Publications by authors named "Georgi Shukarev"

12 Publications

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Safety and Efficacy of Single-Dose Ad26.COV2.S Vaccine against Covid-19.

N Engl J Med 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

From Janssen Vaccines and Prevention, Leiden, the Netherlands (J. Sadoff, G. Shukarev, G. Scheper, M.L.G., H.S., J.V.H., M.D.); South African Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa (G.G.); Janssen Research and Development, Beerse, Belgium (A.V., C.T., H.F., B.S., K.O., M.F.R., N.C., T.T., K.H., J.R.G., F.S.); Janssen Research and Development, Spring House, PA (V.C.); Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro (B.G.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (P.A.G.); the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Rockville (K.L.T., M.A.M.), Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring (M.L.R.), and the Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.) - all in Maryland; Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, Washington, DC (J.T.); the Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston (D.H.B.); Janssen Research and Development, Raritan, NJ (J. Stoddard); and Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle (L.C.).

Background: The Ad26.COV2.S vaccine is a recombinant, replication-incompetent human adenovirus type 26 vector encoding full-length severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein in a prefusion-stabilized conformation.

Methods: In an international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned adult participants in a 1:1 ratio to receive a single dose of Ad26.COV2.S (5×10 viral particles) or placebo. The primary end points were vaccine efficacy against moderate to severe-critical coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) with an onset at least 14 days and at least 28 days after administration among participants in the per-protocol population who had tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Safety was also assessed.

Results: The per-protocol population included 19,630 SARS-CoV-2-negative participants who received Ad26.COV2.S and 19,691 who received placebo. Ad26.COV2.S protected against moderate to severe-critical Covid-19 with onset at least 14 days after administration (116 cases in the vaccine group vs. 348 in the placebo group; efficacy, 66.9%; adjusted 95% confidence interval [CI], 59.0 to 73.4) and at least 28 days after administration (66 vs. 193 cases; efficacy, 66.1%; adjusted 95% CI, 55.0 to 74.8). Vaccine efficacy was higher against severe-critical Covid-19 (76.7% [adjusted 95% CI, 54.6 to 89.1] for onset at ≥14 days and 85.4% [adjusted 95% CI, 54.2 to 96.9] for onset at ≥28 days). Despite 86 of 91 cases (94.5%) in South Africa with sequenced virus having the 20H/501Y.V2 variant, vaccine efficacy was 52.0% and 64.0% against moderate to severe-critical Covid-19 with onset at least 14 days and at least 28 days after administration, respectively, and efficacy against severe-critical Covid-19 was 73.1% and 81.7%, respectively. Reactogenicity was higher with Ad26.COV2.S than with placebo but was generally mild to moderate and transient. The incidence of serious adverse events was balanced between the two groups. Three deaths occurred in the vaccine group (none were Covid-19-related), and 16 in the placebo group (5 were Covid-19-related).

Conclusions: A single dose of Ad26.COV2.S protected against symptomatic Covid-19 and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and was effective against severe-critical disease, including hospitalization and death. Safety appeared to be similar to that in other phase 3 trials of Covid-19 vaccines. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development and others; ENSEMBLE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04505722.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2101544DOI Listing
April 2021

Vaccines based on replication incompetent Ad26 viral vectors: Standardized template with key considerations for a risk/benefit assessment.

Vaccine 2020 Oct 3. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Brighton Collaboration, A Program of the Task Force for Global Health, Decatur, GA, USA.

