Publications by authors named "Georgios J Vlachojannis"

33 Publications

Targeted Temperature Management in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest With Shockable Rhythm: A Post Hoc Analysis of the Coronary Angiography After Cardiac Arrest Trial.

Crit Care Med 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Amphia Hospital, Breda, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amphia Hospital, Breda, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, HAGA Hospital, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, HAGA Hospital, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, University Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, OLVG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, OLVG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Haaglanden Medical Center, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Tergooi Hospital, Blaricum, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Elisabeth-Tweesteden Hospital, Tilburg, The Netherlands. Department of Epidemiology and Data Science, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The optimal targeted temperature in patients with shockable rhythm is unclear, and current guidelines recommend targeted temperature management with a correspondingly wide range between 32°C and 36°C. Our aim was to study survival and neurologic outcome associated with targeted temperature management strategy in postarrest patients with initial shockable rhythm.

Design: Observational substudy of the Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment Elevation trial.

Setting: Nineteen hospitals in The Netherlands.

Patients: The Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest trial randomized successfully resuscitated patients with shockable rhythm and absence of ST-segment elevation to a strategy of immediate or delayed coronary angiography. In this substudy, 459 patients treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia (32.0-34.0°C) or targeted normothermia (36.0-37.0°C) were included. Allocation to targeted temperature management strategy was at the discretion of the physician.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: After 90 days, 171 patients (63.6%) in the mild therapeutic hypothermia group and 129 (67.9%) in the targeted normothermia group were alive (hazard ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.62-1.18]; log-rank p = 0.35; adjusted odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.45-1.72). Patients in the mild therapeutic hypothermia group had longer ICU stay (4 d [3-7 d] vs 3 d [2-5 d]; ratio of geometric means, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.15-1.51), lower blood pressures, higher lactate levels, and increased need for inotropic support. Cerebral Performance Category scores at ICU discharge and 90-day follow-up and patient-reported Mental and Physical Health Scores at 1 year were similar in the two groups.

Conclusions: In the context of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with shockable rhythm and no ST-elevation, treatment with mild therapeutic hypothermia was not associated with improved 90-day survival compared with targeted normothermia. Neurologic outcomes at 90 days as well as patient-reported Mental and Physical Health Scores at 1 year did not differ between the groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000005271DOI Listing
September 2021

Pharmacodynamic Effects of Pre-Hospital Administered Crushed Prasugrel in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Jun;14(12):1323-1333

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to compare the pharmacodynamic effects of pre-hospitally administered P2Y inhibitor prasugrel in crushed versus integral tablet formulation in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI).

Background: Early dual antiplatelet therapy is recommended in STEMI patients. Yet, onset of oral P2Y inhibitor effect is delayed and varies according to formulation administered.

Methods: The COMPARE CRUSH (Comparison of Pre-hospital Crushed Versus Uncrushed Prasugrel Tablets in Patients With STEMI Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Interventions) trial randomized patients with suspected STEMI to crushed or integral prasugrel 60-mg loading dose in the ambulance. Pharmacodynamic measurements were performed at 4 time points: before antiplatelet treatment, at the beginning and end of pPCI, and 4 h after study treatment onset. The primary endpoint was high platelet reactivity at the end of pPCI. The secondary endpoint was impact of platelet reactivity status on markers of coronary reperfusion.

Results: A total of 441 patients were included. In patients with crushed prasugrel, the occurrence of high platelet reactivity at the end of pPCI was reduced by almost one-half (crushed 34.7% vs. uncrushed 61.6%; odds ratio [OR] = 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.22 to 0.50; p < 0.01). Platelet reactivity <150 P2Y reactivity units at the beginning of coronary angiography correlated with improved Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade 3 in the infarct artery pre-pPCI (OR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.94; p = 0.02) but not ST-segment resolution (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.34; p = 0.40).

Conclusions: Oral administration of crushed compared with integral prasugrel significantly improves platelet inhibition during the acute phase in STEMI patients undergoing pPCI. However, a considerable number of patients still exhibit inadequate platelet inhibition at the end of pPCI, suggesting the need for alternative agents to bridge the gap in platelet inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.04.022DOI Listing
June 2021

The effect of immediate coronary angiography after cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation on left ventricular function. A sub-study of the COACT randomised trial.

Resuscitation 2021 07 28;164:93-100. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands.

Background: The effect of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients who are successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on left ventricular function is currently unknown.

Methods: This prespecified sub-study of a multicentre trial evaluated 552 patients, successfully resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI. Patients were randomized to either undergo immediate coronary angiography or delayed coronary angiography, after neurologic recovery. All patients underwent PCI if indicated. The main outcomes of this analysis were left ventricular ejection fraction and end-diastolic and systolic volumes assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or echocardiography.

Results: Data on left ventricular function was available for 397 patients. The mean (± standard deviation) left ventricular ejection fraction was 45.2% (±12.8) in the immediate angiography group and 48.4% (±13.2) in the delayed angiography group (mean difference: -3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.75 to 0.37). Median left ventricular end-diastolic volume was 177 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 169 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.06; 95% CI, 0.95-1.19). In addition, mean left ventricular end-systolic volume was 90 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 78 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.13; 95% CI 0.97-1.32).

Conclusion: In patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and without signs of STEMI, immediate coronary angiography was not found to improve left ventricular dimensions or function compared with a delayed angiography strategy.

Clinical Trial Registration: Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.04.020DOI Listing
July 2021

Genome-wide analysis identifies novel susceptibility loci for myocardial infarction.

Eur Heart J 2021 03;42(9):919-933

Division Heart & Lungs, Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, 3584 CX Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Aims: While most patients with myocardial infarction (MI) have underlying coronary atherosclerosis, not all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) develop MI. We sought to address the hypothesis that some of the genetic factors which establish atherosclerosis may be distinct from those that predispose to vulnerable plaques and thrombus formation.

