Publications by authors named "Georgianna Mann"

15 Publications

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Quality Nutrition Education Materials for Pregnant or Lactating Women and Children Ages 0-24 Months Old.

J Nutr Educ Behav 2021 05;53(5):369

Bradley University, SNEB Nutrition Education for Children Division, Chair-Elect.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2021.03.009DOI Listing
May 2021

Impact of Intervention on College Students' Vending Selections.

J Am Coll Health 2021 Apr 2:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Nutrition and Hospitality Management, The University of Mississippi, University, Oxford, Mississippi, USA.

Objectives: To place in vending machines and determine if different sales strategies affect selection.

Participants: University students living in resident halls.

Methods: Vending machines included 50% and 50% non compliant snacks. Three sales strategies targeted student selection of : Reduced price, signage, and nutrition education activities. Three-way ANOVA was used for analysis.

Results: There was a statistically significant three-way interaction on snack selection between sales strategy, study period, and snack type, (4, 77) = 3.33, = .01. There were no statistically significant simple two-way interaction between study period and sales strategy for either , (1, 77) = 1.62,  = 0.18, or NC snack types, (1, 77) = 2.02,  = 0.07.

Conclusions: Sales strategies did not affect selections. Advocates for healthier snacks in vending machines can align with
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2021.1909048DOI Listing
April 2021

: early childhood teachers' perceptions of a nutrition-integrated pilot curriculum.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Jul 22;24(10):3100-3109. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Teacher Education, University of Mississippi, 339 Guyton Hall, University, MS38677, USA.

Objective: Healthy eating behaviours are often developed early in life, yet nutrition is rarely emphasised in early childhood education. Integration of nutrition into academic content is warranted, still its ability to positively impact teaching and learning has been understudied. Therefore, the current study explored the feasibility of application in the classroom and the perceived usability of a nutrition-integrated pilot curriculum.

Design: Early childhood teachers' perceptions of four nutrition-integrated lessons were explored through a qualitative research approach. Data were collected through pre- and post-focus groups, lesson observations and teacher feedback. Focus group transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis and supplemented with observations and lesson feedback.

Setting: This pilot study took place in Northwest Mississippi at three pre-schools which are part of the Mississippi Early Learning Collaborative.

Participants: A non-probability convenience sample was utilised to acquire participants. Ten early childhood teachers and 132 Pre-K4 students participated in the study.

Results: Three themes emerged and were categorised accordingly: (a) preconceived concern of the unknown v. experienced reality, (b) promoting buy-in and engagement through hands-on learning experiences and (c) manifestation of perceived prioritisation.

Conclusions: Nutrition-integrated lessons were reported to be creative, facilitate positive food behaviours and highly engaging for teachers and children. Concerns for new and unfamiliar curriculum were noted but could be alleviated with more detailed instructions. Future nutrition-integrated curriculum efforts should include detailed video instructions and offer a gradual and flexible schedule allowing teacher autonomy in how to prioritise implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S136898002100118XDOI Listing
July 2021

College student sleep quality and mental and physical health are associated with food insecurity in a multi-campus study.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Mar 22:1-8. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

School of Human Ecology, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA, USA.

Objective: To assess the relationship between food insecurity, sleep quality, and days with mental and physical health issues among college students.

Design: An online survey was administered. Food insecurity was assessed using the ten-item Adult Food Security Survey Module. Sleep was measured using the nineteen-item Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Mental health and physical health were measured using three items from the Healthy Days Core Module. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to assess the relationship between food insecurity, sleep quality, and days with poor mental and physical health.

Setting: Twenty-two higher education institutions.

Participants: College students (n 17 686) enrolled at one of twenty-two participating universities.