Replication-incompetent adenoviral vectors have been under investigation as a platform to carry a variety of transgenes, and express them as a basis for vaccine development. A replication-incompetent adenoviral vector based on human adenovirus type 26 (Ad26) has been evaluated in several clinical trials. The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety and features of recombinant viral vector vaccines. This paper reviews features of the Ad26 vectors, including tabulation of safety and risk assessment characteristics of Ad26-based vaccines. In the Ad26 vector, deletion of E1 gene rendering the vector replication incompetent is combined with additional genetic engineering for vaccine manufacturability and transgene expression optimization. These vaccines can be manufactured in mammalian cell lines at scale providing an effective, flexible system for high-yield manufacturing. Ad26 vector vaccines have favorable thermostability profiles, compatible with vaccine supply chains. Safety data are compiled in the Ad26 vaccine safety database version 4.0, with unblinded data from 23 ongoing and completed clinical studies for 3912 participants in five different Ad26-based vaccine programs. Overall, Ad26-based vaccines have been well tolerated, with no significant safety issues identified. Evaluation of Ad26-based vaccines is continuing, with >114,000 participants vaccinated as of 4th September 2020. Extensive evaluation of immunogenicity in humans shows strong, durable humoral and cellular immune responses. Clinical trials have not revealed impact of pre-existing immunity to Ad26 on vaccine immunogenicity, even in the presence of Ad26 neutralizing antibody titers or Ad26-targeting T cell responses at baseline. The first Ad26-based vaccine, against Ebola virus, received marketing authorization from EC on 1st July 2020, as part of the Ad26.ZEBOV, MVA-BN-Filo vaccine regimen. New developments based on Ad26 vectors are underway, including a COVID-19 vaccine, which is currently in phase 3 of clinical evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.09.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532807PMC
October 2020

Interim Results of a Phase 1-2a Trial of Ad26.COV2.S Covid-19 Vaccine.

N Engl J Med 2021 05 13;384(19):1824-1835. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

From Janssen Vaccines and Prevention, Leiden, the Netherlands (J. Sadoff, M.L.G., G. Shukarev, A.M.G., J. Stoop, S.T., E.C., G. Scheper, J. Hendriks, M.D., J.V.H., H.S.); Janssen Research and Development, Beerse (D.H., C.T., F.S.), Janssen Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Merksem (W.V.D.), the Center for Vaccinology, Ghent University, Gent (I.L.-R.), SGS Life Sciences (P.-J.B.) and the Center for the Evaluation of Vaccination, University of Antwerp (P.V.D.), Antwerp, and the Center for Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (J. de Hoon) - all in Belgium; Optimal Research, Melbourne, FL (M.K.); the Alliance for Multispecialty Research, Knoxville, TN (W.S.); the Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston (K.E.S., D.H.B.); and the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle (S.C.D.R., K.W.C., M.J.M.).

Background: Efficacious vaccines are urgently needed to contain the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A candidate vaccine, Ad26.COV2.S, is a recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector encoding a full-length and stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

Methods: In this multicenter, placebo-controlled, phase 1-2a trial, we randomly assigned healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 55 years (cohort 1) and those 65 years of age or older (cohort 3) to receive the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine at a dose of 5×10 viral particles (low dose) or 1×10 viral particles (high dose) per milliliter or placebo in a single-dose or two-dose schedule. Longer-term data comparing a single-dose regimen with a two-dose regimen are being collected in cohort 2; those results are not reported here. The primary end points were the safety and reactogenicity of each dose schedule.

Results: After the administration of the first vaccine dose in 805 participants in cohorts 1 and 3 and after the second dose in cohort 1, the most frequent solicited adverse events were fatigue, headache, myalgia, and injection-site pain. The most frequent systemic adverse event was fever. Systemic adverse events were less common in cohort 3 than in cohort 1 and in those who received the low vaccine dose than in those who received the high dose. Reactogenicity was lower after the second dose. Neutralizing-antibody titers against wild-type virus were detected in 90% or more of all participants on day 29 after the first vaccine dose (geometric mean titer [GMT], 212 to 354), regardless of vaccine dose or age group, and reached 96% by day 57 with a further increase in titers (GMT, 288 to 488) in cohort 1a. Titers remained stable until at least day 71. A second dose provided an increase in the titer by a factor of 2.6 to 2.9 (GMT, 827 to 1266). Spike-binding antibody responses were similar to neutralizing-antibody responses. On day 15, CD4+ T-cell responses were detected in 76 to 83% of the participants in cohort 1 and in 60 to 67% of those in cohort 3, with a clear skewing toward type 1 helper T cells. CD8+ T-cell responses were robust overall but lower in cohort 3.

