Publications by authors named "George S Katselis"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

DGAT2 stability is increased in response to DGAT1 inhibition in gene edited HepG2 cells.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Sep 9;1866(9):158991. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E5, Canada. Electronic address:

In eukaryotic organisms, two unrelated acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, catalyze the final step of the triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway. Both enzymes are highly expressed in lipogenic tissues, such as adipose tissue, small intestine and the liver. DGAT2 has a prominent role in hepatocyte lipid metabolism synthesizing triacylglycerols that are utilized for very low-density lipoprotein assembly. However, due to the lack of useful antibodies to detect endogenous DGAT2 protein, it has been difficult to determine how this enzyme functions at the cellular level. We have unsuccessfully tested many commercial antibodies as well as our own "in-house" antibodies. There is currently no evidence that DGAT2 undergoes processing such that antigenic epitopes to these antibodies are removed. As an alternative, many studies have utilized epitope tagged versions of DGAT2 overexpressed in cells. These approaches can provide valuable information about a protein, but can be subject to artifacts, such as mislocalization, misregulation, protein aggregation and abnormal protein-protein interactions. In this study, we used gene editing with CRISPR/Cas9 to add three consecutive FLAG epitopes to the C-terminus of endogenous DGAT2 in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells, derived from a human hepatocellular carcinoma, have been routinely used as a cell model to study human hepatocyte lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Using this system allowed us to successfully detect DGAT2 expressed from its endogenous locus in HepG2 cells by immunoblotting with anti-FLAG antibodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2021.158991DOI Listing
September 2021

A β-lactamase-producing plasmid from Neisseria gonorrhoeae carrying a unique 6 bp deletion in blaTEM-1 encoding a truncated 24 kDa TEM-1 penicillinase that hydrolyses ampicillin slowly.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 10;74(10):2904-2912

Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, 2D01 Health Science Building, 107 Wiggins Road, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Background: Seven structurally related β-lactamase-producing plasmids have been characterized in penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) isolates. We characterized a variant (i.e. pJRD20, Canada type) of the Africa-type (pJD5) plasmid isolated from N. gonorrhoeae strain 8903.

Objectives: To compare the DNA sequence of pJRD20 with that of pJD5 and pJD4 (Asia-type) and their TEM-1 β-lactamases.

Methods: N. gonorrhoeae 8903 was identified as part of the Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Program in Canada. β-Lactamase production was assessed using nitrocefin. MICs were determined by agar dilution and Etest methods (CLSI). The DNA sequences of pJRD20, pJD5 and pJD4 were assembled and annotated. The structure of TEM-1 and its penicillin-binding properties were determined by in silico molecular modelling and docking. TEM-1 proteins were characterized by western blot, mass spectrometry and ampicillin hydrolysis assays.

Results: N. gonorrhoeae 8903 exhibited intermediate susceptibility to penicillin with slow β-lactamase activity (i.e. 35 min to hydrolyse nitrocefin). Except for a novel 6 bp deletion starting at the G of the ATG start codon of blaTEM-1, the DNA sequence of pJRD20 was identical to that of pJD5. The TEM-1 β-lactamase produced by pJRD20 is 24 kDa and hydrolyses ampicillin only after several hours.

Conclusions: This unusual PPNG isolate might have been characterized as a non-PPNG owing to its low MIC of penicillin and its very slow hydrolysis of nitrocefin. Given the unusual nature of its TEM-1 β-lactamase, laboratories might consider extending the duration of nitrocefin hydrolysis assays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz306DOI Listing
October 2019

Identification of calnexin as a diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 interacting protein.

PLoS One 2019 7;14(1):e0210396. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Triacylglycerol synthesis is catalyzed by acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2). DGAT2 is an integral membrane protein that is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and interacts with lipid droplets. Using BioId, a method to detect proximal and interacting proteins, we identified calnexin as a DGAT2-interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays confirmed this finding. We found that calnexin-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts had reduced intracellular triacylglycerol levels and fewer large lipid droplets (>1.0 μm2 area). Despite the alterations in triacylglycerol metabolism, in vitro DGAT2 activity, localization and protein stability were not affected by the absence of calnexin.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210396PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322727PMC
October 2019

MHC class I target recognition, immunophenotypes and proteomic profiles of natural killer cells within the spleens of day-14 chick embryos.

Dev Comp Immunol 2012 Jul 20;37(3-4):446-56. Epub 2012 Mar 20.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010-3000, USA.