Methods And Results: We carried out a genome-wide association study for MI in the UK Biobank (n∼472 000), followed by a meta-analysis with summary statistics from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium (n∼167 000). Multiple independent replication analyses and functional approaches were used to prioritize loci and evaluate positional candidate genes. Eight novel regions were identified for MI at the genome wide significance level, of which effect sizes at six loci were more robust for MI than for CAD without the presence of MI. Confirmatory evidence for association of a locus on chromosome 1p21.3 harbouring choline-like transporter 3 (SLC44A3) with MI in the context of CAD, but not with coronary atherosclerosis itself, was obtained in Biobank Japan (n∼165 000) and 16 independent angiography-based cohorts (n∼27 000). Follow-up analyses did not reveal association of the SLC44A3 locus with CAD risk factors, biomarkers of coagulation, other thrombotic diseases, or plasma levels of a broad array of metabolites, including choline, trimethylamine N-oxide, and betaine. However, aortic expression of SLC44A3 was increased in carriers of the MI risk allele at chromosome 1p21.3, increased in ischaemic (vs. non-diseased) coronary arteries, up-regulated in human aortic endothelial cells treated with interleukin-1β (vs. vehicle), and associated with smooth muscle cell migration in vitro.

Conclusions: A large-scale analysis comprising ∼831 000 subjects revealed novel genetic determinants of MI and implicated SLC44A3 in the pathophysiology of vulnerable plaques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa1040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936531PMC
March 2021

Effect of Prehospital Crushed Prasugrel Tablets in Patients With ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Planned for Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The Randomized COMPARE CRUSH Trial.

Circulation 2020 Dec 14;142(24):2316-2328. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (G.J.V., V.P., P.C.S.).

Background: Early treatment with a potent oral platelet P2Y inhibitor is recommended in patients presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction scheduled to undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). The impact on coronary reperfusion of crushed P2Y inhibitor tablets, which lead to more prompt and potent platelet inhibition, is unknown.

Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled, multicenter trial in the Netherlands, enrolling patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction scheduled to undergo pPCI. Patients were randomly allocated to receive in the ambulance, before transfer, a 60-mg loading dose of prasugrel either as crushed or integral tablets. The independent primary end points were thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 3 flow in the infarct-related artery at initial coronary angiography, and complete (≥70%) ST-segment resolution 1 hour after pPCI. The safety end points were TIMI major and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium ≥3 bleedings. Secondary end points included platelet reactivity and ischemic outcomes.

Results: A total of 727 patients were assigned to either crushed or integral tablets of prasugrel loading dose. The median time from study treatment to wire-crossing during pPCI was 57 (47-70) minutes. The primary end point TIMI 3 flow in the infarct-related artery before pPCI occurred in 31.0% in the crushed group versus 32.7% in the integral group (odds ratio, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.65-1.30], =0.64). Complete ST-segment resolution 1 hour after pPCI was present in 59.9% in the crushed group versus 57.3% in the integral group (odds ratio, 1.11 [95% CI, 0.78-1.58], =0.55). Platelet reactivity at the beginning of pPCI, measured as P2Y reactivity unit, differed significantly between groups (crushed, 192 [132-245] versus integral, 227 [184-254], ≤0.01). TIMI major and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium ≥3 bleeding occurred in 0% in the crushed group versus 0.8% in the integral group, and in 0.3% in the crushed group versus 1.1% in the integral group, respectively. There were no differences observed between groups regarding ischemic events at 30 days.

Conclusions: Prehospital administration of crushed prasugrel tablets does not improve TIMI 3 flow in the infarct-related artery before pPCI or complete ST-segment resolution 1 h after pPCI in patients presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction scheduled for pPCI. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03296540.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.051532DOI Listing
December 2020

Data on sex differences in one-year outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation.

Data Brief 2020 Dec 12;33:106521. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, University Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients are increasingly recognized. Although it has been found that post-resuscitated women are less likely to have significant coronary artery disease (CAD) than men, data on follow-up in these patients are limited. Data for this data in brief article was obtained as a part of the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment elevation (COACT) trial. The data supplements the manuscript "Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation: A COACT trial substudy" were it was found that women were less likely to have significant CAD including chronic total occlusions, and had worse survival when CAD was present. The dataset presented in this paper describes sex differences on interventions, implantable-cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks and hospitalizations due to heart failure during one-year follow-up in patients successfully resuscitated after OHCA. Data was derived through a telephone interview at one year with the patient or general practitioner. Patients in this randomized dataset reflects a homogenous study population, which can be valuable to further build on research regarding long-term sex differences and to further improve cardiac care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.106521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691722PMC
December 2020

Sex differences in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation: A COACT trial substudy.

Resuscitation 2021 01 12;158:14-22. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, University Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: Whether sex is associated with outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is unclear.

Objectives: This study examined sex differences in survival in patients with OHCA without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods: Using data from the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest (COACT) trial, the primary point of interest was sex differences in OHCA-related one-year survival. Secondary points of interest included the benefit of immediate coronary angiography compared to delayed angiography until after neurologic recovery, angiographic and clinical outcomes.

Results: In total, 522 patients (79.1% men) were included. Overall one-year survival was 59.6% in women and 63.4% in men (HR 1.18; 95% CI: 0.76-1.81;p = 0.47). No cardiovascular risk factors were found that modified survival. Women less often had significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (37.0% vs. 71.3%;p < 0.001), but when present, they had a worse prognosis than women without CAD (HR 3.06; 95% CI 1.31-7.19;p = 0.01). This was not the case for men (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.67-1.65;p = 0.83). In both sexes, immediate coronary angiography did not improve one-year survival compared to delayed angiography (women, odds ratio (OR) 0.87; 95% CI 0.58-1.30;p = 0.49; vs. men, OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.45-2.09;p = 0.93).

