Publications by authors named "Georgios Ioakeimidis"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

"Aggressive" Feeding of Very Preterm Neonates and Body Mass Index at School Age.

Nutrients 2021 Jun 1;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Neonatal Clinic-NICU, University General Hospital, 41222 Larissa, Greece.

Introduction: The effects of "aggressive" neonatal feeding policies of very preterm neonates (VPN) and the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life remain questionable. We aimed to evaluate the effect of our "aggressive" nutrition policies of VPN during hospitalisation on body mass index (BMI) at ages 2 and 8 years.

Materials And Methods: Eighty four VPN, who received "aggressive" nutrition during hospitalisation in an effort to minimise postnatal growth restriction (PGR) (group A), and 62 term neonates, as controls (group B), were enrolled in the study. Group A was further divided in four subgroups depending on the type (A1: fortified expressed breast milk and preterm formula; A2: exclusively preterm formula) and quantity of milk received (A3: maximum feeds 180-210 mL/kg/day; A4: maximum feeds 210 and up to 260 mL/kg/day). BMI was calculated at ages 2 and 8 years and plotted on the centile charts.

Results: There was no significant difference in BMI between groups A and B at 2 and 8 years, respectively, in both absolute BMI values and their centile chart distribution. There was no significant difference in BMI at 2 and 8 years either between subgroups A1 and A2 or between subgroups A3 and A4.

Conclusions: "Aggressive" and individualised feeding policy for VPN did not affect the BMI and obesity rates at ages of 2 and 8 years in our study population. The type and quantity of milk feeds had no impact on their BMI at school age. Further larger studies are needed to confirm our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13061901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227043PMC
June 2021

The use of thromboelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in neonates: a systematic review.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Laboratory of Haematology and Blood Bank Unit, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

"Developmental hemostasis" refers to the dynamic process of gradual hemostatic maturation. Conventional coagulation tests seem to fail to accurately depict the in vivo hemostasis, while viscoelastic tests, thromboelastography (TEG), and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) appear very promising as they provide insight more rapidly and accurately into the hemostatic potential. We systematically reviewed the literature in PubMed to examine the use of TEG and ROTEM in neonates. Our search yielded 34 studies, of which 18 concerned healthy neonates and 16 sick neonates. These viscoelastic tests have shown accelerated initiation of coagulation, increased clot strength, and increased fibrinolysis in healthy neonates compared to children and adults. Cord blood leads to a hypercoagulable state as compared to whole blood when testing is performed with TEG. Pre-term neonates have a more hypocoagulable profile, but balanced hemostasis, related to term neonates, that evolves to a more procoagulant phenotype over the first month of life. Critically ill neonates exhibit a more hypocoagulable profile as compared to healthy neonates. TEG and ROTEM have shown predictive value for bleeding events in critically ill neonates and neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass or therapeutic hypothermia.Conclusion: TEG and ROTEM need to become part of the standard coagulation assessment in clinical settings in which hemostatic abnormalities are involved, as they seem to provide more rapid and accurate information regarding the hemostatic profile of the neonates. Their predictive value for bleeding events in critically ill neonates could lead to a more targeted therapy optimizing utilization of blood products. What is Known: • Conventional coagulation tests seem to fail to accurately depict the in vivo hemostasis. • TEG and ROTEM delineate more rapidly and accurately the hemostatic potential. What is New: • TEG and ROTEM have shown predictive value for bleeding events. • TEG and ROTEM may lead to a more targeted transfusion therapy optimizing utilization of blood products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-021-04154-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Rotational Thromboelastometry in Neonates Admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Large Cross-sectional Study.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Haematology and Blood Bank Unit, "Attikon" Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

The aim of the present study was to assess the coagulation profile in neonatal critical illness using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), and to investigate its association with disease severity and its potential prognostic role in this clinical setting. Over a period of 67 months (July 2014-February 2020) 423 critically ill neonates with confirmed or suspected sepsis, perinatal hypoxia, or respiratory distress syndrome, hospitalized in our neonatal intensive care unit were included in the study. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded on admission day and arterial blood was analyzed on ROTEM analyzer using the standard extrinsically activated rotational thromboelastometry assay (EXTEM). Neonatal illness severity scores (Modified NEOMOD [Neonatal Multiple Organ Dysfunction] and SNAPPE [Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology with Perinatal Extension]) were calculated at the same time as ROTEM analysis. Mortality during in-hospital stay was the main outcome measure. Multivariable analyses showed that a 10 mm decrease in EXTEM clot amplitude recorded at 10 minutes (A10) is significantly associated with a higher mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-2.08). Higher modified NEOMOD (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.26-1.47) and higher SNAPPE scores (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04-1.08) were also associated with increased mortality. The CT and A10 variables demonstrated the best prognostic performance among the EXTEM parameters for mortality (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.69-0.86 and AUC = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.66-0.85, respectively), showing an optimal cut-off CT ≥63 seconds and A10 ≤37 mm. Using optimal cut-off values of the EXTEM parameters for prediction of mortality, neonates with CT ≥63 seconds were 7.4 times more likely to die (OR = 7.40, 95% CI: 3.50-15.65), while neonates with A10 ≤37 mm were 5.8 times more likely to die (OR = 5.88, 95% CI: 2.94-12.50). An EXTEM hypocoagulable profile on disease onset was shown to be an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality in neonatal critical illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1729964DOI Listing
June 2021

Prospective Temporal Validation of the Neonatal Bleeding Risk (NeoBRis) Index.

