Publications by authors named "Gerald A Hish"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Quantitative and Qualitative Behavioral Measurements to Assess Pain in Axolotls ().

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2020 03 21;59(2):186-196. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Division of Laboratory Animal Resources, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.

Effective pain relief in animals relies on the ability to discern pain and assess its severity. However, few objective measures exist to assess the presence and severity of pain in axolotls, and few resources are available regarding drugs and appropriate doses to provide pain relief in this species. This study evaluated behavioral tools for cageside pain assessment and validated a reproducible and reliable quantitative method to evaluate analgesic efficacy in axolotls. Animals were divided into control and treatment groups ( = 6 per group); treatment groups received buprenorphine through injection (50 mg/kg every 24 h for 48 h intracelomically) or butorphanol immersion (0.50 or 0.75 mg/L every 24 h for 48 h). Qualitative behavioral tests, adapted from other amphibian studies, included tapping on the home tank, directing water jets or physically touching specific anatomic points on the animal, and placing a novel object in the home tank. Quantitative methods used to produce noxious stimuli were the acetic acid test and von Frey aesthesiometers. Animals that were treated with analgesics did not demonstrate a significant difference compared with controls during behavioral assessment at 1, 6, 12, 25, 30, and 48 h after analgesia administration. The acetic acid test revealed a reproducible, concentration-dependent pain response. However, a significant difference in the AAT response was not observed between control and treated groups with the tested analgesics and doses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-19-000063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073399PMC
March 2020

Management of Multiple Protozoan Ectoparasites in a Research Colony of Axolotls ().

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 07 6;58(4):479-484. Epub 2019 May 6.

Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.

Axolotls () from a research colony presented with multifocal, white chalky to gray skin lesions, a diffuse whitish to blue hue to the integument, and friable gill filaments. Skin scrapings and wet mounts revealed , , and a trichodinid species. The average overall burden (that is, all 3 species) per axolotl ranged from 0 to 25 parasites per 40 × field (p40f; mean ± 1 SD, 2.6 ± 5.5), with a prevalence of 12%, 60%, and 48%, respectively. Concurrent with husbandry modifications, axolotls were treated with an 8-h static immersion bath that contained 0.025 mL/L 37% formaldehyde. organisms were no longer observed after the initial treatment, and decreased from 2.4 ± 5.6 to 0.6 ± 1.8 organisms p40f. However, the average overall burden increased 4-fold to 10.5 ± 9.8 parasites p40f, and the trichodinid organisms increased 13-fold from 0.8 ± 2.3 to 10.4 ± 9.2 organisms p40f. A second treatment consisted of an 8-h immersion bath that contained 0.05 mL/L 37% formaldehyde on 2 consecutive days. A significant change was noted in the average overall burden of 0.5 ± 1.1 parasites p40f, a greater than 5- and 21-fold decrease from pretreatment and after the initial treatment, respectively. No significant change between the first and second treatment was observed for , with 0.6 ± 1.2 organisms p40f, but this number represented a significant decrease from pretreatment. After the second treatment, the trichodinid organism was detected in only one axolotl, with a low overall burden of 0.2 ± 0.4 organisms p40f and resulting in a significant decrease in the trichodinid count to 0.01 ± 0.04 organisms p40f. Treatment with formalin (37% formaldehyde), in conjunction with husbandry improvements, was effective in significantly reducing ectoparasite burden and eliminating clinical symptoms in axolotls but did not fully eliminate all protozoa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6643089PMC
July 2019

Ulcerative Dermatitis in C57BL/6NCrl Mice on a Low-Fat or High-Fat Diet With or Without a Mineralized Red-Algae Supplement.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2015 Sep;54(5):487-96

Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is a spontaneous idiopathic disease that often affects C57BL/6 mice or mice on a C57BL/6 background. UD is characterized by intense pruritus and lesion formation, most commonly on the head or dorsal thorax. Self-trauma likely contributes to wound severity and delayed wound healing. Histologically, changes are nonspecific, consisting of ulceration with neutrophilic and mastocytic infiltration and epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis. Diet appears to have a profound effect on the development and progression of UD lesions. We investigated the incidence and severity of UD in C57BL/6NCrl mice on a high-fat western-style diet (HFWD) compared with a standard rodent chow. In addition, we examined the protective effects of dietary supplementation with a multimineral-rich product derived from marine red algae on UD in these 2 diet groups. HFWD-fed mice had an increased incidence of UD. In addition, mice on a HFWD had significantly more severe clinical and histologic lesions. Dietary mineral supplementation in mice on a HFWD decreased the histologic severity of lesions and reduced the incidence of UD in female mice in both diets. In conclusion, a high-fat western-style diet may potentiate UD in C57BL/6NCrl mice. Insufficient mineral supply and mineral imbalance may contribute to disease development. Mineral supplementation may be beneficial in the treatment of UD.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4587616PMC
September 2015