Conclusion: In OHCA patients without STEMI, we found no sex differences in overall one-year survival. Women less often had significant CAD, but when CAD was present they had worse survival than women without CAD. This was not the case for men. Both sexes did not benefit from a strategy of immediate coronary angiography as compared to delayed strategy with respect to one-year survival.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: Netherlands trial register (NTR) 4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2020.10.026DOI Listing
January 2021

Rationale and Design of the Future Optimal Research and Care Evaluation in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (FORCE-ACS) Registry: Towards "Personalized Medicine" in Daily Clinical Practice.

J Clin Med 2020 Sep 30;9(10). Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, 3435 CM Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

Diagnostic and treatment strategies for acute coronary syndrome have improved dramatically over the past few decades, but mortality and recurrent myocardial infarction rates remain high. An aging population with increasing co-morbidities heralds new clinical challenges. Therefore, in order to evaluate and improve current treatment strategies, detailed information on clinical presentation, treatment and follow-up in real-world patients is needed. The Future Optimal Research and Care Evaluation in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (FORCE-ACS) registry (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03823547) is a multi-center, prospective real-world registry of patients admitted with (suspected) acute coronary syndrome. Both non-interventional and interventional cardiac centers in different regions of the Netherlands are currently participating. Patients are treated according to local protocols, enabling the evaluation of different diagnostic and treatment strategies used in daily practice. Data collection is performed using electronic medical records and quality-of-life questionnaires, which are sent 1, 12, 24 and 36 months after initial admission. Major end points are all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, stroke, revascularization and all bleeding requiring medical attention. Invasive therapy, antithrombotic therapy including patient-tailored strategies, such as the use of risk scores, pharmacogenetic guided antiplatelet therapy and patient reported outcome measures are monitored. The FORCE-ACS registry provides insight into numerous aspects of the (quality of) care for acute coronary syndrome patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601438PMC
September 2020

The role of risk scores for prediction of adverse events in patients undergoing PCI.

Eur J Clin Invest 2020 11 2;50(11):e13298. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Division Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13298DOI Listing
November 2020

COMPARison of pre-hospital CRUSHed vs. uncrushed Prasugrel tablets in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary interventions: Rationale and design of the COMPARE CRUSH trial.

Am Heart J 2020 06 11;224:10-16. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam.

Background: Dual antiplatelet therapy constitutes the cornerstone of medical treatment in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, oral antiplatelet agents, such as prasugrel or ticagrelor, are characterized by slow gastrointestinal drug absorption in the acute phase of STEMI, leading to decreased bioavailability and therefore delayed onset of platelet inhibition. Evidence suggests that administration of crushed tablets of the P2Y inhibitor prasugrel improves drug absorption and achieves earlier antiplatelet effects in STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the clinical implications of these pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic findings are unknown.

Hypothesis: The present study is designed to test the hypothesis that patients presenting with STEMI planned for primary PCI will have improved markers of optimal reperfusion and clinical outcomes by prehospital administration of crushed tablets of prasugrel loading dose.

Study Design: COMPARE CRUSH (NCT03296540) is a randomized trial in a regionally organized ambulance care setting evaluating the efficacy and safety of pre-hospital loading dose with prasugrel crushed tablets versus integral tablets in approximately 674 patients presenting with STEMI planned for primary PCI. The independent primary endpoints are percentage of patients reaching thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade 3 in the infarct-related artery at initial angiography, or achieving ≥70% ST-segment elevation resolution at 1 hour post-PCI. Secondary clinical endpoints are death, myocardial infarction, revascularization, and stent thrombosis followed up to 1 year. Moreover, the primary safety endpoint is bleeding events assessed at 48 hours.

Conclusions: The COMPARE CRUSH trial will assess whether prehospital administration of loading dose prasugrel in form of crushed tablets - which is expected to provide faster platelet inhibition compared to standard treatment with integral tablets - results in improved reperfusion and clinical outcomes. RCT# NCT03296540.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.03.005DOI Listing
June 2020

A Multicenter Comparison of 2 Point-of-Care Activated Clotting Time Test Systems.

J Appl Lab Med 2019 11 23;4(3):468-470. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Medlon, Medisch Laboratorium Oost-Nederland, Enschede, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/jalm.2019.029066DOI Listing
November 2019

Abluminal biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting versus durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent in patients with diabetes mellitus: 5 years follow-up from the COMPARE II trial.

Int J Cardiol 2019 09 3;290:40-44. Epub 2019 May 3.

Department of Cardiology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Drug eluting stents with biodegradable polymers have been developed to address the risk of very late adverse events. Long-term comparison data between the biodegradable polymer-coated biolimus-eluting stent (BES; Nobori®) and the second-generation durable polymer-coated everolimus-eluting stent (EES; XIENCE V® or XIENCE PRIME® or PROMUS™) in diabetic patients are scarce.

Methods: The COMPARE II trial was an investigator-initiated, multicenter, open-label, randomized, all-comers trial which assigned patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a 2:1 fashion to either BES or EES. We analyzed the safety and efficacy outcomes in diabetic patients at 5 year follow-up. The primary pre-specified composite endpoint major adverse cardiac event (MACE) was defined as cardiac death, non-fatal target-vessel myocardial infarction (TV-MI), or clinically indicated target vessel revascularization (CD-TVR).

Results: Out of 2707 study patients, 588 were diabetics (21.7%) of whom 391 were treated with BES and 197 with EES. At 5 years follow-up, MACE occurred in 87 patients (22.2%) in the BES group and in 34 patients (17.2%) in the EES group (p = .34). Other safety and efficacy endpoints did not differ between stent groups.

Conclusions: At 5 years follow-up, no differences in terms of MACE as well as all analyzed safety and efficacy measures, including stent thrombosis, between the biodegradable polymer-coated BES and the durable polymer-coated EES in diabetic patients were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.04.054DOI Listing
September 2019

Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-Segment Elevation.

