Publications by authors named "Georgia Williams"

7 Publications

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Assessing the validity of the Self-Report Webexec Questionnaire: Self-report vs performance neurocognitive inferences.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2020 Dec 1:1-9. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Psychology, Virginia State University, Petersburg, VA, USA.

The Webexec is a self-reported neuropsychological measure, which previous research suggests is associated with personality and executive functions. Though the Webexec could be useful for brief neuropsychological assessment, there is limited literature examining its validity. The current study's purpose was to determine Webexec's validity and association with mood symptomatology in two Historically Black College or University (HBCU) undergraduate student samples. Study 1 employed a neurocognitive battery for convergent validity testing, while the second study utilized psychological measures to determine the Webexec's association with mood-based symptomatology. Study 1 included 149 participants, with a mean age of 20.08 (SD = 1.75) years. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the Webexec, and a neuropsychological battery. The neuropsychological battery measured verbal fluency, visual scanning, and working memory. The Webexec was positively associated with working memory ( = 0.18,  = 0.03), but no other neuropsychological measures. Study 2 utilized an online survey with 799 HBCU participants. Results suggest Webexec was associated with depressive symptomatology ( = 0.41,  = 0.01), anxiety symptomatology ( = 0.39,  = 0.01), and impulsivity ( = 0.21,  = 0.01). Taken together, results from both studies suggest the Webexec is not consistently associated with performance measures of executive function and maybe more consistent with self-reported psychological symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23279095.2020.1843041DOI Listing
December 2020

C4-aldehyde of guaiazulene: synthesis and derivatisation.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 03 4;19(11):2502-2511. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK.

Guaiazulene is an alkyl-substituted azulene available from natural sources and is a much lower cost starting material for the synthesis of azulene derivatives than azulene itself. Here we report an approach for the selective functionalisation of guaiazulene which takes advantage of the acidity of the protons on the guaiazulene C4 methyl group. The aldehyde produced by this approach constitutes a building block for the construction of azulenes substituted on the seven-membered ring. Derivatives of this aldehyde synthesised by alkenylation, reduction and condensation are reported, and the halochromic properties of a subset of these derivatives have been studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0ob02567dDOI Listing
March 2021

The utility of a fidelity measure to monitor implementation of new early psychosis services across Australia.

Early Interv Psychiatry 2021 Feb 21. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Orygen, Parkville, Australia.

Aim: Early psychosis delivery models have proliferated worldwide, but there is limited research into establishing model fidelity. In this context, this article aims to describe the development and implementation of a fidelity tool in a national network of early psychosis services across Australia-the headspace Early Psychosis program.

Methods: Following a detailed consultation process, and based on the Australian Early Psychosis model, an 80-item Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre Model Integrity Tool (EMIT) was developed along with predefined thresholds for fidelity. The tool was used to assess adherence to the model in six clusters of service sites across Australia. Ratings on the EMIT were informed by interviews with site staff and young people receiving the service, routinely collected data and site policies and procedures.

Results: All six clusters of headspace Early Psychosis programs participated in five fidelity assessments across a period of two and a half years. In the initial two visits, the average fidelity score was in the 'low' fidelity range (i.e., <75%). By the fifth fidelity visit, the network average improved to 92.35%, reflecting 'superior' fidelity.

Conclusions: Results of the longitudinal fidelity assessments indicate the successful implementation of the Australian Early Psychosis model across the headspace Early Psychosis program. Utilisation of ongoing fidelity assessments has proved an effective method to improve and maintain adherence to the model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eip.13074DOI Listing
February 2021

Systematic Review of Pain in Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of COPD: A Case for Including Chronic Pain?

Healthcare (Basel) 2019 Jan 22;7(1). Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity, School of Health Sciences, Division of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5001, Australia.

Chronic pain is highly prevalent and more common in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than people of similar age/sex in the general population. This systematic review aimed to describe how frequently and in which contexts pain is considered in the clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the broad management of COPD. Databases (Medline, Scopus, CiNAHL, EMbase, and clinical guideline) and websites were searched to identify current versions of COPD CPGs published in any language since 2006. Data on the frequency, context, and specific recommendations or strategies for the assessment or management of pain were extracted, collated, and reported descriptively. Of the 41 CPGs (English = 20) reviewed, 16 (39%) did not mention pain. Within the remaining 25 CPGs, pain was mentioned 67 times (ranging from 1 to 10 mentions in a single CPG). The most frequent contexts for mentioning pain were as a potential side effect of specific pharmacotherapies (22 mentions in 13 CPGs), as part of differential diagnosis (14 mentions in 10 CPGs), and end of life or palliative care management (7 mentions in 6 CPGs). In people with COPD, chronic pain is common; adversely impacts quality of life, mood, breathlessness, and participation in activities of daily living; and warrants consideration within CPGs for COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare7010015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6473434PMC
January 2019

Differentiation of transplanted microencapsulated fetal pancreatic cells.

