DM to achieve A1c < or =7% is beneficial in improving the clinical outcome after PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2003.06.019DOI Listing
January 2004

Relation of hemoglobin A1c to rate of major adverse cardiac events in nondiabetic patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization.

Am J Cardiol 2003 Dec;92(11):1282-6

Division of Cardiology, Mid America Heart Institute, St. Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri 64111, USA.

Abnormalities in plasma glucose below the "diabetic range" of glycemia are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients without diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between ambient glycemic levels as measured by hemoglobin A1c and outcome after elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Baseline laboratory studies, including hemoglobin A1c, were drawn in 500 consecutive patients before elective PCI. Nondiabetic patients were defined as those without a history of diet or pharmacologically controlled diabetes mellitus and a hemoglobin A1c level <7.0%. Of the 500 patients studied, 291 (59%) were nondiabetic patients. Abnormal hemoglobin A1c levels (6% to 7%) were found in 30% of nondiabetic patients. Nondiabetic patients with an abnormal hemoglobin A1c level had a significantly higher rate of major adverse cardiac events (33% vs 22%, p = 0.04), target vessel revascularization (31% vs 19%, p = 0.02), and cardiovascular mortality (4.6% vs 0.5%, p = 0.03) compared with nondiabetic patients with hemoglobin A1c levels <6%. Multivariate analysis disclosed that a hemoglobin A1c level of 6% to 7% was a significant independent predictor of major adverse cardiac events, target vessel revascularization, and cardiovascular mortality 12 months after PCI in nondiabetic patients. These data demonstrate that an abnormal hemoglobin A1c level may have prognostic significance in nondiabetic patients who undergo PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2003.08.008DOI Listing
December 2003

Determinants of serum creatinine trajectory in acute contrast nephropathy.

J Interv Cardiol 2002 Oct;15(5):349-54

Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

The aim of this study was to describe the trajectory of creatinine (Cr) rise and its determinants after exposure to radiocontrast media. Included were 98 subjects who underwent cardiac catheterization and were randomized to forced diuresis with i.v. crystalloid, furosemide, mannitol (if pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was < 20 mmHg), and low dose dopamine versus intravenous crystalloid and matching placebos. Baseline and postcatheterization serum Cr levels were analyzed in a longitudinal fashion, allowing for differences in the time between blood draws, to determine the different critical trajectories of serum Cr. The mean age, baseline serum Cr, and Cr clearance (CrCl) were 69.3 +/- 10.8 years, 2.5 +/- 0.9 mg/dL, and 31.4 +/- 12.1 mL/min, respectively. The clinically driven postprocedural observation time was 5.5 +/- 5.1 days (range 19 hours and one Cr value to 25.7 days and 18 values). The mean maximum Cr was 3.3 +/- 1.4, range 1.7-8.7 mg/dL). Longitudinal models support baseline Cr clearance predictions for the change in Cr at 24 hours, time as the determinant of Cr trajectory, and requisite monitoring. For any given individual, a rise in Cr of < or = 0.5 mg/dL in the first 24 hours after contrast exposure predicted a favorable outcome. Baseline renal function is the major determinant of the rate of rise, height, and duration of Cr trajectory after contrast exposure. Length of observation and frequency of laboratory measures can be anticipated from these models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-8183.2002.tb01067.xDOI Listing
October 2002
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