N Engl J Med 2019 Apr 18;380(15):1397-1407. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

From the Departments of Cardiology (J.S.L., G.N.J., N.W.H., N.R.), Intensive Care Medicine (P.W.G.E., H.M.O.-S.), and Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.M.V.), Amsterdam University Medical Center VUmc, the Departments of Cardiology (J.P.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (A.P.J.V.), Amsterdam University Medical Center AMC, and the Departments of Cardiology (M.A.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (B.B.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, the Thorax Center, Erasmus Medical Center (L.S.D.J., E.A.D.), and the Departments of Cardiology (G.J.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (B.J.W.E.), Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, the Departments of Cardiology (M. Meuwissen) and Intensive Care Medicine (T.A.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda, the Departments of Cardiology (H.A.B.) and Intensive Care Medicine (M.J.B.), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, the Departments of Cardiology (G.B.B.) and Intensive Care Medicine (R.B.), Haga Hospital, and the Department of Cardiology, Haaglanden Medical Center (P.V.O.), The Hague, the Departments of Cardiology (P.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (I.C.C.H.), University of Groningen, Groningen, the Departments of Cardiology (M.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (J.J.H.), University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Departments of Intensive Care Medicine (A.B.) and Cardiology (M.S.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, the Departments of Cardiology (C.C., N.R.) and Intensive Care Medicine (H.H.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Departments of Cardiology (T.A.C.M.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (W.R.), Noordwest Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, the Departments of Intensive Care Medicine (T.S.R.D.) and Cardiology (H.J.G.M.C.), Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen (G.A.J.J.), the Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle (M.T.M.G.), the Department of Cardiology, Tergooi Hospital, Blaricum (K.P.), and the Department of Cardiology, Elisabeth-Tweesteden Hospital, Tilburg (M. Magro) - all in the Netherlands.

Background: Ischemic heart disease is a major cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The role of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the treatment of patients who have been successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains uncertain.

Methods: In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 552 patients who had cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI to undergo immediate coronary angiography or coronary angiography that was delayed until after neurologic recovery. All patients underwent PCI if indicated. The primary end point was survival at 90 days. Secondary end points included survival at 90 days with good cerebral performance or mild or moderate disability, myocardial injury, duration of catecholamine support, markers of shock, recurrence of ventricular tachycardia, duration of mechanical ventilation, major bleeding, occurrence of acute kidney injury, need for renal-replacement therapy, time to target temperature, and neurologic status at discharge from the intensive care unit.

Results: At 90 days, 176 of 273 patients (64.5%) in the immediate angiography group and 178 of 265 patients (67.2%) in the delayed angiography group were alive (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 1.27; P = 0.51). The median time to target temperature was 5.4 hours in the immediate angiography group and 4.7 hours in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.36). No significant differences between the groups were found in the remaining secondary end points.

Conclusions: Among patients who had been successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and had no signs of STEMI, a strategy of immediate angiography was not found to be better than a strategy of delayed angiography with respect to overall survival at 90 days. (Funded by the Netherlands Heart Institute and others; COACT Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR4973.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1816897DOI Listing
April 2019

Angiographic and Midterm Outcomes of Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold for Coronary Bifurcation Lesions.

Am J Cardiol 2018 12 13;122(12):2035-2042. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Cardiology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address:

Data on the angiographic and clinical performance of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) for bifurcation lesions treatment are still limited. Data were examined of 107 patients with at least 1 coronary bifurcation lesion involving a side branch ≥2mm. Angiographic and clinical outcomes were collected. Optical coherence tomography analysis was performed in a subgroup of patients. Between July 2009 and December 2015, 423 patients underwent PCI with Absorb BVS. A total of 110 lesions were identified as bifurcations, of which 24.5% were classified as true bifurcation lesions. Lesion complexity B2/C was 68.1%. Ninety-five out of 110 lesions were treated by provisional stenting technique while 2 stenting strategy was the final approach in 15 lesions. Procedural success of main branch was 100% whereas side-branch impairment at the end of the procedure was 4.5%. The mean follow-up was 21 months with one-third of the patients followed up for at least 2 years. The overall target lesion failure and scaffold/stent thrombosis rate at 1 year was 7.8% and 3.9%, respectively. In conclusion the results of the present analysis suggest the BVS implanted in bifurcations lesions are associated with procedural safety and angiographic success as well as acceptable target lesion failure rate at 1 year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2018.09.003DOI Listing
December 2018

Serial Assessment of Strut Coverage of Biodegradable Polymer Drug-Eluting Stent at 1, 2, and 3 Months After Stent Implantation by Optical Frequency Domain Imaging: The DISCOVERY 1TO3 Study (Evaluation With OFDI of Strut Coverage of Terumo New Drug Eluting Stent With Biodegradable Polymer at 1, 2, and 3 Months).

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2017 Dec;10(12)

From the Ramsay Générale de Santé, Interventional Cardiology Department, Institut Cardiovasculaire Paris Sud, Massy, France (B.C., F.J.S., T.H.); Department of Cardiology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (P.C.S., A.O.K., G.J.V.); Department of Cardiology, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse, France (D.C.); Department of Cardiology, Munich University Clinic, LMU Munich and Munich Heart Alliance, DZHK, Germany (J.M.); Department of Cardiology, Medisch Centrum Leeuwarden, the Netherlands (A.J.V.B.); The Thoraxcenter, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (E.R.); and Department of Invasive Cardiology, Institute Dante Pazzanese of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Sao Paulo, Brazil (D.C.).

Background: To assess the vessel-healing pattern of Ultimaster drug-eluting stent using optical frequency domain imaging. Our hypothesis is that biodegradable polymer-based drug-eluting technology allows complete very early strut coverage.