Conclusions: The safety and immunogenicity profiles of Ad26.COV2.S support further development of this vaccine candidate. (Funded by Johnson & Johnson and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority of the Department of Health and Human Services; COV1001 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04436276.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2034201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7821985PMC
May 2021

Safety and immunogenicity of a new Sabin inactivated poliovirus vaccine candidate produced on the PER.C6® cell-line: a phase 1 randomized controlled trial in adults.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 May 11;17(5):1366-1373. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V., Leiden, The Netherlands.

This first-in-human study (NCT03032588), conducted in Belgium, evaluated a new inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV) candidate based on Sabin poliovirus strains grown on the high-yield PER.C6® cell line. Healthy adults (N = 32) were randomized (1:1) to receive a single dose of PER.C6-based Sabin-IPV (sIPV, 15:35:112.5 DU/dose) or conventional Salk-IPV (cIPV, 40:8:32 DU/dose). Reactogenicity was assessed up to 7 days after vaccination, immunogenicity 28 days after vaccination, and safety up to 6 months after vaccination.Solicited adverse events (AEs) were mild to moderate, no changes of concern in vital signs or safety laboratory values were observed, and no severe AEs (SAEs) or vaccine-related unsolicited AEs were reported after vaccination. A trend to more frequent solicited AEs after sIPV than after cIPV administration was observed. Most participants had preexisting neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus types (titer ≥8), which were strongly boosted by sIPV. Post-vaccination geometric mean titers were high (≥12,000) and similar across the two vaccination groups. Only participants with very high preexisting antibody levels did not show a vaccine-induced response, defined in seropositive participants as a 4-fold titer increase. The 10 initially seronegative (titer <8) participants (n = 5 in each study group) seroconverted and all participants had seroprotective antibody levels post-vaccination. The antibodies elicited by sIPV neutralized both Sabin and Salk poliovirus strains.In conclusion, the PER.C6®-based sIPV was well tolerated and highly immunogenic in adults with preexisting antibodies to poliovirus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1812315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078678PMC
May 2021

Implementation of accelerated research: strategies for implementation as applied in a phase 1 Ad26.ZEBOV, MVA-BN-Filo two-dose Ebola vaccine clinical trial in Uganda.

Glob Health Action 2020 12;13(1):1829829

Medical Research Council, Uganda Virus Research Institute and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Uganda Research Unit , Entebbe, Uganda.

Background: The 2013-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa is the worst ever caused by with over 28,000 human cases and 11,325 deaths. The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the epidemic a public health crisis that required accelerated development of novel interventions including vaccines. The Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Uganda Research Unit (MRC/UVRI & LSHTM Uganda Research Unit) was among the African research sites that implemented the VAC52150EBL1004 Ebola vaccine trial.

Objective: We report on the strategies utilised by the Unit and sponsor in ensuring expedited clinical trial approval and accelerated conduct.

Methods: Janssen Vaccines and Prevention B.V. conducted a phase 1 trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of heterologous two-dose vaccination regimens using Ad26.ZEBOV and MVA-BN-Filo, in healthy adults in Africa. Accelerated implementation strategies are hereby presented.

Results: Strategies included: holding the African Vaccine Regulatory Forum (AVAREF) joint review meeting; expedited review by institutional ethics and country-specific regulatory bodies; competitive recruitment between sites; electronic data capture (EDC); frequent study monitoring schedule; involvement of a community advisory board (CAB); and utilization of a 'phased' study information-sharing approach in community engagement and participant recruitment. These strategies enabled the site to acquire approvals within 2 months and enrol 47 participants within a spurn of five. The same milestone is usually acquired in at least 1 year without accelerated implementation.