Results: Compared with food-secure students, those classified as food insecure (43·4 %) had higher PSQI scores indicating poorer sleep quality (P < 0·0001) and reported more days with poor mental (P < 0·0001) and physical (P < 0·0001) health as well as days when mental and physical health prevented them from completing daily activities (P < 0·0001). Food-insecure students had higher adjusted odds of having poor sleep quality (adjusted OR (AOR): 1·13; 95 % CI 1·12, 1·14), days with poor physical health (AOR: 1·01; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·02), days with poor mental health (AOR: 1·03; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·03) and days when poor mental or physical health prevented them from completing daily activities (AOR: 1·03; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·04).

Conclusions: College students report high food insecurity which is associated with poor mental and physical health, and sleep quality. Multi-level policy changes and campus wellness programmes are needed to prevent food insecurity and improve student health-related outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980021001191DOI Listing
March 2021

School Nutrition Director Perceptions of Flexible Regulations for School Nutrition Programs in One Southeastern State.

J Sch Health 2021 Apr 4;91(4):298-306. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Tech, 333 Wallace Hall, Blacksburg, VA, 24061.

Background: Schools are a promising site for influencing the dietary intake of children and adolescents. The US Department of Agriculture recently released flexibilities to requirements for whole-grains, sodium, and low-fat milk in schools who demonstrated difficulty meeting nutrition standards for school meal programs. The support of School Nutrition Directors (SNDs) is vital to the success of school food environment changes; however, few studies have explored SNDs perceptions to changes in nutrition standards.

Methods: Experiences and perspectives toward nutrition standards of 10 SNDs, and their satisfaction with flexibilities for whole-grains, sodium, and low-fat milk were explored using a semi-structured interview. Responses were analyzed using an inductive approach with thematic analysis.

Results: Three broad categories emerged challenges with the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, food preferences and acceptability, and support and representation. A greater need for internal and external support, assistance in equipment and staff, procurement of foods compliant with regulations and acceptable to students, and more input on federal decisions and policies were perceived as important.

Conclusions: Results provide critical insight into the implementation of nutrition standards. Future research and changes to school nutrition programs should consider these challenges as they strive to meet the needs of this important population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/josh.13002DOI Listing
April 2021

Smart snacks in universities: possibilities for university vending.

Health Promot Perspect 2020 7;10(4):393-400. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

University of Memphis Dining, University of Memphis, TN, 38152, United States.

The study goal was to evaluate the nutritional impact of a healthy snack intervention on a southern university campus. This quasi-experimental study was conducted during the fall 2017 semester weekly for 14 weeks in a large southern U.S. university. For the intervention, half of vending snacks in four campus residential halls (housing from 216 to 361 students) were substituted with snacks complying with federal Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards for K-12 schools. For analysis, data from the Nutrition Facts labels of 14 vending machines or from manufacturer's websites was collected by trained graduate and undergraduate researchers. On average, for each Smart Snack sold, there was a statistically significant reduction of 99.38 calories (CI=42.32, 156.43), 4 g saturated fat (CI = 2.23, 5.75), and 10.06 g of sugar(CI=2.92, 17.20). An average reduction of 41.88 mg in sodium and an increase of 0.81g in fiber was also found, but was not statistically significant. There was a significant difference (t(16)=3.02, P < 0.025, 95% CI = 10.77, 55.79) between the Quality Score of Smart Snacks (M=59.13,SD= ± 36.50) and that of non-compliant snacks (M=25.85, SD= ± 24.72). The nutritional impact with even a 50% Smart Snack replacement is promising. Many available comparable snacks mimic the mouthfeel, taste, and appearance of their original full-fat, full-sodium, and full-sugar counterparts. Including healthier snack choices in vending machines may be a viable option for universities to transform the campus eating environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/hpp.2020.58DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722994PMC
November 2020

Measuring university students' beliefs toward healthy snack selection.

J Am Coll Health 2020 Mar 24:1-8. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Nutrition and Hospitality Management, Student Health Services, University of Mississippi, Oxford, Mississippi, USA.