Effects of analgesic use on inflammation and hematology in a murine model of venous thrombosis.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2014 Sep;53(5):485-93

Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Venous thrombosis (VT) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Surgical animal models are crucial in studies investigating the pathogenesis of this disease and evaluating VT therapies. Because inflammation is critical to both the development and resolution of VT, analgesic medications have the potential to adversely affect multiple parameters of interest in VT research. The objective of this study was to determine how several common analgesics affect key variables in a murine ligation model of deep vein thrombosis. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to receive either local (bupivacaine) or systemic parenteral analgesia (buprenorphine, tramadol, or carprofen) or 0.9% NaCl (control). All mice underwent laparotomy and ligation of the inferior vena cava, and treatment was continued until euthanasia at 6 or 48 h after surgery. Analysis of harvested tissues and blood included: hematology, thrombus weight, serum and vein-wall cytokines (IL1β, IL6, IL10, TNFα), soluble P-selectin, and vein-wall leukocyte infiltration. Compared with 0.9% NaCl, all of the analgesics affected multiple parameters important to VT research. Carprofen and tramadol affected the most parameters and should not be used in murine models of VT. Although they affected fewer parameters, a single dose of bupivacaine increased thrombus weight at 6 h, and buprenorphine was associated with reduced vein wall macrophages at 48 h. Although we cannot recommend the use of any of the evaluated analgesic dosages in this mouse model of VT, buprenorphine merits additional investigation to ensure the highest level of laboratory animal care and welfare.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4181690PMC
September 2014

Naturally occurring disseminated group B streptococcus infections in postnatal rats.

Comp Med 2013 Feb;63(1):55-61

Merck and Company, Rahway, New Jersey, USA.

Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae, GBS) is a gram-positive commensal and occasional opportunistic pathogen of the human vaginal, respiratory, and intestinal tracts that can cause sepsis, pneumonia, or meningitis in human neonates, infants, and immunosuppressed persons. We report here on a spontaneous outbreak of postnatal GBS-associated disease in rats. Ten of 26 (38.5%) 21- to 24-d-old rat pups died or were euthanized due to a moribund state in a colony of rats transgenic for the human diphtheria toxin receptor on a Munich-Wistar-Frömter genetic background. Four pups had intralesional coccoid bacteria in various organs without accompanying inflammation. GBS was isolated from the liver of 2 of these pups and from skin abscesses in 3 littermates. A connection with the transgene could not be established. A treatment protocol was evaluated in the remaining breeding female rats. GBS is a potentially clinically significant spontaneous infection in various populations of research rats, with some features that resemble late-onset postnatal GBS infection in human infants.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3567377PMC
February 2013

Progression of ulcerative dermatitis lesions in C57BL/6Crl mice and the development of a scoring system for dermatitis lesions.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2012 ;51(5):586-93

Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is a common, spontaneous condition in mice with a C57BL/6 background. Although initial lesions may be mild, UD is a progressive disease that often results in ulcerations or debilitating fibrotic contractures. In addition, lesions typically are unresponsive to treatment. Euthanasia is often warranted in severe cases, thereby affecting study outcomes through the loss of research subjects. Because the clinical assessment of UD can be subjective, a quantitative scoring method and documentation of the likely time-frame of progression may be helpful in predicting when animals that develop dermatitis should be removed from a study. Such a system may also be helpful in quantitatively assessing success of various treatment strategies and be valuable to clinical laboratory animal veterinarians. In this 1.5-y, prospective cohort study, we followed 200 mice to monitor the development and course of UD. Mice were examined every 2 wk. A clinical sign (alopecia, pruritus, or peripheral lymphadenopathy) was not identified that predicted development of UD lesions in the subsequent 2-wk period. Once UD developed, pruritus, the character of the lesion (single or multiple crust, coalescing crust, erosion, or ulceration), and the size of the lesion were the only parameters that changed (increased) over the course of the disease. Pruritus was a factor in the rapid progression of UD lesions. We used these findings to develop a quantitative scoring system for the severity of UD. This enhanced understanding of the progression of UD and the quantitative scoring system will enhance the monitoring of UD.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3447447PMC
November 2013