Conclusion: The use of well-thought strategies by sponsors and research sites can enable the implementation of accelerated research. We recommend the use of similar strategies in other settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2020.1829829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594841PMC
December 2020

Ebola virus glycoprotein stimulates IL-18-dependent natural killer cell responses.

J Clin Invest 2020 07;130(7):3936-3946

Department of Infection Biology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

BACKGROUNDNK cells are activated by innate cytokines and viral ligands to kill virus-infected cells. These functions are enhanced during secondary immune responses and after vaccination by synergy with effector T cells and virus-specific antibodies. In human Ebola virus infection, clinical outcome is strongly associated with the initial innate cytokine response, but the role of NK cells has not been thoroughly examined.METHODSThe novel 2-dose heterologous Adenovirus type 26.ZEBOV (Ad26.ZEBOV) and modified vaccinia Ankara-BN-Filo (MVA-BN-Filo) vaccine regimen is safe and provides specific immunity against Ebola glycoprotein, and is currently in phase 2 and 3 studies. Here, we analyzed NK cell phenotype and function in response to Ad26.ZEBOV, MVA-BN-Filo vaccination regimen and in response to in vitro Ebola glycoprotein stimulation of PBMCs isolated before and after vaccination.RESULTSWe show enhanced NK cell proliferation and activation after vaccination compared with baseline. Ebola glycoprotein-induced activation of NK cells was dependent on accessory cells and TLR-4-dependent innate cytokine secretion (predominantly from CD14+ monocytes) and enriched within less differentiated NK cell subsets. Optimal NK cell responses were dependent on IL-18 and IL-12, whereas IFN-γ secretion was restricted by high concentrations of IL-10.CONCLUSIONThis study demonstrates the induction of NK cell effector functions early after Ad26.ZEBOV, MVA-BN-Filo vaccination and provides a mechanism for the activation and regulation of NK cells by Ebola glycoprotein.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT02313077.FUNDINGUnited Kingdom Medical Research Council Studentship in Vaccine Research, Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking, EBOVAC (grant 115861) and Crucell Holland (now Janssen Vaccines and Prevention B.V.), European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI132438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324188PMC
July 2020

Antibody-Dependent Natural Killer Cell Activation After Ebola Vaccination.

J Infect Dis 2021 Apr;223(7):1171-1182

Department of Infection Biology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Antibody Fc-mediated functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, contribute to vaccine-induced protection against viral infections. Fc-mediated function of anti-Ebola glycoprotein (GP) antibodies suggest that Fc-dependent activation of effector cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, could play a role in vaccination against Ebola virus disease.

Methods: We analyzed the effect on primary human NK cell activation of anti-Ebola GP antibody in the serum of United Kingdom-based volunteers vaccinated with the novel 2-dose heterologous adenovirus type 26.ZEBOV, modified vaccinia Ankara-BN-Filo vaccine regimen.

Results: We demonstrate primary human NK cell CD107a and interferon γ expression, combined with down-regulation of CD16, in response to recombinant Ebola virus GP and post-vaccine dose 1 and dose 2 serum samples. These responses varied significantly with vaccine regimen, and NK cell activation was found to correlate with anti-GP antibody concentration. We also reveal an impact of NK cell differentiation phenotype on antibody-dependent NK cell activation, with highly differentiated CD56dimCD57+ NK cells being the most responsive.

Conclusions: These findings highlight the dual importance of vaccine-induced antibody concentration and NK cell differentiation status in promoting Fc-mediated activation of NK cells after vaccination, raising a potential role for antibody-mediated NK cell activation in vaccine-induced immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8030727PMC
April 2021

Safety and Immunogenicity of a 2-Dose Heterologous Vaccination Regimen With Ad26.ZEBOV and MVA-BN-Filo Ebola Vaccines: 12-Month Data From a Phase 1 Randomized Clinical Trial in Uganda and Tanzania.

J Infect Dis 2019 06;220(1):46-56

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Ebola vaccine development was accelerated in response to the 2014 Ebola virus infection outbreak. This phase 1 study (VAC52150EBL1004) assessed safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of heterologous 2-dose Ad26.ZEBOV, MVA-BN-Filo vaccination regimens in the Lake Victoria Basin of Tanzania and Uganda in mid-level altitude, malaria-endemic settings.