Understanding university students' beliefs toward selecting healthy snacks is important in developing effective programs targeting healthy eating behaviors. The purpose of this research was to assess students' beliefs toward healthy snack selection and consumption. In November 2017, a convenience sample of 779 undergraduate students living on campus completed an online survey. A survey was developed to measure students' beliefs about eating healthy snacks. Paired t-tests were used to compare differences in beliefs and their importance. Independent t-tests were used to compare differences in belief responses by gender. Students believed that healthy snacks were good for health and assisting with weight management. However, time management, motivation, preparation needs, and poor taste were reported as barriers to selection and consumption of healthy snacks. Increasing students' awareness of available food preparation facilities, developing food preparation skills, and motivation for consumption of healthy-good tasting snacks may increase healthier snacking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2020.1732987DOI Listing
March 2020

College2Youth: Design of Multidisciplinary Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Research Experience.

J Nutr Educ Behav 2020 04 8;52(4):447-450. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Department of Sociology & Anthropology, University of Mississippi, University, MS.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2019.07.009DOI Listing
April 2020

National Food Affordability: A County-Level Analysis.

Prev Chronic Dis 2018 09 20;15:E115. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

School of Social Work, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

The purpose of this study was to explore the sociodemographic factors that contribute to food affordability across space, with specific emphasis on rural and urban differences in the United States. A regression analysis was used to predict food affordability from several predictors in rural and urban areas, with a subanalysis of Appalachian and Delta counties. Rural households had significantly higher food expenditures to income ratios compared with urban counties; Appalachian and Delta counties had the highest on average food expenditure to income ratio. Affordable food buffers vulnerable families against food insecurity and subsequent chronic health issues, which are especially relevant in the Appalachian and Delta counties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd15.180079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6157262PMC
September 2018

Copycat snacks: Can students differentiate between school and store snacks?

Authors:
Georgianna Mann

Appetite 2018 Feb 28;121:63-68. Epub 2017 Oct 28.

The University of Mississippi, Department of Nutrition and Hospitality Management, United States. Electronic address:

In 2014, the national Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards placed regulations on all snack foods sold in schools. Many food companies reformulated common snack food products for sale in schools, called "copycat snacks", which look similar to nutritionally different foods sold in stores. It is possible that these snacks create consumer confusion among students. The purpose of this study was to determine if middle school students could differentiate, in taste and appearance, between school (copycat) and store versions of common snacks. Seventy-six middle school students evaluated three different food products offered in schools: Froot Loops, Rice Krispy Treats, and Doritos. Students tasted snacks in a series of triangle tests for difference, one for each snack food, including school and store versions. Students were also presented with packages, school and store versions of the same products, and asked to determine the expected taste, purchase intentions, and perceived healthfulness. Students could determine taste differences between school and store Rice Krispy Treats yet could not differentiate between Froot Loop and Dorito varieties. Students rated store versions of all three snacks with greater expected taste, higher intention to purchase, and as less healthy. While it seems product confusion concerning copycat snacks may not be severe in this sample, snack food brands are still a prominent feature in schools. It is possible that these copycat snacks can confuse students' perceptions of healthy foods. Alternative packaging for school foods or reformation of store versions of snack foods may be viable solutions to this problem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2017.10.028DOI Listing
February 2018

Smart Snacks in School Legislation Does Not Change Self-Reported Snack Food and Beverage Intake of Middle School Students in Rural Appalachian Region.

J Nutr Educ Behav 2017 Jul - Aug;49(7):599-604.e1

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Objective: To assess the effects of the national Smart Snacks in School standards, which include nutrient and ingredient limitations for school competitive foods and beverages effective July, 2014, on student intake in low-income rural Appalachian middle schools.

Methods: Food-frequency questionnaires were administered to students before and after implementation. Multiple ordinal logistic regression models were conducted to examine effects from year of data collection, grade, and free or reduced price lunch participation rates.

Results: No significant changes were observed after implementation except a decrease in consumption of 1% or nonfat flavored milk at school.