Methods And Results: The DISCOVERY 1TO3 study (Evaluation With OFDI of Strut Coverage of Terumo New Drug Eluting Stent With Biodegradable Polymer at 1, 2, and 3 Months) is a prospective, single-arm, multicenter study. A total of 60 patients with multivessel disease requiring staged procedure at 1 month were treated with Ultimaster. Optical frequency domain imaging was acquired at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 months. The primary end point is optical frequency domain imaging-assessed strut coverage at 3 months. Mean age of patients was 67.2±9.9 years, and 73.3% were male, and 36.7% presented with acute coronary syndrome. A total of 132 lesions were treated, with average 1.4 lesions per patient treated at baseline and 1.1 lesions treated at 1 month. Strut coverage at 3 months of single implanted stents (n=71, primary end point) was 95.2±5.2% and of combined single and overlapped stents was 95.4±4.9%. Strut coverage of combined single and overlapped stents at 1 (n=49) and 2 months (n=38) was 85.1±12.7% and 87.9±10.8%, respectively. The median neointimal hyperplasia thickness was 0.04, 0.05, and 0.06 mm, whereas mean neointimal hyperplasia obstruction was 4.5±2.4%, 5.2±3.4%, and 6.6±3.3% at 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively.

Conclusions: Nearly complete strut coverage was observed in this complex population very early after implantation of Ultimaster drug-eluting stent.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01844843.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.116.004801DOI Listing
December 2017

Everolimus eluting stent vs first generation drug-eluting stent in primary angioplasty: A pooled patient-level meta-analysis of randomized trials.

Int J Cardiol 2017 Oct 13;244:121-127. Epub 2017 Jun 13.

Department of Cardiology, UMC St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Several concerns have emerged about the higher risk of very late stent thrombosis (ST) with first generation drug-eluting stent (DES) especially among STEMI patients. Newer generation DES has demonstrated to reduce ST at mid-term follow-up. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to perform an individual patient's data meta-analysis of trials comparing 1st generation DES vs. 2nd generation DES (everolimus-eluting stent, EES) in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for STEMI.

Methods: We performed a formal search of electronic databases (MEDLINE and CENTRAL) and scientific session presentations from January 2010 to June 2016. We included all completed randomized trials comparing 1st vs. EES for patient presenting with STEMI.

Results: Individual patients data were obtained from 3 trials, including a total of 1581 patients (686 or 43.4% randomized to 1st generation DES and 895 or 56.4% randomized to EES). At long-term follow-up (1584±588days), EES did not significantly reduce mortality (7.8.% vs 11.7%, HR [95%CI]=0.77 [0.52, 1.13], p=0.18, p=0.93), cardiac mortality (6.2% vs 7.6%, HR [95%CI]=0.90 [0.56, 1.44], p=0.65, p=0.85), and reinfarction (8.1% versus 11.2%, respectively; HR [95%CI]=0.74 [0.51, 1.07], p=0.11, p=0.52). However, EES significantly reduced the occurrence of ST (3.4% versus 6.1% respectively, HR [95%CI]=0.56 [0.32, 0.97], p=0.04, p=0.42) and target vessel revascularization (TVR) (14.2% versus 20.1%; HR [95%CI]=0.63 [0.42, 0.96], p=0.03, p=0.55). Landmark analysis showed more consistent benefits in ST with EES within 1year, whereas benefits in TVR were mostly observed later than 1year.

Conclusions: The present pooled patient-level meta-analysis demonstrates that among STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI, EES as compared to 1st generation DES is associated with a significant reduction in ST and TVR at long-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.06.022DOI Listing
October 2017

Biodegradable Polymer Biolimus-Eluting Stents Versus Durable Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stents in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: Final 5-Year Report From the COMPARE II Trial (Abluminal Biodegradable Polymer Biolimus-Eluting Stent Versus Durable Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stent).

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2017 06 31;10(12):1215-1221. Epub 2017 May 31.

Department of Cardiology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Objectives: This analysis investigates the 5-year outcomes of the biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stent (BP-BES) and durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (DP-EES) in an all-comers population undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

Background: Recent 1- and 3-year results from randomized trials have indicated similar safety and efficacy outcomes of BP-BES and DP-EES. Whether benefits of the biodegradable polymer device arise over longer follow-up is unknown. Moreover, in-depth, prospective, long-term follow-up data on metallic drug-eluting stents with durable or biodegradable polymers are scarce.

Methods: The COMPARE II trial (Abluminal Biodegradable Polymer Biolimus-Eluting Stent Versus Durable Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stent) was a prospective, randomized, multicenter, all-comers trial in which 2,707 patients were randomly allocated (2:1) to BP-BES or DP-EES. The pre-specified endpoint at 5 years was major adverse cardiac events, a composite of cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularization.

Results: Five-year follow-up was available in 2,657 patients (98%). At 5 years, major adverse cardiac events occurred in 310 patients (17.3%) in the BP-BES group and 142 patients (15.6%) in the DP-EES group (p = 0.26). The rate of the combined safety endpoint all-cause death or myocardial infarction was 15.0% in the BP-BES group versus 14.8% in the DP-EES group (p = 0.90), whereas the efficacy measure target vessel revascularization was 10.6% versus 9.0% (p = 0.18), respectively. Interestingly, definite stent thrombosis rates did not differ between groups (1.5% for BP-BES vs. 0.9% for DP-EES; p = 0.17).

Conclusions: The 5-year analysis comparing biodegradable polymer-coated BES and the durable polymer-coated EES confirms the initial early- and mid-term results regarding similar safety and efficacy outcomes in this all-comers percutaneous coronary intervention population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2017.02.029DOI Listing
June 2017

Potentially increased incidence of scaffold thrombosis in patients treated with Absorb BVS who terminated DAPT before 18 months.

EuroIntervention 2017 Jun 2;13(2):e177-e184. Epub 2017 Jun 2.

Thoraxcenter, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) termination on late and very late scaffold thrombosis (ScT) in patients treated with the Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS).

Methods And Results: Data from the registries of three centres were pooled (808 patients). To investigate the effect of DAPT termination on ScT after a minimum of six months, we selected a subgroup ("DAPT study cohort" with 685 patients) with known DAPT status >6 months and excluded the use of oral anticoagulants and early ScT. In this cohort, definite/probable ScT incidence for the period on DAPT was compared to ScT incidence after DAPT termination. ScT incidence was 0.83 ScT/100 py with 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34-1.98. After DAPT termination, the incidence was higher (1.77/100 py; 95% CI: 0.66-4.72), compared to the incidence on DAPT (0.26/100 py, 95% CI: 0.04-1.86; p=0.12) and increased within the month after DAPT termination (6.57/100 py, 95% CI: 2.12-20.38; p=0.01). No very late ScT occurred in patients who continued on DAPT for a minimum of 18 months.