Methods: Healthy volunteers aged 18-50 years from Tanzania (n = 25) and Uganda (n = 47) were randomized to receive placebo or active vaccination with Ad26.ZEBOV or MVA-BN-Filo (first vaccination), followed by MVA-BN-Filo or Ad26.ZEBOV (second vaccination) dose 2, respectively, with intervals of 28 or 56 days.

Results: Seventy-two adults were randomized to receive vaccine (n = 60) or placebo (n = 12). No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. The most frequent solicited local and systemic adverse events were injection site pain (frequency, 70%, 66%, and 42% per dose for MVA-BN-Filo, Ad26.ZEBOV, and placebo, respectively) and headache (57%, 56%, and 46%, respectively). Adverse event patterns were similar among regimens. Twenty-one days after dose 2, 100% of volunteers demonstrated binding antibody responses against Ebola virus glycoprotein, and 87%-100% demonstrated neutralizing antibody responses. Ad26.ZEBOV dose 1 vaccination induced more-robust initial binding antibody and cellular responses than MVA-BN-Filo dose 1 vaccination.

Conclusions: Heterologous 2-dose vaccination with Ad26.ZEBOV and MVA-BN-Filo against Ebola virus is well tolerated and immunogenic in healthy volunteers.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02376400.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6548900PMC
June 2019

A two-dose heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimen eliciting sustained immune responses to Ebola Zaire could support a preventive strategy for future outbreaks.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 02 7;13(2):266-270. Epub 2016 Dec 7.

b Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V. , Leiden , The Netherlands.

The consequences of the 2013-16 Ebola Zaire virus disease epidemic in West Africa were grave. The economies, healthcare systems and communities of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia were devastated by over 18 months of active Ebola virus transmission, followed by sporadic resurgences potentially related to sexual transmission by survivors with viral persistence in body fluids following recovery. The need to develop and implement strategies to prevent and mitigate future outbreaks is now beyond dispute. The potential for unpredictable outbreaks of indeterminate duration, and control challenges posed by the possibility of sporadic re-emergence, mean that implementation of an effective vaccination program for outbreak containment necessitates a vaccine providing durable immunity. Heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimens deliver the same or similar antigens through different vaccine types, the first to prime and the second to boost the immune system. Ad26.ZEBOV/MVA-BN-Filo is an investigational Ebola Zaire vaccine regimen that uses this heterologous prime-boost approach. Preliminary Phase 1 data suggest that Ad26.ZEBOV/MVA-BN-Filo confers durable immunity for at least 240 d and is well-tolerated with a good safety profile. This regimen may therefore be suitable for prophylactic use in a regional or targeted population vaccination strategy, and could potentially aid prevention and control of future Ebola outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2017.1264755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5328205PMC
February 2017

A phase 1, open-label, randomized study to compare the immunogenicity and safety of different administration routes and doses of virosomal influenza vaccine in elderly.

Vaccine 2016 10 22;34(44):5262-5272. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Centre for the Evaluation of Vaccination, Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute (VAXINFECTIO), University of Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Influenza remains a significant problem in elderly despite widespread vaccination coverage. This randomized, phase-I study in elderly compared different strategies of improving vaccine immunogenicity.

Methods: A total of 370 healthy participants (⩾65years) were randomized equally 1:1:1:1:1:1 to six influenza vaccine treatments (approximately 60-63 participants per treatment arm) at day 1 that consisted of three investigational virosomal vaccine formulations at doses of 7.5, 15, and 45μg HA antigen/strain administered intradermally (ID) by MicronJet600™ microneedle device (NanoPass Technologies) or intramuscularly (IM), and three comparator registered seasonal vaccines; Inflexal V™ (Janssen) and MF59 adjuvanted Fluad™ (Novartis) administered IM and Intanza™ (Sanofi Pasteur) administered ID via Soluvia™ prefilled microinjection system (BD). Serological evaluations were performed at days 22 and 90 and safety followed-up for 6months.