Chicken natural killer (NK) cells are not well defined, so little is known about the molecular interactions controlling their activity. At day 14 of embryonic development, chick spleens are a rich source of T-cell-free CD8αα(+), CD3(-) cells with natural killing activity. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays revealed complex NK cell discrimination of MHC class I, suggesting the presence of multiple NK cell receptors. Immunophenotyping of freshly isolated and recombinant chicken interleukin-2-stimulated d14E CD8αα(+) CD3(-) splenocytes provided further evidence for population heterogeneity. Complex patterns of expression were found for CD8α, chB6 (Bu-1), CD1-1, CD56 (NCAM), KUL01, CD5, and CD44. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics revealed an array of NK cell proteins, including the NKR2B4 receptor. DAVID and KEGG analyses and additional immunophenotyping revealed NK cell activation pathways and evidence for monocytes within the splenocyte cultures. This study provides an underpinning for further investigation into the specificity and function of NK cells in birds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2012.03.007DOI Listing
July 2012

Proteomic analysis of surface and endosomal membrane proteins from the avian LMH epithelial cell line.

J Proteome Res 2011 Sep 3;10(9):3973-82. Epub 2011 Aug 3.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, 1500 E Duarte Road, Duarte, California 91010-3000, United States.

Proteins at the cell surface and within the endocytic pathway are increasingly being recognized for their roles in a wide variety of intercellular interactions. Here we used the inherent hydrophobicity and N-glycosylation of membrane proteins to enrich these proteins from the surface and endosome of avian LMH epithelial cells for mass spectrometric analysis. The cycling of many different types of proteins from the cell surface into the endosome and sometimes back to the surface again makes it appropriate to analyze these two membranous cellular components together. Stringent searches of the International Protein Index (IPI) entries for Gallus gallus identified 318 unique integral membrane proteins (IMPs) (201 bearing N-glycosylation sites), 265 unique membrane-associated proteins (MAPs), and an additional group of 784 non-membrane proteins (NMPs) among TX-114 detergent and aqueous phase-enriched proteins. Capture of N-glycosylated tryptic peptides revealed 36 additional glycoproteins most of which were CD antigens, receptors, and molecules for cell adhesion and immune response. IMPs and MAPs present at the surface and within the endosome included proteins involved in transport (255), metabolism (285), communication (108), adhesion (47), and immune responses (42). Among these were 355 putative uncharacterized and hypothetical IMPs, MAPs, and NMPs for which highly similar annotated sequences were found in standard protein-protein BLAST searches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr200179rDOI Listing
September 2011

Elevated retina-specific expression of the small heat shock protein, alphaA-crystallin, is associated with photoreceptor protection in experimental uveitis.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008 Mar;49(3):1161-71

Doheny Eye Institute, Keck School of Mewdicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

Purpose: During the early phase of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), before macrophages infiltrate the retina and uvea, photoreceptor mitochondrial oxidative stress, nitration of photoreceptor mitochondrial proteins, and release of cytochrome c have been observed. However, no apoptosis has been detected during this phase. In this study, alphaA-crystallin upregulation in the retina and its antiapoptotic protective role were evaluated in early EAU.

Methods: Gene microarrays were first used to identify upregulated genes in retinas with early EAU. Among highly upregulated crystallins, alphaA was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, and the site of upregulation was localized by immunohistochemistry. The association of alphaA-crystallin to nitrated cytochrome c and interaction with a procaspase-3 subunit was assayed. Photoreceptor apoptosis in alphaA knockout mice was compared with that in wild-type animals with EAU, by using the terminal transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay and polymerase chain reaction.

Results: In early EAU, alphaA-crystallin was increased 33-fold, and the site of increase was localized to the photoreceptor inner segments. This crystallin suppressed apoptosis by associating with the nitrated cytochrome c and p24. The association with nitrated cytochrome c, in particular, appeared to be restricted to nitrated cytochrome c, and thus, no association of non-nitrated cytochrome c was detected. The knockout mice showed signs of EAU development early and showed apoptosis in the retina; no such changes were seen in the wild-type control animals.

Conclusions: alphaA-Crystallin is highly upregulated in the retina during early EAU. This upregulation is localized primarily in the photoreceptor inner segments, the site of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Further, in early EAU, the photoreceptors preferentially use alphaA-crystallin to suppress mitochondrial oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.07-1259DOI Listing
March 2008
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