Transplantation 2007 Jun;83(11):1440-8

Diabetes Transplant Unit, Prince of Wales Hospital, the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Fetal beta cells are a potential form of cell therapy for type 1 diabetes. To protect transplanted cells from cellular immune attack, microencapsulation using barium alginate can be employed. Whether microencapsulated fetal pancreatic cells will differentiate as occurs with nonencapsulated fetal pancreatic cells is presently unknown. It is suggested that such differentiation would occur in encapsulated cells, similar to previous experiments conducted using encapsulated embryonic stem cells.

Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic severe combined immunodeficient mice were transplanted with 5,000 to 38,000 fetal pig islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) within barium alginate microcapsules of diameter 300, 600, or 1000 microm. Viability, insulin secretion, and content of encapsulated cells were measured prior to transplantation. Blood glucose levels (BGL) were measured twice weekly and porcine C-peptide monthly. Encapsulated cells were recovered from mice at 6 months posttransplantation for analysis.

Results: Encapsulated cells became glucose responsive and normalized BGL within 13 to 68 days posttransplantation, with 5,000 to 10,000 ICCs required. Microcapsule diameter did not affect the time required to achieve normoglycemia. BGL remained normal for the 6-month duration of the experiments. After removal of grafts at 25 weeks posttransplantation, glucose stimulated insulin secretion of the explants was enhanced 96-fold, insulin content was enhanced 34-fold, and the percentage of insulin and glucagon positive cells increased 10-fold and threefold, respectively, from the time of transplantation.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that fetal pancreatic cells differentiate and function normally when placed within barium alginate microcapsules and transplanted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.tp.0000264555.46417.7dDOI Listing
June 2007

Transplantation of 3D scaffolds seeded with human embryonic stem cells: biological features of surrogate tissue and teratoma-forming potential.

Regen Med 2007 May;2(3):289-300

University of New South Wales, Diabetes Transplant Unit, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia.

Aim: To generate complex surrogate tissue by transplanting 3D scaffolds seeded with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) between the liver lobules of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and to assess the teratoma-forming potential.

Materials & Methods: 3D poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds coated with laminin were seeded with hESCs and then transplanted between the liver lobules of SCID mice. After a period of in vivo differentiation, the scaffolds were retrieved and analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescent staining and scanning electron microscopy.

Results: A proportion of the hESCs within the scaffolds differentiated into cells that produced proteins characteristic of specific tissues, including endoderm and pancreatic markers glucogon-like peptide-1 receptor, islet amyloid polypeptide and Insulin. Markers of hepatic and neuronal lineages were also investigated. Major matrix proteins abundant in multiple tissue types, including collagen I, laminin and collagen IV, were found to be profuse within the scaffold pores. Transplantation of the seeded scaffolds between liver lobules also resulted in extensive vascularization both from host blood vessel incursion and the differentiation of hESCs into endothelial progenitor cells. An investigation of teratoma-forming potential demonstrated that transplantation of 3D scaffolds seeded with hESCs will, under certain conditions, lead to the growth of teratomas.

Discussion: Transplantation of 3D scaffolds seeded with hESCs between liver lobules resulted in the development of surrogate tissue containing cells that produced proteins representing the pancreatic, hepatic and neuronal lineages, the assembly of an extracellular matrix structure and the formation of a vasculature. hESCs seeded within 3D scaffolds and transplanted into SCID mice were capable of forming teratomas. However, the formation and progression of teratoma growth is shown to be dependant on both the site of transplantation and the treatment of cells prior to transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/17460751.2.3.289DOI Listing
May 2007

Differentiation of encapsulated embryonic stem cells after transplantation.

Transplantation 2006 Nov;82(9):1175-84

Diabetes Transplant Unit, Prince of Wales Hospital, and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Embryonic stem cells (ESC) when transplanted into recipients with different major histocompatibility antigens may be rejected, especially as cells differentiate and expression of these antigens increases. One method to prevent rejection is to place the developing ESC in microcapsules. It is currently unknown what effect encapsulation has on the ability of ESC to differentiate.

Methods: Human ESC (hESC; hES03 line) and mouse ESC (mESC; R1 line) were encapsulated in 2.2% barium alginate and transplanted intraperitoneally in SCID and BALB/c mice respectively. Cell morphology, viability, and gene characterization were assessed after retrieving the capsules up to four weeks from SCID mice and three months from BALB/c mice.

Results: Encapsulation prevented hESC and mESC from forming teratomas up to four weeks and three months, respectively. mESC but not hESC formed aggregates within the capsules, which remained free of fibrosis. Some but not all the transplanted encapsulated hESC differentiated towards all three lineages, but more so towards an endodermal lineage as shown by increased expression of alpha fetoprotein. This was similar to what occurred when encapsulated and non-encapsulated hESC were cultured in vitro for two weeks. In contrast to the hESC, transplanted encapsulated mESC differentiated mostly towards an ectodermal lineage as shown by increased expression of nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. In vitro, encapsulated and nonencapsulated mESC also began to differentiate, but not down any specific lineage.

Conclusions: Encapsulated ESC do differentiate, although along multiple pathways, both when transplanted and maintained in culture, just as nonencapsulated ESC do when removed from their feeder layer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.tp.0000239518.23354.64DOI Listing
November 2006