Results: Intradermal delivery of virosomal vaccine using MicronJet600™ resulted in significantly higher immunogenicity than the equivalent dose of virosomal Inflexal V™ administered intramuscularly across most of the parameters and strains, as well as in some of the readouts and strains as compared with the 45μg dose of virosomal vaccine formulation. Of 370 participants, 300 (81.1%) reported ⩾1 adverse event (AE); more participants reported solicited local AEs (72.2%) than solicited systemic AEs (12.2%).

Conclusions: Intradermal delivery significantly improved influenza vaccine immunogenicity compared with intramuscular delivery. Triple dose (45μg) virosomal vaccine did not demonstrate any benefit on vaccine's immunogenicity over 15μg commercial presentation. All treatments were generally safe and well-tolerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.09.008DOI Listing
October 2016

Safety and Immunogenicity of Novel Adenovirus Type 26- and Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Vectored Ebola Vaccines: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2016 Apr;315(15):1610-23

Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom7National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Importance: Developing effective vaccines against Ebola virus is a global priority.

Objective: To evaluate an adenovirus type 26 vector vaccine encoding Ebola glycoprotein (Ad26.ZEBOV) and a modified vaccinia Ankara vector vaccine, encoding glycoproteins from Ebola virus, Sudan virus, Marburg virus, and Tai Forest virus nucleoprotein (MVA-BN-Filo).

Design, Setting, And Participants: Single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, observer-blind, phase 1 trial performed in Oxford, United Kingdom, enrolling healthy 18- to 50-year-olds from December 2014; 8-month follow-up was completed October 2015.

Interventions: Participants were randomized into 4 groups, within which they were simultaneously randomized 5:1 to receive study vaccines or placebo. Those receiving active vaccines were primed with Ad26.ZEBOV (5 × 10(10) viral particles) or MVA-BN-Filo (1 × 10(8) median tissue culture infective dose) and boosted with the alternative vaccine 28 or 56 days later. A fifth, open-label group received Ad26.ZEBOV boosted by MVA-BN-Filo 14 days later.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcomes were safety and tolerability. All adverse events were recorded until 21 days after each immunization; serious adverse events were recorded throughout the trial. Secondary outcomes were humoral and cellular immune responses to immunization, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme-linked immunospot performed at baseline and from 7 days after each immunization until 8 months after priming immunizations.

Results: Among 87 study participants (median age, 38.5 years; 66.7% female), 72 were randomized into 4 groups of 18, and 15 were included in the open-label group. Four participants did not receive a booster dose; 67 of 75 study vaccine recipients were followed up at 8 months. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. No participant became febrile after MVA-BN-Filo, compared with 3 of 60 participants (5%; 95% CI, 1%-14%) receiving Ad26.ZEBOV in the randomized groups. In the open-label group, 4 of 15 Ad26.ZEBOV recipients (27%; 95% CI, 8%-55%) experienced fever. In the randomized groups, 28 of 29 Ad26.ZEBOV recipients (97%; 95% CI, 82%- 99.9%) and 7 of 30 MVA-BN-Filo recipients (23%; 95% CI, 10%-42%) had detectable Ebola glycoprotein-specific IgG 28 days after primary immunization. All vaccine recipients had specific IgG detectable 21 days postboost and at 8-month follow-up. Within randomized groups, at 7 days postboost, at least 86% of vaccine recipients showed Ebola-specific T-cell responses.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this phase 1 study of healthy volunteers, immunization with Ad26.ZEBOV or MVA-BN-Filo did not result in any vaccine-related serious adverse events. An immune response was observed after primary immunization with Ad26.ZEBOV; boosting by MVA-BN-Filo resulted in sustained elevation of specific immunity. These vaccines are being further assessed in phase 2 and 3 studies.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02313077.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.4218DOI Listing
April 2016