Conclusions: The incidence of late and very late definite/probable ScT was acceptable. The incidence was low while on DAPT but potentially higher when DAPT was terminated before 18 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-17-00119DOI Listing
June 2017

Everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffolds for treatment of complex chronic total occlusions.

EuroIntervention 2017 06;13(3):355-363

National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore.

Aims: Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) represent a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of coronary artery diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of BVS implantation in complex chronic total occlusions (CTO).

Methods And Results: The present report is a multicentre registry evaluating results after BVS deployment in challenging CTO lesions, defined as J-CTO score ≥2 (difficult or very difficult). A total of 105 patients were included in the present analysis. The mean J-CTO score was 2.61 (difficult 52.4%, very difficult 47.6%). Device success and procedural success rates were 98.1% and 97.1%, respectively. The retrograde approach was used in 25.7% of cases. After wire crossing, predilatation was performed in all cases with a mean predilatation balloon diameter of 2.73±0.43 mm. The mean scaffold length was 59.75±25.85 mm, with post-dilatation performed in 89.5% of the cases and a mean post-dilatation balloon diameter of 3.35±0.44 mm. Post-PCI minimal lumen diameter was 2.50±0.51 mm and percentage diameter stenosis 14.53±10.31%. At six-month follow-up, a total of three events were reported: one periprocedural myocardial infarction, one late scaffold thrombosis and one additional target lesion revascularisation.

Conclusions: The present report suggests the feasibility of BVS implantation in complex CTO lesions, given adequate lesion preparation and post-dilatation, with good acute angiographic results and midterm clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-16-00253DOI Listing
June 2017

Biolimus-eluting versus everolimus-eluting stents in coronary artery disease: a pooled analysis from the NEXT (NOBORI biolimus-eluting versus XIENCE/PROMUS everolimus-eluting stent) and COMPARE II (Abluminal biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stent versus durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent) randomised trials.

EuroIntervention 2017 Mar;12(16):1970-1977

Division of Cardiology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Aims: This study sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of a biolimus-eluting stent with biodegradable polymer (BP-BES) (Nobori; Terumo Corp.) compared to an everolimus-eluting stent with durable polymer (DP-EES) (XIENCE V or Prime; Abbott Vascular, or PROMUS; Boston Scientific).

Methods And Results: The all-comers NEXT and COMPARE II clinical trials randomly assigned 5,942 patients to BP-BES (N=3,412) or DP-EES (N=2,530). We conducted a patient level pooled analysis at three-year follow-up with specified study endpoints: definite stent thrombosis (ST), the combined safety endpoint cardiac death or target vessel myocardial infarction (TV-MI), and the efficacy endpoint target lesion revascularisation (TLR). At three-year follow-up, all endpoints, namely definite stent thrombosis (BP-BES 0.8% vs. 0.4%, p=0.20), death or TV-MI (BP-BES 7.8% vs. 6.7%, p=0.07), as well as TLR (BP-BES 6.4% vs. 6.4%, p=0.78) were similar between groups. Interestingly, unadjusted (BP-BES 5.6% vs. 4.5%, p=0.02) and adjusted (HR 1.36; 1.01-1.82, p=0.04) TV-MI rates were higher in the BP-BES group than in the DP-EES group.

Conclusions: In this large-scale patient level pooled analysis of the NEXT and COMPARE II randomised trials, the use of BP-BES compared with DP-EES resulted in similar outcomes, but with an observed higher rate of TV-MI in the BP-BES group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-16-00773DOI Listing
March 2017

Coronary angiography after cardiac arrest: Rationale and design of the COACT trial.

Am Heart J 2016 Oct 14;180:39-45. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Ischemic heart disease is a major cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The role of immediate coronary angiography (CAG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after restoration of spontaneous circulation following cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains debated.

Hypothesis: We hypothesize that immediate CAG and PCI, if indicated, will improve 90-day survival in post-cardiac arrest patients without signs of STEMI.

Design: In a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial, 552 post-cardiac arrest patients with restoration of spontaneous circulation and without signs of STEMI will be randomized in a 1:1 fashion to immediate CAG and PCI (within 2 hours) versus initial deferral with CAG and PCI after neurological recovery. The primary end point of the study is 90-day survival. The secondary end points will include 90-day survival with good cerebral performance or minor/moderate disability, myocardial injury, duration of inotropic support, occurrence of acute kidney injury, need for renal replacement therapy, time to targeted temperature control, neurological status at intensive care unit discharge, markers of shock, recurrence of ventricular tachycardia, duration of mechanical ventilation, and reasons for discontinuation of treatment.

Summary: The COACT trial is a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical study that will evaluate the effect of an immediate invasive coronary strategy in post-cardiac arrest patients without STEMI on 90-day survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2016.06.025DOI Listing
October 2016

One-year results of the ICON (Ionic versus non-ionic Contrast to Obviate worsening Nephropathy after angioplasty in chronic renal failure patients) Study.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2016 Mar 20;87(4):703-9. Epub 2015 Oct 20.

Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York.

Background: Long-term clinical outcomes after exposure to non-ionic iso-osmolar contrast medium (IOCM) or ionic low-osmolar CM (LOCM) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing coronary angiography are unclear.

Methods: The ICON trial was a prospective, double-blinded, multicentre study that randomly assigned 146 patients with CKD undergoing coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention to the non-ionic IOCM Iodixanol or the ionic LOCM Ioxaglate. We report the 1-year clinical outcomes.