Thromb Haemost 2020 Dec 24. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Laboratory of Haematology and Blood Bank Unit, "Attiko" Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1343-3342DOI Listing
December 2020

Reply to Ghirardello et al Letter to the Editor.

Thromb Haemost 2020 Dec 9. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Laboratory of Haematology and Blood Bank Unit, "Attiko" Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1333-7387DOI Listing
December 2020

Reference Values of Thrombolastometry Parameters in Healthy Term Neonates.

Children (Basel) 2020 Nov 26;7(12). Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Neonatal Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aretaieio Hospital, 157 72 Athens, Greece.

Background: Thromboelastometry (ROTEM), as a point of care test, is an attractive tool for rapid evaluation of hemostasis. Currently, no reference ranges exist for all ROTEM assays in neonates, limiting its use in this vulnerable population. The aim of the present study was: (1) to establish reference ranges for standard extrinsically activated (EXTEM), intrinsically activated (INTEM), and fibrinogen polymerization (FIBTEM) ROTEM assays in whole blood samples of healthy term neonates; (2) to determine the impact of gender, delivery mode, and hematocrit on ROTEM parameters.

Methods: EXTEM, INTEM, and FIBTEM ROTEM assays were performed simultaneously with complete blood count in 215 healthy term neonates.

Results: Reference ranges (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles) were obtained for clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), α-angle, clot firmness at 10 min (A10), maximum clot firmness (MCF), and lysis index at 60 min (LI60, %). Reference ranges for EXTEM were CT 38-78 s, CFT 49-148 s, A10 40-65 mm, and MCF 47-69 mm, LI60 83-98%. For INTEM, CT 134-270 s, CFT 50-142 s, A10 41-63 mm, and MCF 48-67 mm, LI60 85-97%, and finally, for FIBTEM: CT 36-85 s, A10 9-25 mm and MCF 10-26 mm, LI60 92-100%. Hematocrit values were positively correlated with CT, CFT and negatively with A10, MCF values.

Conclusion: This study provides, for the first time, reference ranges for ROTEM EXTEM/INTEM/FIBTEM values simultaneously in healthy term neonates. The combined evaluation of ROTEM tests increases its diagnostic accuracy, contributing to the expansion of ROTEM use in the neonatal population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children7120259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759895PMC
November 2020

Nucleated Red Blood Cells: Could They Be Indicator Markers of Illness Severity for Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Patients?

Children (Basel) 2020 Oct 27;7(11). Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Nikaia General Hospital "Aghios Panteleimon", 184 54 Piraeus, Greece.

Background: We aimed to assess whether nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) count could serve as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for morbidity and mortality in critically ill neonates.

Methods: The association between NRBCs count and neonatal morbidity and mortality was evaluated in an observational cohort of critically ill neonates hospitalized in our neonatal intensive care unit over a period of 69 months. The discriminative ability of NRBCs count as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers was evaluated by performing the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis.

Results: Among 467 critically ill neonates included in the study, 45 (9.6%) of them experienced in-hospital mortality. No statistically significant difference was found with regards to NRBCs count between survivors and non-survivors, although the median value for NRBCs was sometimes higher for non-survivors. ROC curve analysis showed that NRBCs is a good discriminator marker for the diagnosis of perinatal hypoxia in neonates with area under the curve (AUC) [AUC 0.710; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.660-0.759] and predominantly in preterm neonates (AUC 0.921 (95% CI, 0.0849-0.0993)) by using a cut-off value of ≥11.2%, with 80% sensitivity and 88.7% specificity. NRBCs also revealed significant prognostic power for mortality in septic neonates (AUC 0.760 (95% CI, 0.631-0.888)) and especially in preterms with sepsis (AUC 0.816 (95% CI, 0.681-0.951)), with cut-off value ≥ 1%, resulting in 81.6% sensitivity and 78.1% specificity.

Conclusion: NRBCs count may be included among the early diagnostic and prognostic markers for sick neonates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children7110197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693309PMC
October 2020

The role of ROTEM variables based on clot elasticity and platelet component in predicting bleeding risk in thrombocytopenic critically ill neonates.

Eur J Haematol 2021 Feb 27;106(2):175-183. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Laboratory of Haematology and Blood Bank Unit, "Attiko" Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background: Our aim was to investigate the role of thromboelastometry (ROTEM) parameters, including maximum clot elasticity (MCE) and platelet component (PLTEM MCE and PLTEM MCF), in early prediction of bleeding events in thrombocytopenic critically ill neonates.