Conclusions And Implications: Smart Snacks in School standards did not result in significant dietary changes in this study. Longitudinal studies could evaluate long-term impacts of nutrition standards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2017.05.338DOI Listing
April 2018

Parenting practices toward food and children's behavior: Eating away from home versus at home.

Appetite 2017 07 30;114:194-199. Epub 2017 Mar 30.

333 Wallace Hall, Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. Electronic address:

Parenting style influences a child's overall diet quality and establishes food preferences. Parenting style and "food rules" for children differ by eating at home or away from home. Eating meals away from home is increasing despite associations with consumption of unhealthy foods and higher weight status. The objective of the current study was to compare parenting practices and decision-making at restaurants versus at home. A mixed methods approach was utilized: facilitated, individual interviews to explore decision-making and parenting practices; written questionnaires for socio-demographic information; and body mass index. Summaries and emergent themes were generated based on examination of tapes and transcripts. Descriptive statistics were computed for questionnaire data. Twenty-five mothers of children of five to eight years who ate at restaurants at least two times per week participated. Mothers reported more permissive food rules at restaurants yet maintained higher behavioral expectations. Mothers were also more likely to make decisions about whether they eat out, where to eat, and children's meal selections than their children. The findings suggest that parenting practices toward overall behavior and food choices may differ at restaurants than at home, highlighting the importance of healthy menu options, further research, and educational strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.045DOI Listing
July 2017

The Availability of Competitive Foods and Beverages to Middle School Students in Appalachian Virginia Before Implementation of the 2014 Smart Snacks in School Standards.

Prev Chronic Dis 2015 Sep 17;12:E153. Epub 2015 Sep 17.

Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.

The study objective was to examine the nutritional quality of competitive foods and beverages (foods and beverages from vending machines and à la carte foods) available to rural middle school students, before implementation of the US Department of Agriculture's Smart Snacks in School standards in July 2014. In spring 2014, we audited vending machines and à la carte cafeteria foods and beverages in 8 rural Appalachian middle schools in Virginia. Few schools had vending machines. Few à la carte and vending machine foods met Smart Snacks in School standards (36.5%); however, most beverages did (78.2%). The major challenges to meeting standards were fat and sodium content of foods. Most competitive foods (62.2%) did not meet new standards, and rural schools with limited resources will likely require assistance to fully comply.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd12.150051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4576436PMC
September 2015

A comparison of fruits, vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, and desserts in the packed lunches of elementary school children.

Child Obes 2015 Jun 6;11(3):275-80. Epub 2015 Mar 6.

1Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blackburg, VA.

Background: An estimated 40% of children bring a packed lunch to school. These lunches are not required to meet nutrition standards. The aim of this study was to compare differences in the nutritional quality of elementary packed lunches by the presence or absence of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), desserts, and fruits and vegetables (FVs).

Methods: Observational data for prekindergarten and kindergarten packed lunches were collected from three schools in rural Virginia for 5 consecutive school days and analyzed for macro- and micronutrients and by the presence or absence of food and beverage items.

Results: Of the 561 packed lunch observations collected, 41.7% contained no FV, 41.2% contained an SSB, and 61.1% contained a dessert. The nutrient profile of packed lunches with at least one fruit or vegetable had significantly higher levels of carbohydrate, fiber, sugar, vitamin A, and vitamin C. Packed lunches containing an SSB had significantly higher levels of sugar and vitamin C and significantly lower levels of protein, fiber, vitamin A, calcium, and iron. Packed lunches containing a dessert had significantly higher levels of energy, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, sodium, sugar, vitamin C, and iron and significantly lower levels of vitamin A.

Conclusions: Additional research is needed to fully understand parent and child motivations for packing lunches and the decision processes that influence the inclusion of food items. The development of packed lunch interventions, encouragement of National School Lunch Program participation, or enactment of school policies to increase the nutritional value of packed lunches is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/chi.2014.0134DOI Listing
June 2015