Results: After randomization, baseline and procedural characteristics were well-matched between the two groups. At 1 year, three deaths (4.1%) occurred in the ioxaglate and nine deaths in the iodixanol group (13.6%, P = 0.07). The cardiac death rate at 1 year was 2.7% in the ioxaglate group and 9.1% in the iodixanol group (P = 0.07). There were no significant differences in the rates of myocardial infarction (1.4% vs. 1.5%; P = 1.00) and repeated revascularization (6.8% vs. 9.1%; P = 0.75).

Conclusions: The use of ionic LOCM ioxaglate was associated with a numerically lower mortality at 1 year as compared to iodixanol in patients who underwent cardiac catheterization. Future studies evaluating long-term safety following exposure to different types of CM are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.26106DOI Listing
March 2016

Final 5-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Everolimus- and Paclitaxel-Eluting Stents for Coronary Revascularization in Daily Practice: The COMPARE Trial (A Trial of Everolimus-Eluting Stents and Paclitaxel Stents for Coronary Revascularization in Daily Practice).

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2015 Aug 22;8(9):1157-1165. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Department of Cardiology, Maasstad Ziekenhuis, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Objectives: This study sought to report the 5-year outcomes of everolimus-eluting stents (EES) and paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) in an all-comers population undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Background: The medium-term 1 and 2-year results of the prospective randomized COMPARE trial (A Trial of Everolimus-Eluting Stents and Paclitaxel-Eluting Stents for Coronary Revascularization in Daily Practice) showed superior clinical outcomes with EES compared with PES in an all-comers PCI population. Whether this benefit is sustained over longer-term follow-up is unknown. Furthermore, systematic long-term follow-up data on these metallic drug eluting stents with durable polymers are scarce.

Methods: We randomly assigned 1,800 patients undergoing PCI to EES or PES. The pre-specified composite primary endpoint was death, myocardial infarction (MI), or target vessel revascularization (TVR).

Results: Follow-up at 5 years was completed in 1,791 (99.5%) patients. Treatment with EES compared with PES led to a relative risk reduction of the primary endpoint by 27% (18.4% vs. 25.1%, p = 0.0005), driven by lower rates of MI (7.0% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.001) and TVR (7.4% vs. 11.4%, p = 0.003), but not with mortality (9.0% vs. 10.3%, relative risk 0.88, p = 0.36). Moreover, patients treated with EES compared with PES had lower rates of definite/probable stent thrombosis at 5 years (3.1% vs. 5.9%, p = 0.005). The hazard curves for TVR, MI, and stent thrombosis diverge over the first 3 years and, subsequently, progress in parallel.

Conclusions: The early- and medium-term superiority of EES over PES measured both by safety and efficacy endpoints is sustained at 5 years in this all-comer population. (A Trial of Everolimus-Eluting Stents and Paclitaxel-Eluting Stents for Coronary Revascularization in Daily Practice [COMPARE]; NCT01016041).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2015.03.028DOI Listing
August 2015

Long-term clinical outcomes of biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stents versus durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents in patients with coronary artery disease: three-year follow-up of the COMPARE II (Abluminal biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stent versus durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent) trial.

EuroIntervention 2015 Jul;11(3):272-9

Department of Cardiology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Aims: The aim of this analysis was to compare the long-term safety and efficacy of the biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stent (BES) with that of the durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (EES).

Methods And Results: The COMPARE II study was a prospective, randomised, multicentre, all-comers trial in which 2,707 patients were randomly allocated (2:1) to BES or EES. The pre-specified endpoint at three years was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), a composite of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), or target vessel revascularisation (TVR). Moreover, the combined endpoint all-cause death or MI was analysed as a safety, and TVR as an efficacy measure. Three-year follow-up was available in 2,683 patients (99.1%). At three years, MACE occurred in 213 patients (11.9%) in the BES group and in 101 patients (11.1 %) in the EES group (p=0.57). The rate of the combined safety endpoint all-cause death or MI was 9.3% in the BES group vs. 8.4% (p=0.52), while the efficacy measure TVR was 7.6% in BES vs. 6.5% (p=0.27). Interestingly, definite stent thrombosis rates did not differ between groups (1.2% for BES vs. 0.8%, p=0.33).

Conclusions: At three-year follow-up, MACE as well as safety and efficacy measures including stent thrombosis were not statistically different between the biodegradable polymer-coated BES and the durable polymer-coated EES. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01233453.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJV11I3A53DOI Listing
July 2015

Long-Term Safety of Drug-Eluting and Bare-Metal Stents: Evidence From a Comprehensive Network Meta-Analysis.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2015 Jun;65(23):2496-507

Columbia University Medical Center/New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Background: Previous meta-analyses have investigated the relative safety and efficacy profiles of different types of drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare-metal stents (BMS); however, most prior trials in these meta-analyses reported follow-up to only 1 year, and as such, the relative long-term safety and efficacy of these devices are unknown. Many recent studies have now reported extended follow-up data.

Objectives: This study sought to investigate the long-term safety and efficacy of durable polymer-based DES, bioabsorbable polymer-based biolimus-eluting stents (BES), and BMS by means of network meta-analysis.

Methods: Randomized controlled trials comparing DES to each other or to BMS were searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases and proceedings of international meetings. Information on study design, inclusion and exclusion criteria, sample characteristics, and clinical outcomes was extracted.

Results: Fifty-one trials that included a total of 52,158 randomized patients with follow-up duration ≥3 years were analyzed. At a median follow-up of 3.8 years, cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (EES) were associated with lower rates of mortality, definite stent thrombosis (ST), and myocardial infarction than BMS, paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES), and sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and less ST than BES. Phosphorylcholine-based zotarolimus-eluting stents had lower rates of definite ST than SES and lower rates of myocardial infarction than BMS and PES. The late rates of target-vessel revascularization were reduced with all DES compared with BMS, with cobalt-chromium EES, platinum chromium-EES, SES, and BES also having lower target-vessel revascularization rates than PES.