Material And Methods: This single-center, prospective cohort study included 110 consecutive thrombocytopenic neonates with sepsis, suspected sepsis, or hypoxia. On the first day of disease onset, ROTEM EXTEM and FIBTEM assays were performed and the neonatal bleeding assessment tool was used for the evaluation of bleeding events.

Results: Most EXTEM and FIBTEM ROTEM parameters significantly differed between neonates with (n = 77) and without bleeding events (n = 33). Neonates with bleeding events had significantly lower PLTEM MCE and PLTEM MCF values compared to those without bleeding events (P < .001). Platelet count was found to be strongly positively correlated with EXTEM A5 (Spearman's rho = 0.61, P < .001) and A10 (rho = 0.64, P < .001). EXTEM A10 demonstrated the best prognostic performance (AUC = 0.853) with an optimal cutoff value (≤37 mm) (sensitivity = 91%, specificity = 76%) for prediction of bleeding events in thrombocytopenic neonates.

Conclusions: EXTEM A5 and EXTEM A10 were found to be strong predictors of hemorrhage, compared to most ROTEM variables quantifying clot elasticity and platelet component in thrombocytopenic critically ill neonates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13534DOI Listing
February 2021

A Risk Score for Predicting the Incidence of Hemorrhage in Critically Ill Neonates: Development and Validation Study.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Feb 24;121(2):131-139. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Laboratory of Haematology and Blood Bank Unit, "Attiko" Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

The aim of the study was to develop and validate a prediction model for hemorrhage in critically ill neonates which combines rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) parameters and clinical variables. This cohort study included 332 consecutive full-term and preterm critically ill neonates. We performed ROTEM and used the neonatal bleeding assessment tool (NeoBAT) to record bleeding events. We fitted double selection least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logit regression to build our prediction model. Bleeding within 24 hours of the ROTEM testing was the outcome variable, while patient characteristics, biochemical, hematological, and thromboelastometry parameters were the candidate predictors of bleeding. We used both cross-validation and bootstrap as internal validation techniques. Then, we built a prognostic index of bleeding by converting the coefficients from the final multivariable model of relevant prognostic variables into a risk score. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to calculate the area under curve (AUC) of our prediction index. EXTEM A10 and LI60, platelet counts, and creatinine levels were identified as the most robust predictors of bleeding and included them into a Neonatal Bleeding Risk (NeoBRis) index. The NeoBRis index demonstrated excellent model performance with an AUC of 0.908 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.870-0.946). Calibration plot displayed optimal calibration and discrimination of the index, while bootstrap resampling ensured internal validity by showing an AUC of 0.907 (95% CI: 0.868-0.947). We developed and internally validated an easy-to-apply prediction model of hemorrhage in critically ill neonates. After external validation, this model will enable clinicians to quantify the 24-hour bleeding risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1715832DOI Listing
February 2021

ROTEM diagnostic capacity for measuring fibrinolysis in neonatal sepsis.

Thromb Res 2020 08 20;192:103-108. Epub 2020 May 20.

Laboratory of Haematology and Blood Bank Unit, "Attiko" University Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

Background: Hypofibrinolysis has been demonstrated in several studies in adult sepsis. Although fibrinolysis is an important and integral part of the hemostatic system, few data are available regarding its role in neonatal sepsis. Our purpose was to define fibrinolytic profiles across neonatal sepsis spectrum using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM).

Material And Methods: This study was performed in a Greek tertiary General Hospital during an 18 month-period and included 44 neonates with confirmed sepsis and 22 with suspected sepsis; 110 healthy neonates served as controls. Whenever sepsis was suspected, EXTEM and APTEM assays were performed, clinical findings and laboratory data were recorded.

Results: Although most EXTEM parameters were significantly different among the 3 groups, Maximal Lysis (ML) and Lysis Index at 60 min (LI60) levels were similar (p = 0.11 and p = 0.20, respectively). Hyperfibrinolysis, as defined by ROTEM parameters, did not significantly differ among the study populations (p = 0.41). On the contrary, fibrinolysis shutdown, defined as an EXTEM LI60 ≥98%, was more common in septic neonates than in healthy (p < 0.001) and neonates with suspected sepsis (p = 0.042). A weak to moderate correlation of LI60 and ML with mortality (Spearman rho = 0.43 and - 0.40, p = 0.005 and 0.007, respectively) and SNAPE score (Spearman rho = 0.35 and - 0.33, p = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively) was noticed in sepsis group.

Conclusions: ROTEM, based on fibrinolytic parameters, showed a more frequent fibrinolysis shutdown in neonatal sepsis, but it could neither effectively discriminate septic neonates, nor predict their clinical outcome. The considerable overlap among numerical ROTEM values probably compromises their diagnostic clinical utility in neonatal sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2020.05.028DOI Listing
August 2020
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