Conclusions: After a median follow-up of 3.8 years, all DES demonstrated superior efficacy compared with BMS. Among DES, second-generation devices have substantially improved long-term safety and efficacy outcomes compared with first-generation devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2015.04.017DOI Listing
June 2015

Clinical and angiographic evaluation of the resolute zotarolimus-eluting coronary stent in Japanese patients – long-term outcome in the RESOLUTE Japan and RESOLUTE Japan small vessel study.

Circ J 2015 27;79(1):96-103. Epub 2014 Nov 27.

Cardiology and Catheterization Laboratories, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital.

Background: This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of the RESOLUTE(TM)zotarolimus-eluting stent (R-ZES; Medtronic, Inc, Santa Rosa, CA, USA) in Japanese patients for the treatment of de novo native coronary lesions.

Methods And Results: Both RESOLUTE Japan (R-Japan) and RESOLUTE Japan Small Vessel Study (R-Japan SVS) were prospective, multicenter, single-arm observational studies. R-Japan enrolled 100 patients (reference vessel diameter, 2.5-3.5 mm) and R-Japan SVS enrolled 65 patients (at least 1 lesion suitable for 2.25-mm stent) treated with R-ZES. In R-Japan, in-stent late lumen loss (LLL; the primary endpoint) at 8 months was 0.12 ± 0.22 mm and volume obstruction on intravascular ultrasound was 2.33 ± 3.51%. At 4 years, there were no cases of clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR); the target lesion failure (TLF; composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, and clinically driven TLR) was 5.6% (5/90). In R-Japan SVS, in-stent LLL at 9 months was 0.27 ± 0.33 mm, TLF (primary endpoint) was 4.6% (3/65), without incidence of TLR. At 3 years, TLF was 7.9% (5/63) and clinically driven TLR, 3.2% (2/63).

Conclusions: R-Japan and R-Japan SVS demonstrate substantial suppression of neointimal hyperplasia, low LLL, and excellent and sustained long-term clinical outcome with R-ZES in Japanese patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-14-0836DOI Listing
February 2016

Effect of bivalirudin on aortic valve intervention outcomes study: a two-centre registry study comparing bivalirudin and unfractionated heparin in balloon aortic valvuloplasty.

EuroIntervention 2014 Jul;10(3):312-9

Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Aims: We sought to assess if bivalirudin use during balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) would affect clinical outcomes compared with heparin.

Methods And Results: We compared the outcomes of consecutive patients who underwent elective or urgent BAV with intraprocedural use of bivalirudin or heparin at two high-volume centres. All in-hospital events post BAV were adjudicated by an independent, blinded clinical events committee. Of 427 patients, 223 patients (52.2%) received bivalirudin and 204 (47.8%) received heparin. Compared with patients who received heparin, patients who received bivalirudin had significantly less major bleeding (4.9% vs. 13.2%, p=0.003). Net adverse clinical events (NACE, major bleeding or major adverse cardiovascular events [MACE]) were also reduced (11.2% vs. 20.1%, p=0.01). There was no significant difference in the rates of MACE (mortality, myocardial infarction or stroke, 6.7% vs. 11.3%, p=0.1), or vascular complications (major, 2.7% vs. 2.0%; minor, 4.5% vs. 4.9%; p=0.83). After multivariate analysis controlling for vascular preclosure, the use of bivalirudin remained independently associated with reduced major bleeding (OR 0.37; 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.84; p=0.02) while the association was attenuated in propensity-adjusted analysis (OR 0.44, 95% CI: 0.18 to 1.07, p=0.08).

Conclusions: In this registry of patients with severe aortic stenosis, bivalirudin as compared to heparin resulted in improved in-hospital outcomes post BAV in terms of reduced major bleeding, similar MACE and reduced NACE. If verified in a randomised study and extended to the transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) population, these results might indicate a potential benefit for patients undergoing such procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJV10I3A54DOI Listing
July 2014

Epigenetic regulation of endothelial lineage committed genes in pro-angiogenic hematopoietic and endothelial progenitor cells.

Circ Res 2011 Nov 6;109(11):1219-29. Epub 2011 Oct 6.

Institute of Cardiovascular Regeneration, Internal Medicine III, University of Frankfurt, Germany.

Rationale: Proangiogenic hematopoietic and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to postnatal neovascularization, but the mechanisms regulating differentiation to the endothelial lineage are unclear.

Objective: To elucidate the epigenetic control of endothelial gene expression in proangiogenic cells and EPCs.

Methods And Results: Here we demonstrate that the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) promoter is epigenetically silenced in proangiogenic cells (early EPCs), CD34(+) cells, and mesoangioblasts by DNA methylation and prominent repressive histone H3K27me3 marks. In order to reverse epigenetic silencing to facilitate endothelial commitment, we used 3-deazaneplanocin A, which inhibits the histone methyltransferase enhancer of zest homolog 2 and, thereby, reduces H3K27me3. 3-Deazaneplanocin A was not sufficient to increase eNOS expression, but the combination of 3-deazaneplanocin A and the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A augmented eNOS expression, indicating that the concomitant inhibition of silencing histone modification and enhancement of activating histone modification facilitates eNOS expression. In ischemic tissue, hypoxia plays a role in recruiting progenitor cells. Therefore, we examined the effect of hypoxia on epigenetic modifications. Hypoxia modulated the balance of repressive to active histone marks and increased eNOS mRNA expression. The reduction of repressive H3K27me3 was associated with an increase of the histone demethylase Jmjd3. Silencing of Jmjd3 induced apoptosis and senescence in proangiogenic cells and inhibited hypoxia-mediated up-regulation of eNOS expression in mesoangioblasts.

Conclusions: These findings provide evidence that histone modifications epigenetically control the eNOS promoter in proangiogenic cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.247304DOI Listing
November 2011

Post TAVI paravalvular regurgitation: can we stop the leak?

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2011 Sep;78(3):444-5

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.23317DOI Listing
September 2011
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